Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 29 February 2020

(p. 727) Index

(p. 727) Index

Tables, figures, and endnotes are indicated by an italic t, f, and n following the page number.

9/11 terrorist attacks, see September 11 (2001) terrorist attacks
abolition, nuclear 340, 343, 346n8
Abu Ghraib prison, abuse cases 555, 596–7, 602
Acadian migrants 444
accountability 261, 268, 390, 521, 702
actor-network theory (ANT) 174–5
actors
evolution of types over time 187
factors influencing preferences 426
global networks, use of new technology 325–6
political choices and empowerment 261, 263, 264, 705
private/non-state, value of expertise 36–7, 353–4, 493, 494
proliferation of types in security 4, 30
religious, political theology 280–1
advocacy, professional and local 700–4
aerial bombing, regulation attempts 402
aesthetic politics 597–600
Afghanistan conflict
cooperative NATO stabilization 657
Operation Enduring Freedom coalition 661
Soviet counter-insurgency campaign 552–3
state modernization attempts 556
US involvement 310, 388, 553
African Union (AU) 385, 392, 393, 697, 705
AFRICOM (US Africa Command) 389
agency theory 713
agent-based models 154, 188, 327
age structure of populations 569
agricultural production 476, 477, 479, 570
Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) 143
Algeria, conflict with France 550
alienation, of ‘losers’ in liberal globalization 107–8, 109
alliances
and cooperative military interventions 660–5
definition 653–4, 660
formation, motivations and war 654–6
role in international order 656–60
trust issues 372, 374
Al-Qaeda
defeat as motive for Afghanistan campaign 388
legal action against members 671–2
strategies, recruitment and spread 503, 507, 566
terrorist attacks 106, 512
American Political Science Association (APSA) 160, 161
Amnesty International 699, 700, 707n2
anarchy
anarchist violence (in history) 505, 506, 512–13
international, in neorealist theory 72, 183, 340, 366, 671
Anbar Awakening (Iraq) 556
Anglo-European scholarship 63, 64, 65
‘anti-security’ stance 124
Arab League 690, 691
Arab Spring 446, 475, 538, 568
Arctic region 65, 478, 607, 615
Argentina, transitional justice 699, 700
Armed Conflict Data (ACD, Uppsala) 228–9, 229f
armed forces
counter-insurgency militias 556
(p. 728)
foreign Special Forces troops 389
HIV/AIDS risk 628
individual traits and motivations 202
number of battle deaths 230–1, 231f, 233f
peacekeeping personnel 391–2, 673
sub-state/transnational 356–7
Armenian massacre (1909) 460
arms control
challenges for future implementation 407–10
as Cold War nuclear strategy 339–40, 341, 403–4
definition and objectives 399–400
history of initiatives 400–4
humanitarian extension 404–7
Zero Nuclear movement 343, 368
arms races
advanced weapons 312–13
game theory modeling 185–7
intelligence information (Cold War) 520, 523
motivations and precedents 582
Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) 406
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) 105, 106, 294, 650
assemblage concept 328
Association of Southeast Asian Nations 690
assumptions, in causal inference 136–7, 138
asylum seekers 447, 451–2
atrocities
crimes and prosecution 468n1, 698, 701–2
images, and compassion fatigue 599
prevention/protection norms 289, 293, 457, 463
attrition, wars of 182, 297
Aum Shrinikyo (Japanese cult) 343
Australia 445, 449, 452, 611, 613
authoritarian regimes 101, 105–6, 110, 496
domestic control, use of drones 582, 585
effects of leader attributes 250, 522
emerging nuclear states 344
authority
authorization of PMSCs 357–8
factors driving effective control 715
fragmentation 268
official state actors 33
of UN Security Council 669–72, 676
autism, in great powers 648–50, 673
auto-ethnography 171
autonomous weapons 297
autonomous weapons systems 409
average treatment effect (ATE) 136, 136f, 137, 139, 141
balance
balancing behavior of states 74, 654–5
of power, game theory frameworks 186
statistical optimization 139
ballistic missiles 342
Bandung (Asian–African) Conference 283, 384
bandwagoning 655
bargaining theory of conflict 183–4, 187
evolutionary model 188–9
frameworks for study of terrorism strategy 508
model of great power war 215–16, 221, 224n21
Bayesian analysis 147
behavior, human
as basis of game theory 180, 181, 182
criminal 489, 495
evolution of social behavior 188, 195–8
implications of biological basis 198–202
influence of religion and ideology 280–1
limitations of theoretical assumptions 193–4 see also psychology
beliefs
endogenous, game theory analysis 183–4
political systems 659–60 see also ideas
big data
analytic tools 147
challenges/opportunities for intelligence 527
used for spatial and network analysis 327
used in mass surveillance 531–2, 537
biological weapons 408, 523, 623, 626
biology
factors influencing human behavior 194–203
(p. 729)
population dynamics models 188
bioterrorism 626
bipolarity
alignment in global South 384
bilateral arms control cooperation 403
formation of alliances 654–5
ideological 643–5
and stability 214, 223n12, 239
Bismarck, Otto von 184, 248, 307, 418
Black September (Palestinian group) 506
‘black sites’ 322
blinding laser weapons (BLW) 404–5, 410–11n14
‘boomerang effect,’ norm development 296
borders, national 321, 424
illegal crossing, criminal activity 491, 493
maritime boundary disputes 611–12, 615–16
migration control 445, 449, 453n4, 613
physical characteristics, and conflict spread 687, 689
Bosnia conflict 602, 603, 658, 659
Boston marathon bombing 586, 599, 600
bots in social media, research 541
Bourdieu, Pierre 117, 127n2, 173
BRICS countries (emerging powers) 290, 294–5, 384
Bring Me Men (Belkin) 52
Britain, see United Kingdom (UK)
bureaucratic organizations
concentration of power, and politicization 120, 126
conflict between civil and military influence 713–14
relationship with leaders 253
standard work routines and stability 31, 32
Bush, George W. (US President) 249–50, 343, 389, 507–8, 521
Buzan, Barry
autism of great powers 648–50, 673
collaboration with Copenhagen CSS group 117, 625
on island ownership and maritime disputes 615
People, States and Fear 6, 20
regional security complex concept 684–5
Cambodia, UN intervention 673–4
capitalism
incentives for system creation 199
international society commitment to 645
normative gender hierarchy 48
cartoons, satirical 597, 600, 601
cascades
informational, and belief changes 184
nuclear capability 374
of problems in critical infrastructure 536–7
retributive justice 704
social choices 419
CASE Collective 51, 117–18
case study analysis 75, 155, 472–3, 475, 686
causal inference 135–42, 145, 147
causation
complicating factors 472
mechanisms, constructivist analysis 153–4
as misinterpretation of correlation 133–4
testing by manipulation, and assumptions 135–7
