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date: 23 August 2019

(p. 859) Language Index

(p. 859) Language Index

Abenaki 431, 437
Abkhaz 18, 20, 28, 78, 83, 136, 152–3, 490
Abkhaz-Abaza 136
Abkhaz-Adyghe 136, 490, see also Northwest Caucasian languages
Abor-Miri-Dafla 596
Achuar 214
African languages 33, 35, 62, 610–28
Afroasiatic languages 33, 613
Agutaynen 676, 679
Akha 18, 30, 74, 144–5
Akhvakh 24, 54, 137
Alantesu 335
Albanian 40, 126, 130–2, 149–52, 170, 273, 522
Algonquian languages 5, 11, 16–19, 34–5, 74, 94–5, 145, 161, 431–62
Algonquin 431, 455, 460
Altaic languages 126, 128, 140, 555
Altaic Sprachbund 126–9, 555
Amazonian languages 2, 8, 12, 20, 33–4, 169, 172, 201–30, 315–408, see also South America, languages of
Amdo, see Amdo Tibetan
Amdo Tibetan 49, 51, 144, 163, 574–80, 585–6, 593, 600, see also Tibetan
American Sign Language 36, 741–54
Amis 657
Andean languages 34, 43, 95, 165, 202–42
Andean Spanish 162, 167–8, 171, see also Spanish
Andes, languages of, see Andean languages
Andi 490
Andic languages 490, 500, 507
Andoke, see Andoque
Andoque 25, 389, 391
Angal, see Mendi
Angal Enen, see Nembi
Angal Henen, see Mendi
Angal languages 61, 633, 644–5
Angan languages 635, 651, 654
Apache 161
Apalai 316–17
Arapaho 161, 431
Arawá languages 8, 19, 58, 111
Arawak languages 7–8, 13, 20, 67, 81, 147, 154, 157–9, 165, 171, 217, 360, 387, 391
Archi 16, 60, 490–2, 500–7
Argentinian Spanish 162, 167, 739, see also Spanish
Arizona Tewa 5, 163–4
Aromanian 131–2, 149, 152
Arrernte 161
Arwako-Chibchan languages 24
Ashéninka 13
Ashti Dargwa 70, 80, 137, 493, 496, 499
Atayal 657
Athabaskan languages 23–4, 34, 161
Athpare 597
Atikamekw 431, 436, 445
Australian Aboriginal languages 11, 17, 34
Australian languages, see Australian Aboriginal languages
Australian Sign Language 741
Austroasiatic languages 115
Austronesian languages 36, 92, 110, 115, 123, 629, 567–92
Avar-Andic languages 490
Awa Pit 48
Awara 633, 635
Awyu 633–4
Axəxdərə Akhvakh 137, 507
Ayacucho Quechua 20, 25, see also Quechua
Aymara 2, 34, 40, 165–6, 171, 263, 739, see also Andean languages; Jaqi
(p. 860) Aymaran languages 34
Aztecan 411, 416, 427–8
Bagvalal 88, 93, 490–4, 497–504
Bahing-Vayu 596
Balangao 676–8
Balkan Slavic languages 125, 128–33, 137–9, 149, 151, see also Slavic languages
Balkans linguistic area 32, 126, 129–36, 149–52, 162, 167, 171, 187, 522, 732
Balti 143, 580, 595–6
Balti Tibetan, see Balti
Baltic languages 32, 80, 87, 94, 126, 140–2, 151–3, 171, 536
Baltic linguistic area 32, 151–4, 171, 525
Baltic region 171, 525
Balto-Finnic languages 153–4
Bangalore variety of Indo-Pakistani Sign Language 741
Baniwa, see Baniwa of Içana
Baniwa of Içana 8, 20–1, 155–7
Bantawa 597
Bantu languages 615
Bará 358–9, 365, 367, 371
Barām 597
Barbacoan languages 48, 60
Baré, 169
Baric languages 596
Bashkir 141, 511, 514, 518, 522, 525, 542
