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date: 21 February 2020

(p. 873) Subject Index

(p. 873) Subject Index

absentive meanings 19, 110, 115, 118–21, 543–6
acquisition of evidentials by children 28, 31–2, 185–201
Aktionsart 32, 66, 80–4, 267, 278, 502
apprehensive 79, 169, 397
assumed evidential 9, 12–17, 21–2, 28, 40, 43, 91–4, 97, 104, 151–60, 164–5, 172, 564–5, 568–71, 664, 667, see also assumption
assumption 1, 51, 55, 60, 151, 172, 297–300, 369–70, 395, 399, 541, 547–92, 664, see also inference
atelic 80–2
attitude to information 4–5, 10, 17, 30, 35, 39–42, 92, 95, 106, 152, 317, 326, 395, 398, 403–8, 468–9, 617, 659, 742–3
attitude to knowledge, see attitude to information
auditive 40, 145–6, 532, 546–52
auditory information 15, 34, 51, 55, 112, 123, 175, 288, 413, 425, 720
in demonstratives 115–17, 122–3
belief 1, 4–6, 17, 112, 264, 279, 296–9, 307, see also verbs of belief
bilingualism 162, 167, 169, 171, 528, see also language contact; multilingualism
borrowing 148, 152, 162–4, 169, see also language contact
change in evidential use 247
child-directed speech 198–200
(p. 874) child language acquisition of evidentials, see acquisition of evidentials by children
children's understanding of evidentials and source monitoring 176–84
classifier 165, 170, 360, 391–2
code copying, see borrowing; copying
cognition, verbs of 4–7, see also verbs of cognition
Cognitive Grammar 742–53
cognitive processes 16, 30–1, 37, 177–84, 244–57, 358, 370, 378, 381
command 2–3, 10, 19–21, 39, 77, 363, 683–4, see also directive; imperative
common knowledge evidential 546–5, 568, 570, 573, see also general knowledge
complementiser 85, 95–6, 106, 626, 726–9, 733–5
conditional 4, 18, 41, 90, 95, 127, 131, 135–6, 146, 362, 366, 523, 535, 542, 545
confirmative 28, 40–3, 125, 128–31, 150, 263
conjecture 25–6, 67, 75, 78, 160, 204, 362, 385, see also inferred evidential
conjunct order in Algonquian languages 434–62
conjunct person marking, see conjunct/disjunct person marking
conjunct/disjunct person marking 24, 40–1, 48, 492, 581–92, 600, 605–7, 654–6, see also egophoricity
constituent order 318, 324, 360, 392, 433, 492, 529, 556, 658, 665, 674–5
contact language 8, 32, 39–40, see also areal diffusion; language contact
content question 20–2, 59–60, 538, 649, 684–5, see also interrogative; questions
controllable state 50, 53–5, 575, see also control
conventions in evidential use 28, 31, 39–40, 105–7, 220–3, 226, 239, 241, 248–54, 381–4
copying 124, 128–9, 521–2, see also borrowing
core argument 48, 112
counter-expectation 619–20
cultural conventions 105–7, 220–3, 226, 239, 241, see also conventions in evidential use
cultural framework 202–21, 244–57
data source 6, 40–1, 43, 263
deduction 51, see also assumption; inference
deductive approach 6, 14, 27, 40–2
default evidential 15, see also markedness
deferred realisation 18, 560, 567
definiteness 1, 120, 495, see also topicality
deictic categories 30, 42, 47, see also deixis
deixis 33, 40, 109, 118, 391–2, 617, see also demonstrative
demonstrative 4, 32, 38, 65, 109–16, 122, 615
deontic modality 40, 42, 71, 295, 297, 717–18, see also modality
dependent clause, see subordinate clause
dependent marking 392, 490–1
desiderative 348, 397, 538
desubordination 41–2, 141–2, 147, 153, 532, 544, 548, 553
differential case marking 360, 363, 391–2, see also case