censorship 534, 537, 599–600
Central Intelligence Agency, US (CIA) 518, 521, 525, 527n4, 586
change
activism and control issues 67
analysis of processes and possibilities 6, 179–80
descriptive measures (conflict data) 228–35
institutional, liberalist approaches 103–4, 110–11
limits and constraints (realist view) 82, 83
in nature of warfare 23, 304–5, 321, 548, 657–8
in social realities 91–2, 699
socio-political transformations in history 16–17, 240–1
threats to well-being, scope and recognition 20, 487
Charlie Hebdo (magazine) 597, 601
chemical weapons limitation 250, 292, 401, 402, 408
Chicken game analogy 212, 213, 215, 220, 222n5
children, UN Convention on rights 451
Chile, Pinochet and justice 700, 706
(p. 730) China
civil–military relations 718–19
company investments in Africa 354–5, 360n3
cybersecurity control 535
defense spending 309, 313, 314n7
drone use and development 585, 587
economic growth and power, global impacts 104–6, 110
energy security and policies 433, 435, 436
international relations monograph (Johnston) 156
maritime territorial claims 611–12, 615, 616
policy stance on Taiwan 224n27
rejection of liberal norms 294–5, 644
relationship with United States 214, 218, 219, 224n29
Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 105, 110, 718
chokepoints, maritime 609, 611, 615–16
cholera epidemics 624, 630
Christianity
Catholic–Protestant conflict 443–4
evangelical movement 93
history of rejection in European politics 276–7
and religious freedom, related to power 282–3
responses to persecution of Christian minorities 458, 459
Churchill, Winston 432, 519
cities
identity and autonomy 326
terrorist attacks 323, 327
Citizen Lab (cyber-research) 537, 538–9, 540
civic nationalism 416, 446, 448
civilian affairs
assimilation and integration 424, 447
civilian casualty limitation in war 292–3, 297–8, 356, 402
control over military sector 712, 715, 716
domestic order and policing 16–17
public awareness of crime 489
civilian protection
state responsibility 289, 463
UN Security Council support 464
civilization
colonial paternalistic beliefs 93
survival of 334
civil liberties 106, 290, 537–9
civil–military relations
practical examples, in different types of regime 715–19
prospects for directions of research 719–21
theoretical studies 711–13, 714–15
in United States, recent history 713–14
civil wars 153, 229, 235, 278–9, 553–4
cross-border diffusion 687–9
clarity standards 169–70
classical economic rationality 187, 193, 194
classical realism 71–2, 76, 80–2, 597–8
theory of great power war 213, 220, 223n10
classification systems, in social identities 89–90
climate change
mitigation policies 435, 436, 440
Paris 2015 summit 647
studies of security impacts 474–9, 570
cluster munitions (CM) 407
coalitions
likelihood, in power-sharing government 427
management 266–7, 268
of warfare 660–2, 663
Code of Conduct, International (ICoC) 358, 361n11
coercive counter-proliferation 343
cognitive dissonance (Festinger) 34–5
cognitive processes 194, 197–8, 511
Cold War (1945-1990)
bipolar stability 214, 239, 643
data on number of threats and crises 232
deterrence strategy and arms control 338–41, 343, 403–4
economic/trade hostility 218
espionage 520, 522–4
inactivity of UN Security Council 673
international development infrastructure 563
policy advisors and planning 34
post-Cold War security, alternative views 3, 19–21, 60, 86–7
(p. 731)
security studies, scope and focus 18–19, 248, 386
cold war initiation/spiraling risks 211, 212, 214, 216–18, 220–2, 646
collective security
arrangements, definition 653
capacity-building projects 392–3
debate on UN Security Council as example 674, 679n22
historical initiatives 18, 33–4
institution building 658, 659–60, 665
colonialism
complicity, in critical security studies 8, 61–2, 64–6
interactions with gender and race 53
paternalistic beliefs 93
religious intolerance and migration 444
suppression of nationalist politics 422, 548
Coming Anarchy, The (Kaplan) 239, 472
common sense 117, 173, 265, 387
commons, global 535, 608–9, 689
communist states
Chinese regime 105–6, 384, 535
post-Soviet transition 158, 340, 717
community fragmentation 268, 512, 688
compellence (terrorist strategy) 507–8, 509
compound warfare 663
comprehensive approaches (stabilization) 657–8
concerts of power 646, 658–9, 665, 684
conditioning (statistical analysis) 137–8
conflict
biological/evolutionary factors 195–202
causes and perceived risks 305, 421–6, 472–4
debate on decline trends 227–8, 238–41, 428
generation of externalities 685
inefficiency of 187–8
measures of quantity and severity 228–35
prevention campaigns 353–4
religion as contributory factor 274, 278–9, 443–4, 600
role and responsibility of leaders 252–3
timing frequency distribution 235–8
conquest, economic futility 305
consciousness, human 88
constructivism
as alternative to mainstream realist theory 86–7
applied to nuclear capability norms 368
characteristics and terminology 87–92, 103
emancipation and human progress 96–8
explanation of state/global security trends 92–6
limitations 193
methodology 152–62
theory and methods, relative importance 154, 162
consumer demands 437, 441n13
conventional constructivism 152, 153, 154, 155, 159
conventional weapons 404–7, 408
Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) 404–5, 407, 410n8
cooperation
in Asian security, Chinese participation 294–5
Cooperation Dilemma (game theory) 181–2, 181t
global crime governance 494
prospects for arms control 399, 407–10
shared interests of great powers 642, 643, 645
for solution of water conflicts 689–90
waning interest, for global health 632
Copenhagen School 51, 117, 625
corporate social responsibility 353, 355, 538
corporeal analysis 170–1
Correlates of War (COW) project 19, 141, 236, 248
corruption 491, 492, 498
military 717, 718
cosmopolitanism 659–70
cost–benefit (coercion) theory of insurgency 550, 554
costs
of controlling maritime crime 617, 619n8
energy, fuels and renewables 433
imposed by terrorism 106, 112n3
insurgency and counter-insurgency 550
long-term support of war veterans 405
of maintaining national security (US) 14
in verbal communication 183
of war 305, 308, 311, 314n6
(p. 732) Council of Europe, crime regulation 488, 497
counterfactual reasoning 250, 466, 522
Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) agenda 562
counter-insurgency
in Afghanistan and Iraq 32, 554–7
definition and origins 547–8
fluctuations of interest during Cold War 548–53
counter-terrorism operations 344, 506, 510–11, 555
use of drones 578, 579, 580–1, 588
coups, military 701, 716, 721
covert actions 521, 526
crimes against humanity 697
crime, transnational
internal and external governance 492–5
maritime 612–14, 616–17
political aspects of definition 487, 488–90, 491, 504