Basque 103, 728, 735, 738
Batanic languages 657
Batsbi, see Tsova-Tush
Belhare 597
Benue-Congo languages 614–15, 627
Bezhta 490, 498, 501
Bhujeli 597
Bhutanese languages 600, 604
Binanderean languages 654
Blackfoot 431
Bodic languages 10, 35, 61, 143–4, 595–609
Bodish-Himalayish languages 596
Bodo-Garo languages 596
Bogaia 633, 637, 645, 653
Boi’nun 21, 676, 685, 688, 692
Bolivian Spanish 107, 726–8, 731, 736, 739, see also Spanish
Bonan 21, 144, 555, 574–8
Boran languages 2–4, 163, 388–92, 400–8
Bosavi 23, 29, 247, 633, 640–2
Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian 133, 149
Brag-g.yab 596
Brazilian Portuguese 5, 7, 32, 36, 171, 725, 730, 732, 735, see also Portuguese
Brazilian Sign Language 36, 741–2
British Sign Language 741
British Sign Language family 741
Budukh 490
Bulgar 542
Bulgarian dialect of Novo Selo 131–2
Bumthap 597
Bunun 21, 36, 657–60, 673
Burmese 143–5, 596
Burmese-Lolo languages 596, see also Lolo-Burmese languages
Burmic languages 596
Buryat 12, 23, 128, 554–7, 569–73, 578
Butuanon 676, 680
Caddoan 161
Cáhita 411, 424
Calamian Tagbanwa 677–8
Camling 597
Cantonese 187–8, 190
Carib 315–16, 332, see also Kari’na
Cariban languages 3, 13, 19, 34, 315–32, 395
Carijona 316, 388
Catalan 738
Catalan Sign Language 13, 36, 741–3, 746–7, 751–3
Caucasus as a linguistic area 32, 94, 133–8, 152–3, 171, 522
Caucasus, languages of 134–8, 152–3, 490–509
Cebuano 19, 22, 676–91
Central Mongolic languages 163, 554–6, 559, 574
(p. 861) Central Monpa 597, see also Tshangla
Central Numic languages 414
Central Subanen 676, 680
Central Tibetic languages 581
Chadic languages 28, 112
Chechen 19, 70, 80, 137, 490–3, 498–503, 508
Chepang 597
Cheremis, see Mari
Cheyenne 74–5, 78–9, 98, 161, 299, 431, 433
Chimakuan 161
Chinese 126, 182, 711, 723, see also Mandarin Chinese; Wu Chinese
Chinese Pidgin Russian 67
Choctaw 299
Choguita Rarámuri 425
Chuvash 127, 141, 163, 510–18, 522, 525, 539, 542
Circassian 136, 153
Circum-Baltic languages 153–4
Classical Nahuatl 428
Classical Newar 597
Classical Persian 140
Classical Tibetan 143, 580, 583
Coast Tsimshian (S’malgyax) 464–5
Colombian Siona 160, 384–5
Colombian Spanish 5, 11, 167, 730–1, see also Spanish
Colorado River Numic 415–17
Comanche 414–15
Cora 93, 426–9
Coracholan branch of Uto-Aztecan 410–11, 426–7
Courland Livonian 534
Cree/Montagnais (Innu)/Naskapi 143, 431, 436–49, 469
Cree-Innu-Naskapi continuum 34, 431, 469
Crimean Tatar 153, 514
Croatian 88, 130, 133, 149, see also Serbian
Cupan 419–20
Cupeño 409, 414, 418–20, 427–9
Cushitic languages 33
Cuyonon 676, 686, 692
Cuzco Quechua 10, 21, 90–1, 190, see also Quechua
Czech 103
Daco-Romanian 149–50
Daghestanian languages, see Nakh-Daghestanian languages
Daic languages 596
Danish 284
Dardic languages 139
Dargi languages 490, 500–2
Dargwa 18, 24, 70, 75, 80, 137, 492–509
Dari 139
Darma 113, 596, 602