direct experience 14–15, 175–84, 261, 265–6, 599, 610–12, see also indirect experience
direct speech 41, 80, 95, see also speech report
directive 67, see also command; imperative
discourse prominence 28, 33, 268–70
disjunct person marking, see conjunct/disjunct person marking
distal demonstrative 110–13, 116, see also demonstrative
distal visual evidential 6, 365, 373, 376, 387
dizque as a marker of information source in Spanish and Portuguese 4–5, 11, 17, 36, 167–9, 275, 279, 725–40
double marking of information source 52
doubt 5, 7, 11, 14, 17, 337, 349, 352–3, 651, 625, see also dubitative; epistemic modality
dreams 13, 29, 40, 253, 663, 666, 671–2, see also evidentials in dreams
dubitative 2, 95, 120–2, 370, 381, 419, 421, see also doubt; epistemic modality
dubitative mode in Algonquian languages 435–59
dynamic verb 80–2
egophoric, see egophoricity
egophoricity 6, 13, 19, 22–8, 31, 39–41, 43, 49–57, 62, 581–92, 626
elicitation, warnings against 7–8, 15, 37, 113
endangered language 8, 35, 168–70, 389, 431, 465, see also language attrition; language obsolescence
endophoric expressions 26, 54–5, 58, 547–9, 551, see also egophoricity
English-centered approach to evidentiality 7
epistemic authority 25, 41, 75–6, 200–1
epistemic extensions of evidentials 38–9, 85, 90–107, 132, 143–5, see also epistemic modality
epistemic overtones of evidentials 26, 85–107, 170, 510–23
epistemic stance 30, 41, 93, 143, 263, 618–21
epistemicity, see epistemic meanings
epistemology 35–41, 247, 252, 263–4, 317, 430, see also information source
evidence and information source 21, 25, 28, 33, 41, 222–42, 261–72, 286–310
evidence, as inappropriate in defining evidentiality 5–7, 30, 41
evidential extensions 4, 18–19, 32, 38, 41, see also evidentiality strategy
evidential marking on nouns, see non-propositional evidentiality
evidentiality, definition of 1–7, 243, 261–3, 273–4
evidentially-neutral form 14–18, 38, 60, 400–8, 493, 533–4, 550–1
evidentials in dreams 13, 39, 40, see also dreams
exclamatory sentence 19, 523, 686, 699–700
expectation of knowledge, see mirativity
experiential evidential 13–15, 41, 54, 659, 670, 673, see also direct evidential; sensory evidential
extragrammatical expression of information source 89–91, 273–85, 725–40, see also lexical expression of information source
face-saving strategy 19, 29, 211
face-threatening strategy 19, 27, 29, 209–13
facial markers 5, 36, 741–54
factuality 35, see also factual
fieldwork methodology 7–8, 37
finiteness 32, 66, 78–80, 84, see also finite form
first person effect 18, 24–7, 38, 40, 493, 497, 505, 539, 542, 551, 735
firsthand information 4, 149–51, 163, 176, 395, 398–9, 408, 410, 418–20, 423, 429, 533, 616, 624–5, see also firsthand evidential
focus 10, 23, 42–3, 53–4, 288, 360, 403, see also topic; topicality
formal markedness, see markedness
formal semantic theories and evidentiality 6, 33, 96–9, 286–314
functional markedness, see markedness
gender 2, 4, 6–7, 39, 66, 74, 125, 133–4, 137, 360–3, 373, 377, 405, 492, 494
General Conversational Implicature 85, 102–5
general knowledge 1, 12–13, 25–6, 40, 395, 401, 492, 495, 502, 508, 549–50
as evidential in Nambikwara languages 339–41, 348–50, 353–6
generic knowledge, see general knowledge
genetic relationships 124, 126, 144, 389, 530, 553, 657
gossip 28, 245, 255–6
grammatical category 3–4