types and threat potential 490–1, 490t
use of scenarios in predictive studies 10, 495–8 see also war crimes
criminal justice, international
effectiveness and impacts of prosecutions 701–7
growth of practice 698–701
crises
arising from interpretation of rules 615
climate-driven 475
crisis bargaining models 180, 183–4, 221
humanitarian, aid organization 324, 462, 622, 632
types affecting institutions 104–9
critical security studies (CSS)
aims and scope 7–8, 10–11, 60, 61, 593, 595
colonialism complicity, and decolonization 61–2, 64–6
Copenhagen, Aberystwyth, and Paris schools 116–17, 118
methods 167–75
omission of gender concerns 51
unsettling and unsettled nature 62–4, 66–7
cross-border spread of conflict 325–6, 425, 583, 687–9
Cuban missile crisis (1962) 220, 335, 345, 403, 524
Cuban support for El Salvador rebels 553
culture
common culture in definition of nations 416–17
globalization impacts 108–9
importance of shared values 94
Culture of National Security, The (Katzenstein) 29, 87
cyber attacks
appropriate responses 409, 497
criminal threat potential 491
military applications 539–41
on nuclear control capacity 342
cyber-espionage 313, 535, 540
cyberspace
definition 532–3
scale of security challenge 531–4
security, private expertise 37, 359–60
surveillance and monitoring 323, 495–6, 526
threat perceptions, global variation 534–6
trends and civil society impacts 536–9
used by terrorists 107, 512
Darfur conflict, Sudan 460, 475, 480n11
DA-RT initiative 161, 162, 163n4
data
common structures in IR data 141
on conflict severity 230–1, 231f, 233f
digital, sharing and protection 536–9
generation for predictive models 143, 145
high-dimensional (‘big data’) 145, 147
on number of wars 228–30, 229f, 230f, 231, 232f
observational, use and limitations 134, 135, 138, 142
presentation of gathering methods 160
on threats and violence 232–5, 234f, 502
use/availability in crime governance 495–6
databases, limits of terrorism data 513
deception, in intelligence services 518–20
decision-making
biological aspects 194, 195, 197, 198
choices of political actors, realist view 76, 77, 80, 217
(p. 733)
collective, multilateral norms 291, 294, 496–7
information from intelligence services 522–4
and public expectations 596
resources and tools 262
role and responsibilities of leaders 250, 701–2
decolonization
collapse of European empires 422
collective political identity 383–4
effect on number of conflicts 228–9
feminist politics of resistance 53
indigenous people, support in CSS 61–2, 66
deep arms control 339, 341, 344
Defense Ministries 31, 32, 33, 253
defensive realism 79, 111, 216–17, 222
democracies
civil–military relations 715, 719, 720, 721
costs of arming and war 311
democratization of colonies 445
efficacy in international politics 103, 105–6
foreign policy decision-making 261, 262
impacts of economic stagnation 107–9
minority group management 427
promotion for peace and stability 292
and secrecy, uses and tensions 520–2
threats from terrorism 107, 344, 510
democratic peace theory 142, 188, 426, 521, 643
demographic pressures
and environmental stress 474, 479
global population trends 569
mobility seen as threat 443–4
Department of Homeland Security, US (DHS) 23, 626
deprivation, biological consequences 196
descriptive models 134, 180, 195
despotism 340, 344, 557
detention centers 322
deterrence
application of principle in cyberspace 540
of atrocities, by criminal justice systems 702, 706
as Cold War nuclear security strategy 338–9, 340
compromised by proliferation and leakage 342–3
role in great power relations 213, 214, 221
development
civil–military relations in developing states 715–17, 720
coordinated with defense 389–90
current/future threats and management 568–74, 630–1
definitions, and meaning construction 91
opportunities and benefits for interveners 392–3
relationship with security 4, 562–8, 567t
UNDP Report on human security 387
Development Assistance Committee (DAC), OECD 564, 566, 573
diamond trade, supply chains 353, 354, 490–1
diaspora groups 325–6, 443–4
dictatorships 521–2
differentiation, security knowledge 5, 30, 32, 34, 37
diplomacy 184, 389, 494, 664–5
Directed Acrylic Graphs (DAGs) 141
dirty weapons 587–8
disarmament 400, 401, 403
Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reconstruction (DDR) programs 53, 564
discourse analysis 156, 158, 171–3, 595
discrimination against migrants 448–9, 688
disease outbreak responses 622, 623, 625, 626
dissent
suppression by states 393, 585
from traditional views in security studies 19–21, 23, 118
use of social media, exposure to risk 538
diversionary war 418, 425
domestic politics
diversionary theory 418
importance in nuclear weapons choices 368–71, 375
incentives for drone proliferation 581–2
internal nationalist mobilization 421–4
liberal, related to international institutions 102, 110
mobilization and management of support 265–7
(p. 734)
national security policy construction 259, 260–5
polarization as terrorist strategy 508–9
prioritization over foreign concerns 648–9
as source of normative contestation 290, 295
domino theory 655
double-agents 518, 519
drones
development of usage standards 296, 589
justifications for use 292, 297, 322, 580–2
legality concerns 578, 579
potential consequences of proliferation 583–6
targeted killings 389, 409, 578, 583, 588
technological advances 581, 586–8
used in intelligence-gathering 526, 579, 580
warfare analyzed by game theory 180
as weapons, proliferation 312, 580
drought 475, 476, 477
drugs
anti-drug strategies 493–4, 497
regulation of ‘legal highs’ 488
trafficking 490, 491
‘dual-use’ technologies 538–9, 581
dueling, prohibition of 17
dynamic models (game theory) 180, 182–6
dynamic neorealism 217–19
East Asia
border tensions 583, 611–12, 618n1
civil–military relations 717–18
nuclear proliferation issues 371–5, 376t
Ebola epidemic, West Africa 622, 632
Economic Community of West African States 690, 691
economics
behavioral 199–200
economically-motivated crime 489–90
futility of conquest 305
global dynamics 324, 375
globalization and stagnation, impacts 107–9, 108f
global wealth and poverty inequality 569
growth linked to climate change 476, 477
influence of war and competition 304–5, 314n1
inward-looking and internationalizing regimes 369–70, 373
market principles 73, 645
military spending and affordability 309–13, 309f, 573, 716–17
related to insurgency 549–50
responses to relative growth/decline 217, 218
unipolarity and globalization 306–9
world ranking of states 105
elastic net modeling 144–5, 146f
election violence 703
electoral systems 427
El Salvador
FMLN support for humanitarian law 357
research monograph on Civil War (Wood) 156
US counter-insurgency measures 552, 553
emancipatory theory (constructivist) 96–8
