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date: 22 October 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Between 1900 and 1920 some of the great old political orders broke down, the Chinese and the Russian Empire, the monarchy of the Habsburgs, and the German Reich. Uncertainties and anxieties about the future caused a broad deviation from the ideas and promises of liberalism, parliamentary democracy, and international law. Everywhere anti-liberal authoritarian movements organized themselves. The contribution concentrates on the German law under the Swastika, especially on the ambivalences between the traditional rule of law and the destructive dynamic of the SS-state, which led into emigration, the Second World War, and the Holocaust. The German example is paradigmatic, no doubt. But the observations can be universalized in a world with an increasing number of authoritarian regimes.

Keywords: dictatorship, fascist movements, national socialism, dual state, legal science

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