grammatical evidentiality, essence of 1–7
Gricean maxims 59, 203, 208
grounding 266–8, 272, see also discourse; topicality
head marking 433
hearsay 1, 12, 35, 40–2, 51, 66–9, 74–7, 83, 126–8, 132, 138, 140, 146, 150–1, 162, 168, 175, 180–201, 222, 236, 241, 286–8, 293, 303, 492, 495, 498–509, 511–21, 557–67, 611, 627, see also reported evidential; quotative; secondhand; thirdhand
in non-propositional evidentiality 112, 120
hierarchical person marking system 48
historical development of evidentials and information source markers 4, 28, 32–6, 39, 124–47, see also grammaticalisation; language contact; origin of evidentials; reanalysis; renewal
honorific 693–708, see also politeness
hypothetical 38, 42, 71, 127, 208, 438, 515, 712, see also epistemic modality
ideophone 218, 318, 393, 622–4, 626
illocutionary force 74–5, 90, 207–9, 221, 299–303, 384, 471, 535, 722
illocutionary verbs 207, 221
immediate perception 52–8, 265, 544, 561, 582–3
imperative order in Algonquian languages 434–62
implicature 85, 94, 101–7, 203, 208, 221, 279, 384, 495–6, 513, 655, 732
indicative 16, 38–9, 43, 534–5, see also assertion; declarative
indirect experience 13, 175–84, 409–10, 419, 423, 429, 610–12, see also direct experience
indirect speech 4, 38, 42, 368, 417, 424, 430, see also speech report
indirective evidential 15, 26, 35, 42–3, 57, 89, 92, 102, 106, 125, 263, 510–22, 525, 566–7
indirekte Erlebnisform 13, 263, 525
inductive investigation 7, 40, 42
information question 378, see also content question; questions
information source 1–5, 245–8, see also evidentiality, definition of
information structure, see discourse; focus; topicality
insubordination, see desubordination
interjection 318, 620
internal state 26, 39, 43, 49, 54–5, 58, 62, 257, 337, 349, 352
internal support 13, 337–8, 348–9, 352
intersubjectivity 5, 19, 33, 60, 63, 320, 684, 700, 752
intonation 203–4, 209, 214, 221
intraterminal aspect 42
irony and evidentials 131, 519
irrealis 42, 370–81, 531, 550–2, see also realis
joint perception 624–5, see also shared knowledge in evidentials
justification 5, 7, 30, 86–7, 264–6, 269, 272, 587–8
lack of control, see control
language attrition 545, see also language obsolescence
language contact 31–2, 148–72, 391, 539, 553, 542, see also areal diffusion; borrowing
language ideology, see linguistic ideology
language obsolescence 35, 42, 149, 160–71
language shift 168–71
latentive 42, 546–7
(p. 878) light verb construction 10, 492, 500–1, 504–5, 508
linguistic ideology 244–57, 616–21
logophoricity 4, 42, 613–14, 627
markedness 7–16, 24, 27–9, 36–40, 157, 159, 398, 406, 512, 651
medial clause 636, 652, 655
mediative 42–3, 263
modal marking 465, see also modality
modal verb 4–8, 35, 38, 44, 290–300, 310, 529, 531
modality 1–5, 7, 10, 17–18, 32–6, 41–2, 150, 155, 161, 163, 275–7, 393, 395, 398–400, 403, 407, 473–83, 493, 522–3, 531, 535, 538, 542, 546–9, 552–3, 694, 709–11, 717–20, see also epistemic modality
as a clausal category in Tukanoan languages 360–84
and evidentiality 71–3
polysemy of term 10
mode 10, 30, 33, 42, 43, 434–54
multilingualism 154–60, 171–2, 528, see also bilingualism; language contact
narrative 131, 254, 317–32, 534, 537–8, 541–3, 581, 592–3, see also genre
narrative forms 128–32, 134, 139–41, 534, 543–52, see also discourse; genre; narrative
negative borrowing, see borrowing