emotions
corporeal study methods 170, 171
evolutionary basis 197–8, 200
relationship with behavior 201
responses generated by images 596, 598, 599
endogeneity
processes of change, game theory models 180, 182–6
statistical modeling 137–8, 147–8n3
energy efficiency 434–5, 437, 440
energy security
contingent sociopolitical factors 436–8
current revolutions in supply and demand 433–6, 434f
historical reliance on oil 432
research adaptation to future scenarios 439–40
energy storage 435–6, 437
English School (IR studies) 643, 645–6
Enigma machine 518, 521
Enlightenment, transformative effects 92–3, 275
environmental security 351, 497
climate change impacts 474–9
related to migration 450, 478
(p. 735)
resource scarcity related to violence 471–4, 479, 570
epigenetic processes 196–7
epistemic communities 35–6
ethics
challenges of new security practices 60
constraints of state power 289
standards for non-state militants 357
ethnic cleansing 423, 463
ethnicity
ethno-sectarian conflicts, spread 687–9
marginalization of ethnic groups 422–3, 476
related to national identity 416, 421, 446
ethnographic research 157, 169–70, 173
ethno-linguistic fractionalization 420
Europe
energy efficiency and consumption 434–5, 435f, 437
EU status as emerging great power 641
evolution of nation states 16–17, 31, 276, 278
history of attitudes to intervention 458–9
immigration issues 447, 450–1, 453n5
legal status of Court of Justice 671–2
national identities in European Union 418–19
UK withdrawal from EU (Brexit) 247, 306
evangelical movement (Christianity) 93
evolution
gender assumptions 49
of human psychological architecture 194, 195–8
theory applied to institutional change 111
evolutionary game theory 180, 187–9
exclusive economic zones, maritime 609, 610–11, 616
existential threats 21–2, 24, 334, 345, 625
political construction 446–7, 565
exogenous parameters of change 179–80, 181–2
Expanded War (EW) data 231, 232f, 241n2
expertise
autonomy and cooperation of experts 35–6
competition and disciplinary boundaries 120, 122
local community sources 705
regional experts on terrorism 513–14
relationship with security practice 5, 30, 38, 524, 717
specialization and influence 32, 33, 34, 36–7
explanatory constructivist theory 91–6
external governance of crime 492–5
Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI) 354, 355
extremism
anti-immigrant feeling 447
global network structures 325
ideologically extreme states 219
ideology developing into action 511–12
irrelevance of nuclear deterrence 343
family migration 447, 451
famine 196, 450, 599
FARC guerrillas, Colombia 490
fear
biological function 197
competitive spiraling 183, 215
globalization 327
motivations for overcoming 199
of terrorism, impacts and drivers 504, 510
federalism, world 102, 187, 337–8, 341
Female Soldiers in Sierra Leone (MacKenzie) 52–3
feminism
categories of theoretical study 47
people/society seen through gender lens 45–6
publications relevant to security issues 51–3
rejection of gender hierarchy 47–8
security studies, scope and direction 45–7, 48–51, 53–5
field observations/analysis 157, 161, 173–4
field theory 328
Financial Action Taskforce 488, 493
financial crisis, global 307
First Nations emancipation (America) 65
First World War
causes 417, 508, 607
pre-war diplomatic communications 184
subsequent peacebuilding initiatives 18, 401–3
fit
appropriateness of methods 170
(p. 736)
Poisson distribution, for conflict datasets 235–6, 240
of predictive models, assessment 143–4
Flag Raising at Iwo Jima (photograph) 593, 599
flags of convenience 614
FMLN group, El Salvador 357, 553
forecasting, see prediction
foreign policy
accountability obscured by secrecy 521
assumptions based on intelligence 516–17, 523–4
autistic tendencies in state behavior 648–9
individual attitudes to 200
influence of domestic interest groups 260–1
and realist theory 75, 76, 80
role of leaders 246–7, 249–50, 251, 255
Soviet/Russian, contructivist study 155–6
stabilization missions in global South 391–3
value of pragmatism 269
fossil fuels 435, 436, 437–8, 440
Foucauldian genealogy 172
Foucault, Michel 17, 282
fracking 436, 440n4
fragile states 388–90, 391, 392, 566
freedom
in cyberspace 535
diminished, leading to political movements 123
individual, relationship to security 17, 101
religious 281–3
of the seas 608–9, 610
threatened by terrorism 510–11
French national identity 420, 446–7
French Revolution 276, 282–3
frequency distribution, conflicts 235–8, 237f, 240–1
game theory 9, 179–89, 248, 508
gas, production and security 433–4, 438, 441n12
Gellner, Ernest 417, 421–2
gender
aspects of migration politics 447, 451
assumptions, ‘civilians’ and ‘combatants’ 91
hierarchy and bias 47–8, 49–50, 54
as lens in feminist approaches 45–6
stereotypes 46, 52–3
Gender in International Relations (Tickner) 52
generalized linear models (GLMs) 134, 143, 144–5
Geneva Call organization 357
Geneva Conventions 95, 402, 410n2
genocide 423, 462, 700
Genocide Convention 95, 461, 700
geographical configurations of power 319–26
analytical methods 326–8
cyberspace as domain 532–3
geopolitics
collective identity and variety in global South 383–6
cyberspace infrastructure 533–4
due diligence principles 354
economic risks of conflict 304–5
online, symbolic territoriality 324
origins and early development 16
rise of superpowers after WW2 18
strategic maritime issues 607, 609–10, 614–16
as study focus in and after Cold War 248
geospatial analysis 327, 329
global health security initiatives 623, 626, 627, 629
globalization
continuing threats and inequalities 324, 568–70, 647
economic and cultural impacts 108–9, 108f
health impacts 624, 630, 632–3
political roots 105
related to human moral progress 97–8
rise in political opposition to 107–8, 109, 360, 574
robustness/decline debate 306–9
of security threats and policing/defense 23, 32, 350–1
stimulus to religiously-based politics 283–4
Global Network Initiative (GNI) 359
global South
definition and identity 383–6
development and security challenges 386–90, 569–70
peacebuilding contributions 382, 391–3
(p. 737) Global War on Terror, see ‘war on terror’
governance
alternative spatial regimes 320–1, 686
cyberspace, global 535–6
global development–security problems 570–2
global society, role of great powers 647–8, 675
health security 623, 631–3
humanitarian 94–6
public/private management of security 350
of transnational crime (internal) 492
transnational security arrangements 391–3, 492–5, 658, 668–9
weakness and incompetence impacts 715
governments
actions, consequences for neighbor states 685
arms treaty violations 401, 408
commitment to human security 352
focus of engagement with fragile states 566
management of heterogeneity 423–4
participation in UN stabilization missions 391–3