Dâw 159
Deed Mongol 574, see also Qinghai Oirat
Delaware 431
Dena’ina 24
Desano 16, 18, 70, 83, 94, 156–9, 165, 357–9, 367–8, 375, 383, 386
Dingri 596
Dolakhā Newar 57, 597, see also Newar
Dravidian 138, 140, 161
Drokpa 596
Dukhan 103, 106, 523
Dulangan Manobo 676–7, 682
Dumi 597
Duna 52, 61, 77, 633, 637, 651–4
Duna-Bogaia languages 645, 653
Dur 597
Dutch 279, 327, 332
Dyirbal 11, 29, 112–15, 123
Dzongkha 589, 597, 600–4
East African languages 5
East Angal, see Mendi
East Bodish languages 596–7, 603–4, 607–9
East Caucasian languages, see Nakh-Daghestanian languages
East Khanty 141, 543, 545, see also Khanty; Northern Khanty
East Kutubuan languages 22–3, 645–6
East Middle Turkic (Chaghatay) 514
East Old Turkic 513–16, 522
(p. 862) East Strickland languages 14
East Tungusic 129
Eastern Algonquian languages 34, 431–4, 449–54, 457–61
Eastern Armenian 138
Eastern Bodic 10, 61, 144, 597
Eastern Innu 443
Eastern Pomo 18, 20, 54, 59, 78, 81, 83, 94, 101, 172, 733
Eastern Shira Yugur 574–8
Eastern Tibetic languages 585
Eastern Tukanoan languages 2, 4–7, 10–14, 17–20, 22–3, 28, 34, 69–70, 81, 94, 154–60, 163–7, 359–87, see also Tukanoan languages
Ecuadorian Siona 160, 376, 384–6
Ecuadorian Spanish 106, 166, 726–8, 731, 736, see also Spanish
Eduria/Taiwano 358–9, 365, 378
Eibela 633, 640, 642, 655
Eipo 654
Ekari 24, 633, 635, 654
Enets 141, 154, 526, 528, 548–50
Enga 633
Engan contact zone 125
Engan languages 62, 633, 636–9, 643–5, 656
Ersu 9, 16, 22
Erzya Mordvin 526
Eskimo-Aleut 140, 161
Eurasian evidentiality belt 94, 124
Eurasian languages 14, 22, 32, 35, 124–6, 151, 160
European languages 88, 92, 95–6, 102, 151–3, 163–5, 171, 207, 218, 261–2, 316, 332
Even 128
Evenki 128–9
Fasu 24, 76, 633, 645, 650–5
Fennic languages 141–2, see also Finnic languages
Filipino 691–2
Finisterre languages 13, 633, 635, 654
Finnic languages 35, 153–4, 525–6, 532–9, 542, 553
Finnish 163, 526–30
Finno-Ugric languages 15, 18, 80, 94, 141, 163, 522, 526, 539–46
Forest Nenets 549
Formosan languages 11, 17, 19, 36, 70, 92, 657–73
Fox 145, 431, 538
French Sign Language 741
French Sign Language family 741
Fu-yü 510
Gagauz 89, 127, 129, 511, 513, 516
Gahuku 95
Galician 732, 738
Galo 54, 76
Garo 596
Geg 149
Georgian 67, 71, 89, 134–40, 152, 522
Germanic languages 88, 95–6, 163, 278, 529
Gitksan 8, 16, 20, 35, 73, 463–89
Gitxsan, see Gitksan
Godoberi 490–5, 504
Goemai 613, 615
Greek 149, 152, 165, 171, 521
Guambiano 54, 60, 76
Guanano, see Kotiria
Guaporé-Mamoré region 161
Guarani 739
Gypsy, see Romani
Hahãintesu 335
Haida 67, 464
Halotesu 335–6
Hausa 622
Hayu 597
Highland New Guinea languages 50–1, 56, 61, 125, 161, 629
Hill Mari 526, 536, 538
(p. 863) Himalayas, languages of 61, 123, 596, 602
Hinuq 9, 13, 15, 17, 58, 77, 79, 94, 100, 106, 490–4, 498–506
Hmong 596
Hmong-Mien languages 33
Huallaga Quechua 10, 253, see also Quechua