Neo-Gricean approach 87
nominal tense 11, 110, 121–3, 318, 328–30
non-confirmative 40–43, 106, 128–32, 135–41, 144, 150, 165, 263
non-finite form 78–80, 84, 529, 539, 556–78, see also finite form
non-propositional evidentiality 11–12, 32, 34, 36, 38, 109–22, 265–6, 338, 340–4, 345, 669–73
and pronouns 443–5
non-visual information source 112–15, 121, 386–8, 662, see also non-visual evidential
non-visual sensory evidential 635–53, see also non-visual evidential; sensory evidential
non-witnessed forms 128, 135, 138–9, 318–32, see also non-eyewitness evidential
noun phrase, evidentials in, see non-propositional evidentiality
number systems 1, 4, 66, 74, 110, 117, 125, 133–4, 137, 360–3, 373, 377, 492, 494, 674
omission of evidentials 10, 16, 148–9, 191, 268, 430, 702, 704
onomatopoeia 10, 148, 171, 190, 688, see also ideophone
parenthetical 4–5, 282–4, 287, 529, 531, 539, 545, 726
participatory evidential 24, 51, 54, 69, 76, 574–7, 646, 651, 654–5
passive 38, 130, 138, 142, 146, 729, 738
perception in signed languages 745–7
performative 24, 27, 32–3, 43
perspective 24–8, 34, 102, 105–7, 315, 335–6
perspectivism 203–7, 212, 217–20, 315, 318, 332
pluperfect 130–2, 135, 137, 140, 150, 166, 230, 493, 496–9, 565–6
plural 110, 117, 729, 735, see also number systems
polar question 20–2, 26, 78, 320, 384, 387, 538, 542, 649, 684–5, see also interrogative; questions
polarity, see negation
politeness 17–21, 27, 32, 39, 203–9, 220, 387, 683, 692, see also honorific
portmanteau morpheme 66–8, 74, 111–12, 321–2, 326
positive face 209, see also face-saving strategy
possibilitative modality 337
possibility 1, 85–104, 337, 343–6, see also epistemic modality
postterminal aspect 513–19
pragmatic salience 48
pragmatic parameters 51, 63, 85–90, 95, 102, 105–7, 202–21, 681–8, see also discourse; genre; topicality
precision, requirement for 30, 148, 170–1, 206, 219, 621–2, see also conventions in evidential use
preferred evidential choice 27, 40
preterit aspect in Algonquian languages 435–51
preterite 127–9, 131, 139–41, 145, 503
preventive 556, see also apprehensive
probability 1, 85–104, 507–8, see also epistemic modality
prospective evidential 14, 22–3, 549–52, 557–9, 563–5, 568–74, 578
proximal demonstrative 110–17, see also demonstrative
psychological aspects of evidentiality 243–57, 621, 684, 703
quote 79, 93, 530, see also quotation
(p. 880) raising verb 267–8
realis 42, 357, 360–4, 370–81, 531, 543, 546, 550, 552, see also irrealis
reality status, see irrealis; realis
reanalysis 121–3, 146–7, 155–7
reasoning 1, 15, 38, 292, 295, 299, 305, 310
reference tracking 49
reinterpretation 150–4, 159, 163–5, 170, see also reanalysis
relative clause 18, 79–80, 109, 122, 499–500, 535, 542, 545–6, 549, 553, 638, 678–9, 690, 698, 706
Relevance Theory 87
renarrative 19, 29, 550–2
replication 539, see also borrowing; copying
report 131–3, 150, 152, 202–7, 217, 220, see also speech report
reportative evidential, see reported evidential
reported evidence 261–8
reported evidential 4, 8–9, 11–14, 17, 25–6, 36–8, 42–3, 88, 90–106, 125, 128–33, 137–9, 142, 145, 152–4, 157, 163–5, 169–72, 245–6, 253, 256, 336–56, 360–87, 393–430, 467–73, 488–9, 557–69, 573, 602–8, 632–5, 640–53, 659–92, 694, 702–4, 707–8, see also hearsay; secondhand; thirdhand
as genre marker 28–9, 202, 210, 452, 454–9, 665–7
in imperatives 19–20