religious persecution 281
transparency 267–8, 526
grand strategy 268–9
graphical causality models 141
‘great debate’ (nuclear political question) 334–6, 338–9, 341–3, 345
great powers
arms control foundation agreements 400–1
autistic tendencies 648–50, 673
declining (relative) power, responses to 217–19, 649–50
definition and characteristics 639–41
entrapment risks in compound warfare 663
ideological structures and relationships 641–5
influence in UN Security Council 670, 671, 673–5
legitimation of coercive interference 458, 669
management (GPM) 639, 645–8, 650, 668
nuclear war avoidance and risks 211, 212, 219–22, 222n1
recent reemergence of rivalries 4, 648, 650, 665
reliability in alliances 373–4
Great War, see First World War
Grotius, Hugo 459, 609
group-think concept (Janis) 35
Guam doctrine (Nixon) 372
Guantanamo Bay Detention Camp 322
Gulf Co-operation Council 690–1
Gulf War (1991) 439, 593, 661, 662
Habré, Hissène (Chad president), trial 697, 704
hackers 498
Hague Peace Conferences 400, 401, 402
Haiti, humanitarian intervention 392
hard security 390, 562, 566
hawks and doves analogy of conflict 188–9
Haydar, Bashshar 465–6
health, global
contemporary threats and containment 623, 631–3
history of links with security 624–7
resistance to/problems of securitization 627–31
‘hearts and minds’ tactics 356, 389–90, 549, 551–2, 555
hegemonic stability theory 35, 74, 213, 306, 689
hegemony
as cause of conflict 426
legalized, of UN Security Council 671, 677
projection of norms 295
of United States 307–8
Hezbollah (militant group) 586
hierarchies
in criminal organizations 492
gender hierarchy, in sociopolitical order 47–8
of legal power 670
as product of social classification 90
restraints, for theoretical world state 338
Hiroshima, 1945 bombing 334, 345, 368
history
analysis of change using game theory 180, 187–9
arms control initiatives 400–4
(p. 738)
changing role of religion in politics 275–7
constructivist explanation of international security 92–6
evolution of security studies 15–24, 33–7
extent of possible learning from 227–8, 240–1
global health threats and responses 624–7
impacts of intelligence activities 516
law of the seas development 608–9
migrant and refugee flows 443–6
origins and growth of terrorism 505–7
perceived role of leaders 247–50
security knowledge production and practice 30–3, 321
HIV/AIDS
emergence and spread 624
power of images 599
threat assessment and responses 626, 628–9
Hobbes, Thomas 16, 101, 276
holism, of constructivist thought 88–9, 109
Homer-Dixon, Thomas 472–3, 474, 475
Hot Line Agreement, US/Soviet 403
Huguenots, migration flows 443
Human Development Index 569
humanitarian interventions
concept development and demand 95, 458–9, 467–8
efficacy and evaluation 465–6
guidelines, R2P standards 293, 463–4
legitimacy and motives 96, 289, 457–8, 460
media coverage, ‘CNN effect’ 595
post-WW2 multilateral organization 461–3, 464–5, 468n2
power relations in practice of aid 324
humanitarian law, see international humanitarian law
humanity
adaptive nature 200
belief in perfectability 187
concept creation in Enlightenment 92–3
impulse to form groups 82, 419
recognition of vulnerable categories 95, 97
survival of, existential threats 340–1, 344–5
human rights
authorization for local concerns 352–3
defenders targeted by spy/malware 538–9
disregarded by states 294, 296
growth of universal belief in 94, 95, 699
religious freedom 281–3
UN Charter protection 461
violations, criminal prosecution 697, 698, 700, 704–5
Human Rights Watch 699, 704, 707n2
human security
gendered nature of concept 51
IPCC definition 473, 474–5
for migrants and refugees 449–52, 493
positive promotion 21
research attention to issues 627–8
research on factors linked with conflict 564
state and international mechanisms 95–6
as United Nations concept 351, 387, 625–6
human trafficking 491, 493
Huntington, Samuel 277, 712–13
hybrid warfare 37, 541, 665
iconic images (photographs) 593, 599, 602
ideas
collectively held, social construction 88
ideational differences, great powers 642–5
ideology related to conflict intensity 280
institutionalization 100
role of ideology in driving behavior 81–2, 254, 264, 511–12
identity
collective, in global South 384–6
group identity, biological basis 201
national 263, 416, 418–20, 445
social construction and categories 89, 90
transnational politics, and internet 323, 324–6, 327
values and perception of threats 24–5, 261–2
images
research approaches, challenges 600–4
role in politics and conflict 597–600
satellite imagery, intelligence gathering 520, 523
security studies interest 593–7
inadvertent war 219–22
independence assumption (statistics) 137
(p. 739) India
labor mobility under British imperialism 449
military action in E. Pakistan (1971) 461–2
security expertise 33, 38n3
indigenous people 61–2, 65–6, 67, 444–5
individuals
biological variance 196, 197, 201–2
citizen security, threats from state 20, 387
criminal responsibility 698, 703, 705–6
interpretation of images 601
liberal approaches to security 101, 103
in warfare and terrorism 322
infectious diseases, as security threat 622, 625, 626
influenza, avian (H5N1 virus) 626, 629, 631
information
asymmetries leading to war 215
classified and unclassified 526–7
collection of digital data, and privacy 496, 536
exchange, control by China 306, 535
information/communications (ICT) revolution 267–8, 531
secrecy of intelligence services 518–20, 525
initiation of war 215, 220–1, 540
insecuritization process 126
insecurity
gendered nature of 52
as lived experience 120–1, 127
political dimensions 263–4, 572–3
relationship to security 125–7
sources 20, 21, 25, 55
institutional development
agents of nuclear nonproliferation 367
collective security arrangements 658
domestic and international policing 17, 494
domestic, influence on security policy 262
global humanitarian bodies 97
good governance systems 571–2
importance in liberal scholarship 100–3
international relations and security research 34
motives for establishment 198–9
neoliberal financial institutions 295
state defense bureaucracies 31–2, 33
instrumental variables 139, 140, 476
insults, perceived in images 600
insurgents, definition 504, 547
intelligence services
influence on foreign policies 522–4
scope and actors 516–18
secrecy 518–22
technological challenges and trends 525–7
tracking of terrorists 511, 512
interdependence
consequences for global health 625–6
economic 75, 109, 306, 314n2, 570
security 567–8, 574, 683, 684
interference, in causal inference models 141
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 473
internal governance of crime 492
International Atomic Energy Authority (IAEA) 377
international community
civilian protection decisions 462–3, 464, 675
collaboration on development and security 565, 657
growth of humanitarian principles 94, 96–8, 699
mobilization using images 599
International Criminal Court
establishment and purpose 95–6, 293, 674, 698
recognition of rape as war crime 451
respect for, and legitimacy 697, 699, 702, 703, 706
International Energy Agency (IEA) 432, 438, 440
International Health Regulations, IHR (WHO) 625, 627, 629, 631
international humanitarian law 95–6, 356–9
International Political Sociology (IPS) 118, 119, 127n5, 167
International Politics in the Atomic Age (Herz) 336–7
international relations (IR)
belief in human progress 187
constructivist critique 86–7
development as academic discipline 36, 37, 71, 203, 595
feminist approaches 45, 50, 51–3
(p. 740)
functions of great powers 646
role of liberal institutions 101–2
international security
current (21st C) issues 4–5, 29, 153, 628
future-orientation in studies 5–6, 11–12
gender stereotypes and influence 49–50, 52–3, 54
humanizing and globalizing trends 92–8
Internet infrastructure, see cyberspace
interpretive constructivism 152, 154, 156–7, 158–9, 162n1
intervention
consequences and complexities 388, 425, 465
effect of leader attitude and beliefs 251
intervener states in global South 391–3
legitimacy and legality 289, 458, 662–3
multilateral, military challenges 660–4
non-interventionist principles 384, 385, 459, 461
post-conflict, by international organizations 157 see also humanitarian interventions
interviews, as research method 156, 157, 159, 161, 601
Inuit Circumpolar Council 65
Iran
enrichment facilities, Stuxnet cyber-attack 539
Iranian Revolution (1979) 274
nuclear deal (JCPOA, 2015) 186, 376, 408, 437–8
Iraq
invasion of Kuwait (1990) 291, 674
Kurdish population 462, 466
national identification of population 421
terrorist attacks in 502
US counter-insurgency measures 555–7
US invasion (2003) 185, 249–50, 266, 388, 662
Islam
governance disputes, Muslim-majority states 106–7
perceptions of links to violence 280, 503, 601
Islamic State (so-called), ISIS 360, 388, 510, 511, 512
cyberwarfare tactics 540
media manipulation 599
isolationism 643, 644, 648
Israel, attacks on nearby nuclear facilities 343
Japan
nuclear abstention policy 371–3, 378n10
pre-WW2 international relationships 218, 449
territorial tensions with China 607, 611
Jervis, Robert
deterrence model 185, 339
game theory analysis of security dilemma 183
publications 6, 35
on rise of regional security orders 684
views of constraints on leaders 249, 254
JETS transparency standard 161, 162, 163n3
jihadist terrorism 106–7, 109, 511–12
Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program 313
Journal of Peace Research 19, 157
jus in bello principles 356, 357, 360n6, 579
Kadi, Yassin Abdullah, legal case 671–2, 678n16
Kant, Immanuel 16, 102, 112n1
Kedourie, Elie 417, 426
Kenya, prosecution of leaders 699, 703–4
Khan, A. Q., nuclear network 343
killer robots 409
knowledge
control of production processes 63, 65
production for state security 30–3, 525
psychological basis of perceptions 34–5
search for objective reality 7
and social construction of meaning 88, 89–90
traditional/indigenous 65–6
transdisciplinary organization 119, 120, 122–3 see also expertise
Kosovo, NATO intervention 293, 462–3, 520, 602, 658
(p. 741) labeling
limits and boundaries 123–4, 127n7, 128n8
of security topics 120
landmines 96, 184, 405–6
language
correspondence theory 172
discourse analysis 156, 171–3, 595
related to nationalism 419, 420
law
enforcement agencies 492–3
international criminal justice 698–707
international humanitarian 95–6, 356–9
legal authority of UN Security Council 669–72, 677n7, 678n11
maritime 608–10, 612, 613–14, 618
leaders
accountability 261, 268
assassination 356, 505–6
awareness of spiraling risks 216–17, 219, 224n22
characteristics and motivations 201, 250–4, 521–2
criminal prosecution and immunity 697, 698–9, 700
decision-making, prosecution risk calculations 701–2
importance in international politics 246–50, 253, 255
manipulation of followers’ emotions 197–8, 417–18
mobilization of elite coalition support 266–7
personal views on nuclear choices 373
League of Nations
establishment 33, 448
minority/refugee protection 95
passport system development 445
peace initiatives 18, 401–3
leakage
intelligence secrets 526
nuclear weapons, to non-state actors 342–3
‘legal high’ regulation 488
legitimacy
of armed non-state/private groups 356–8
claims for coercive security practices 123, 124
and criminal activity definition 488, 489
of independent nation states 415
of personal data collection 496
resources for counter-insurgency 550
of superpowers 640
through multilateral action frameworks 662–3, 675
use of force in humanitarian intervention 460
weakened, in traditional great powers 649
legitimation 264–5, 266–7
liberalism
applied to global security threats 103–9
erosion of norms 288, 290, 295, 297–8
future potential and limitations 109–11
gap between aspirations and actions 564–5
international world order, challenges to 385, 574, 644
as theoretical approach, defining features 101–3, 711
liberty, see freedom
Libya
Arab League no-fly zone 690
‘friends’ contact group 659
NATO air campaign 298, 385, 388–9, 464–5, 466
UN resolution on civilian protection 464, 675, 678n18
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) 434, 438
local activism 327, 352–3
logistic regression modeling 144–5, 146f, 147
London Protocol 402
machine learning 144, 145, 147
Malthus, Thomas 472, 479n2
management
of great powers 639, 645–8, 650
of international relations and alliances 656–60
of Internet traffic 538
of nationalist conflicts 426–8
of national security policies 268–9
of risk, practices and resources 22
of transnational development/security issues 570–2
of weapons acquisition and use 399–400
maritime features, definition 611, 619n3
(p. 742) maritime security
criminal activity 491, 493, 612–13, 616–17
governance and laws 608–10, 613–14, 618
strategic territorial conflicts 607, 610–12, 614–16 see also piracy, maritime
Marshall Plan 304, 563
matching (observational data) 138–9
material methods (CSS) 174–5
meaning
contested, between actors 172
social construction of 89–90
use of metaphor 121
mean square error (MSE) 143–4
Mearsheimer, John
neorealist viewpoint 35, 74, 79–80
on offensive neorealism 214, 223n14
on offensive realism 221
publications 6
measurement
benchmarks 97
criteria of great power status 641
cyberspace network testing 533–4
of environmental indicators 473–4, 476
measures of conflict 228–35
of nationalism 420–1
of transitional justice outcomes 701, 702–3, 706 see also data
mediation analysis 140
Mediterranean Sea, refugees and migrants 323, 329n1, 450–1, 489, 601–2
Mercosur (S.America) 690
methods
analysis of images 593–4
constructivist studies 152–4, 155–7, 158–9