in non-propositional evidentiality systems 111–13, 116
in questions 20–2
time reference of 22–3
reported information 49, 275, 278–82, 288, 291–4, 297–310, 409–30, 532–53
reportive evidential, see reported evidential
rhetorical questions 22, 59, 319, 482, 487, 510, 522–3, 544, 558, 622, 685–7, see also questions
scattered coding of evidentiality 9, 38, 512–13
scope of negation 6, 18, 30, 535, 538–9, 542, 545, 553, 660, 663, 666, 671
self-report 4, 49–50, 53–5, 57, 62, 591–2, 650
sensory meanings in evidentials 12–17, 22–3, 30, 38, 41, 43, 50–5, 60, 89–94, 97–104, 107, 167, 170–2, 286–8, 306–7, 310, 337, 343–7, 395–8, 401, 413, 416, 422–5, 492, 495, 502, 694–702
in non-propositional evidentiality 109–23
sentence type 360–3, see also declarative; imperative; interrogative; mood
serial verb constructions, see serialisation
serialisation 360–1, 366–7, 373–6, 387
shamans 325–6, see also shamanic experience
shared knowledge in evidentials 25–6, 60–1, 117, 344–56
signed languages 5, 13, 36, 741–54
similative 317
source monitoring 30, 175–84
speculation 17, 66, 363, 370, 380–1, 439, 469, 473, 475–9, 522–3, 550, 600–1, 664, 667, 746
speech act 66, 75–7, 83–4, 410, 413–14, 417, 428–9, see also mood; sentence type
(p. 881) speech act participant (SAP) 20, 24, 319–26, see also person
speech act verbs 418, 423–5, 428–30, see also verbs of speech
speech level, see honorific
speech report 4, 8–11, 14–17, 30, 42, 50–4, 57–60, 659, see also reported speech
stative verb 52, 56, 80–2, 127, 136, 147, 563, 570, 575–7
status as a category 263, 268–72
subjective mode in Algonquian languages 436, 440–7
subjunctive 77, 95, 103, 135–6, 141, 277, 438, 614–15
subordinate clause 32, 41, 78–80, 252–4, 410, 496, 678–9, see also dependent clause
subordination 318, see also subordinate clause
supernatural experience 29, 252–4, see also shamanic experience; spirits
switch-reference 360, see also medial clause
technology and the use of evidentials 247
telic 80–2, 158, 278, 494
temporal meanings 2, 3, see also tense
terminative 128, 564
thirdhand 12, 25, 34, 38, 43, 336–7, 348–50, 368
time reference of evidentials 22–4, 118–20, 559–60
topic 109–12, see also topicality
truth conditions 88, 95–8, 264, 289–90, 300
truth value 6, 14, 264–5, 290
uncontrollable state 50, 54, 62, see also control
unmarked evidential, see markedness
utterance verbs 413, see also verbs of speech
validational 129, 263, see also validator
validator 41, 43
verba dicendi 125, see verbs of speech
verbs of appearance 281–2
verbs of belief 279, 282–5
verbs of cognition 5, 79–81, 413, 530, 558, 613–14, 623
verbs of emotions 365–6
verbs of internal state 26, 39, 43, 49, 54–5, 58, 62
verbs of motion 455, 614
verbs of perception 5, 279–81, 417
verbs of reporting 139, 141, see also verb of speech
verbs of speech 4, 9, 79–81, 125, 141, 161, 207, 415, 459–60
verificational 5
visual distal evidential 375, see also distal visual evidential
(p. 882) visual evidential and genre 27–8, 40
visual evidential, formally unmarked 16
visually acquired information 91, 94, 101, 170–2, 175–6, 179–81, 184, 245–7, 253, 286–8, 310, 495–6, 543–52, 710, see also preferred evidential choice
voice in Formosan languages 658, 661, 671
warning 19, 363, 366, see also apprehensive
weather verbs 48
zero-marking of evidentiality 16, 155, see also evidentially-neutral form; markedness