critical security studies 167–75
explicit and operational presentation 159–60
game theory application 179–89
level of coverage in publications 154–5, 157–9, 161–2 see also statistical analysis
Middle East
conflicts over oil 196
external political influences 384
nuclear proliferation 376
regional organizations 690–1
religious alignments 274
migrants, human rights of 450, 451
migration
government policy justification 489, 613, 616
in history of international relations 443–6
human security aspects 323, 329n1, 449–52
internal political impacts of immigration 109, 424, 446–9
types and causes 442, 569
Militarized Interstate Dispute (MID) data 232–3, 234f
military affairs
capacity of states 308–9, 312–13, 647
challenges of coalition warfare 660–2
as focus of Cold War era security studies 18–19
gender issues 49, 52–3
historical role in state development 16, 31, 38n2, 321
involvement in business enterprises 716–17, 718
military education and training 33, 292, 717
military experience of leaders 252, 253
professionalism 712–13, 716
scope of action in humanitarian interventions 460
state spending 105, 309–11, 309f, 573
technological capabilities 312–13, 584–5 see also armed forces; weapons
military capability, game theory analysis 184–6
miniaturization, drones 588
minimalist (world) state 338
Ministers of State, Foreign Affairs/Defense 33, 253
mobilization of political support 265–9, 325, 353, 360, 705
power of images 598–9
as terrorist strategy 509, 510
Mobius strip metaphor 126–7
models
exclusion of leader attributes 249
game theoretic 179–80, 181–9
generalized linear 134, 143, 144–5
(p. 743)
instrumental variables (IV) modeling 139, 140
misunderstandings in use by scholars 133–4
nonlinear 140
predictive, algorithmic 142–5
regime survival and nuclear choices 368–70, 375, 376t see also statistical analysis
modernization
academic knowledge production 65
related to great power status 641
of Russian military sector 718
seen as stimulus for insurgency 549
as solution, in counter-insurgency 556
suppression of religion 283
money laundering 491, 493, 494
monographs, constructivist research 155–7
Montreux Document 358, 361n10
moral skepticism 82
Morgenthau, Hans J. 71–2, 80, 276, 337–8, 598
Muhammad cartoons, Danish 597, 600, 601
multilateralism 90, 662, 691
normative commitment to 290, 291, 297, 460
public suspicion of 572
UN Security Council legitimation 461–5
multinational military exercises (MMEs) 664
multinational military interventions (MMIs) 660–2
multinational states 415, 427
multipolar systems 642
nuclear stability 342, 346n12, 366, 376
and state behavior 654, 685
Munich Olympics massacre (1972) 506–7
naming and shaming tactics 353, 701, 705
narratives, political 264–5, 266, 596, 664
Nash equilibrium (game theory) 179, 181
national identity 263, 416, 418–20, 445
nationalism
definition of concepts 416–17
as driver of conflict 415–16, 421–6
measurement 420–1
methodological, in security studies 320–1, 447
recent political rise in liberal West 107, 109
sacralization 93, 94, 276
theories of social construction 417–20
national security
current and future political challenges 267–9, 319
extension to cyberspace 535, 537
historical emergence of concept 18
infectious diseases as threats 622–3, 626, 630–1
as justification for human rights denial 296
policy construction and legitimation 259, 260–7
political imperatives and costs 14, 20, 260, 498
threats, broadening of scope 471–2, 473, 624–5
National Security Council, US (NSC) 18, 389, 556, 622
NATO
counter-insurgency approaches 555
Libyan intervention (2011) 298, 385, 388–9, 464–5, 466, 659
membership 110, 292, 655, 717
relations with Russia, monograph (Pouliot) 156–7
stabilization of Afghanistan 657
natural capital 474
natural disasters 472, 478
neoclassical realism 72, 75–6, 77, 80, 223n8, 374
neoliberal institutionalism 367, 494
neorealism, see structural realism
networks
analysis, methods 327
internet, global connectivity 323, 325–6
mapping and monitoring 533–4
mathematical, in statistical data 141
organized crime groups 492
of security experts, relationship with state 34
transnational, for normative change 295–6, 700–4 see also alliances
neurobiology 196–7, 200, 202
Nigeria, combat with Boko Haram 585
NIMBY syndrome 436
Nine-Dash line, South China Sea 611
(p. 744) Nomos of the Earth (Schmitt) 676
Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) 384
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) 96, 350
coordination of public lobbying 405, 407
enlisted in conflict prevention campaigns 353, 564
integrated development interventions 390
involved in international criminal justice 699, 705, 706
nonlinear models 140
non-permanent (regional) members, UNSC 669, 677n4
Nonproliferation Treaty, Nuclear (NPT)
compliance of signatories 367, 410n13
drivers of ratification decisions 372–3, 378n2
effectiveness, debate on 377, 403–4
members, regime types 371
non-state actors
activists 497, 705
arms capability and control 408–9, 584, 586
security expertise 36–7, 353–4, 493, 494
normal distributions 237, 238f
norm entrepreneurs 699–700
norms
definition 288–9
formal establishment 496–7, 698
gender hierarchy 47–8
international durability 290, 297–8
nuclear weapons choices 368, 374–5
of post-Cold War security 289–93
public normative moral commitments 262, 288, 372
revision, transformation, and disruption 91, 293–7, 353, 406
socialization of 699–700, 702–3
of state behavior, realist views 79–81
Northern Ireland conflict 551, 552
North Korea
autarkic regime 369
nuclear capabilities 374, 378n7
Northwest Passage (Arctic) 607, 615
nuclear proliferation
game theory modeling 185–6
global regulation prospects 408
Japan/East Asia scenarios 371–5, 376t
predictive theory, research limitations 365–71, 376–7
nuclear war
contemporary avoidance challenges 341–5
deterrence and arms control strategies 338–41, 403–4
explanations for non-use of weapons 292, 335, 404, 589n2
nuclear one worldism 335–8, 340, 341
spiraling of risks 211, 212, 219–22, 222n1
nuclear weapons
abstention vs. abandonment 375
Ban Treaty (2017) 368, 373
ecological consequences of use 340–1
political consequences of invention 336–7
second strike capacity 342
Nuremberg trials 698, 707n3
Obama, Barack (US President)
Directive on Global Development 389
involvement in Libya campaign 464
relationship with military 714
statements on use of drones 579, 582, 583
object-oriented research 174–5
OECD standards for supply chains 355, 360n4
offensive realism 79, 214–15, 221, 223n13
oil
and conflict in Middle East 196, 439
historic energy security importance 432, 438, 439
reserves and prices 434, 436, 437, 438
shale oil supplies in US 307, 433, 440n5
Oman, counter-insurgency 551, 552
one worldism, nuclear 335–8, 340, 341
openness
in alliances 657
in criminal businesses 492
in critical security studies 61, 62–4, 66
economic, in globalized liberal order 107, 369
and resurgence of religion 283 see also transparency
OpenNet Initiative 533
Open Observatory of Network Interference (OONI) 533–4
Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan) 661
(p. 745) Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) 292, 298n1
Organization of African Unity 450
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) 432, 433, 435, 440n3
Ottawa Treaty (on landmines) 96, 184, 292, 405–6
Ottoman Empire 422, 459, 460, 641
out-of-sample prediction 143–4, 145, 241
Pakistan, conflict with Taliban 553, 585
pandemics (disease) 626, 628, 633
PARIS approaches
application to CSS writing 121–3
origins and characteristics 118–19
‘security’ labeling and practices 10–11, 119–21
parochialism 643–4, 645
partition 424
path dependence
adaptation and normative change 298
in conduct of security studies 37–8, 55
constraining change in cyberspace 533
constructivist explanation of change 92
in institutional change and continuity 104, 534
Patriot Act (US) 344
peace building
after civil wars, constructivist study methods 158–9
business support for negotiations 354, 355, 360n5
historical antecedents 16
initiatives, attitudes of states to 96
League of Nations experiment 18
motives and incentives for 199, 647
role of alliances 655–6
security–development nexus 564–5
spoiling tactics by terrorists 510
UN peace-keeping missions 32, 292, 391–2, 659, 673
peace research
feminist work 49
marginalization in Cold War era 19
methods and resources 24
Peace Research Institute Oslo (PRIO) 475, 476
peer-review, academic 63, 66
People, States and Fear (Buzan) 6, 20
permanent members, UNSC 669, 671, 677n4
personality of leaders 251–2, 254
Philippines
election impacts 247
maritime sovereignty dispute with China 611
photography
iconic images 593, 599, 602
overhead (aerial/satellite) 520, 526
Pinker, Steven 239, 240
piracy, maritime 328, 493, 607–8, 612, 619n8
Somali coastline 491, 613, 617
players, game theory 180, 182, 186, 222n5
pluralism 122, 600–4, 643, 645, 660
pluralistic security communities 684
Poisson distribution, conflict datasets 235–6, 240
polarity
ideological 642–5
theory, models of major powers 639–40, 641–2
polarization
ethnic 425, 688
political, in Western societies 503, 643, 649
as terrorist strategy 508–9, 510
policies
against crime, effectiveness assessment 493
defense, in regional security complexes 686
geographical bias in terrorism study 502–3
hard-line, and war risk spiraling 216, 217
influence of security experts 32, 34, 35–7
influence of visual environment 601–2
leader/bureaucratic institution relationship 253
narratives of strategic choice 264–5, 269
on population movement and resettlement 444–5, 489
regional integration, global South 383, 385
sustainable development 573 see also foreign policy
policing
institutional development 17, 494
militarization trends 23, 322, 390
right to board ships 614
(p. 746)
transnational links 328, 492–3
UN peacekeeping missions 673
political anthropology research, see PARIS approaches
political economy
conflict behavior 308–13
demographic and environmental stress 474
political science
attention to religion 275, 277, 282
dominant theoretical approaches 118–19, 122
fluctuating interest in leaders 247–55
interest in civil–military relations 712–13, 714–15, 719–21
limitations of current understandings 194–5, 478
need for interdisciplinary approach 202–3
role of intelligence information 517
statistical methods 135, 138, 140–1, 144
politicians, manipulation of debate 265, 268
politics
in contested security consensus 123–4, 126, 263–4, 672–5
gender hierarchy in 48, 54
global connectivity, online networks 325–6
involved in theory and study of security 8, 38, 63
narratives, mobilization and legitimation 264–7
perspectives on cybersecurity 534–6
power of visual imagery 597–600, 603
public accountability 261, 268
as realm of desecuritized issues 22, 628
structural realist model 72, 81, 103
threat construction 446–7, 453n7, 488–91
weakening of international liberal order 107–9
population, global 569
populism, recent rise 98, 319, 452
as crisis of governance 571, 665
economic and cultural aspects 107–9
global distribution 360
positivist thinking 7, 9
potential outcomes framework (Rubin) 135–7
poverty
alleviation 108, 390
global income inequalities 569
power
asymmetries as cause of war 551
centralization, in history of nation states 16, 320–1, 337
exclusion from, leading to conflict 423, 427
game theory modeling 185, 186
global shifts 104–7, 110, 324–6, 571–2, 641
of military sector, in developing states 715–16
outcomes mediated by liberal institutions 100–3
power-sharing systems 427–8
regional security order 685–6
socially-constructed effects 90–1
of UN Security Council 670–2, 675
power law distributions 236–8, 237f, 238f
power transition theory 213–14, 220, 223n10, 306
practices, security
impacts of new technologies 60, 525–6
legitimacy claims 123, 124
post-Cold War initiatives 3–4
private/corporate involvement 352–9
relationship with analytical expertise 5, 30
unit- and system-level structures 341
practice theory 51, 156
pragmatism 269, 517
precision-recall (PR) curves 144, 145, 146f
predator–prey models 188
prediction
cases of failure (in nuclear proliferation) 371–6
climate change projections 478
improvement and risks 376–7
limitations and empirical anomalies 366–8, 371
openness to uncertainty 61
related to historical perspectives 6
role and validity in social science 9–10
role of intelligence services 527
statistical models 142–5, 147, 235–8, 240
using realist theories 73–6, 365–7
(p. 747) preventive war
game theory modeling 182, 185–6
for nuclear counter-proliferation 343
Prisoner’s Dilemma
applied to nuclear choice situations 215, 367, 374
game theory modeling 181, 182, 183, 187–8
prisons 322, 494
privacy 122–3, 496, 536
private security companies 323, 356, 357–8, 494
process, as basis of constructivist methods 153–4
process tracing 155–7, 159, 476
professionalism
in human rights advocacy 703, 705
military competence 712–13
proliferation
drivers, theoretical analysis 365–71
drone technology 312, 580–6
nuclear capability 342–3, 366, 370 see also nuclear proliferation
propaganda of the deed 505
propensity scores 138, 139, 147
Protestants, history of 282, 443–4, 458
provocation (terrorist strategy) 508, 509
psychology
bias in assessment of outcomes 467
of conflict and tolerance 201, 423, 657
evolutionary influence on processes 197–8
knowledge and perceptions 34–5
social 419, 426
in study of leaders 250–3
vulnerability and radicalization 511
publicity, importance in terrorism 505–7
public order maintenance 16–17, 716
public–private interactions 351–2, 358–60