Huamalíes Quechua 222–41, see also Quechua
Huichol (Wixarika) 426
Hukuntesu 335
Hungarian 141, 171, 522, 526, 529, 531
Hunzib 490, 498–9
Hupa 161
Içana-Vaupés area 157
Ika 67
Illinois 431
Ilocano 677, 680–3, 692
Imbabura Quichua 162, 263, see also Quechua
Indic languages 149
Indo-Aryan languages 138–9, 160–1
Indo-European languages 2, 7, 87–8, 126, 137, 139–42, 149–53, 163, 165, 187, 273, 521, 529, 728
Indo-Iranian languages 138
Ingrian 526, 528
Innu 11, 16, 19, 34, 145, see also Cree-Innu continuum
Inonhan 676, 684, 687
Inuktitut 268
Ipili 633, 643, 645
Iranian languages 12, 89, 94, 126, 139–40, 153, 160–3
Iroquoian 274, 430
Isbukun Bunun 21, 659–60
Istanbul Judezmo 134, 150–1
Italian 92, 274–5, 283, 736
Jamul Tiipay 78
Japanese 21, 36, 126, 186–90, 198, 709–24
Japhug 70, 82–3, 109
Japhug Gyalrong, see Japhug Rgyalrong
Japhug Rgyalrong 54, 56, 70, 109
Jaqi 2, 29, 167, 171, see also Aymara
Jarawara 8–11, 16, 18, 20, 22, 58, 60, 67, 74, 94, 111, 123
Jero 597
Jibe 691
Judezmo 134, 150–1, see also Istanbul Judezmo
Jukun 35, 614–21
Jukun languages 619, 621, see also Hone
Kabarada 136
Kabarda-Adyghe 136
Kabardian 136
Kachin 596
Kagayanen 22, 676, 679–80, 685
Kajtag Dargwa, 501
Kajtag, see Kajtag Dargwa
Kakua 387
Kalapalo 317
Kalasha 139
Kalderash Romani 133
Kalmyk 12, 14, 18, 20, 23, 29, 67, 74, 128, 554–7, 564–9, 577–8, 712
Kaluli 23, 29, 247, 633, 640–1, 650–1, 654
Kamaiurá 52
Kamas 526
Kampa languages 13
Kamula 23, 633–4
Kanakanavu 17, 19, 29, 31, 36, 657, 662–5, 673
Kankanaëy 21, 29, 676, 680–2, 685–7
Kanuri 622, 625
Kapau 651, 654
Karachay 511, 515
Karachay-Balkar 153, 514
Karaim 165, 511, 521
Karakhanid 522
Karapana 358–9, 365, 371, 386
Karawari 5, 247
Karelian 526, 528
Karen 596
Karenic languages 596
Kari’na 315, 317, 332
Karitiana 83
Kartvelian languages 134–6, 152, 490, see also South Caucasian languages
Kashaya 24, 51, 54, 69, 73
(p. 864) Kashaya Pomo, see Kashaya
Kathmandu Newar 54, 57, 597
Katitãulhu (Sararé) 335–6
Katla-Rashad languages 623
Kato 161
Katwena 315
Kavalan 657
Kayardild 67, 83
Kewa 633, 636–8, 656
Khalaj 510–16
Khaling 111, 113, 116–18, 122, 125, 597
Khalkha 18, 20, 23, 35, 128, 554–64, 571, 578
Kham 113, 597, 603–5, 608
Khinalugh 490
Khitan 559
Khorasan Oghuz 511, 513
Khorchin 555–6, 573–4, 578
Khwarshi 18, 77, 490, 498, 501–6
Kickapoo 431
Kinamayo 676, 680
Kinaray-a 676, 680, 688–9
Kiowa 161
Kiowa-Tanoan languages 161, 163
Kiranti languages 111, 116, 596–7, 605
Kirghiz 511, 514–16, 522
Kithãulhu 335–6
Kiwaian languages 25
Kogi 24
Kolyma Yukaghir 67
Koman languages 627
Kombai 633–4
Komi 67, 74, 94, 141, 525, see also Komi-Permyak; Komi-Zyrian
Komi-Permyak 141, 526, 528, see also Komi
Komi-Zyrian 67, 82, 141, 526, 530, 539, 543, 553, see also Komi
Komo 627
Korafe 654
Koreguaje 159, 357–8, 385–7
Kostur-Korča Macedonian 130, 146
Kotiria 18, 358–60, 363–78, 380–3, 386see also Wanano
Koyi Rai 597
Koyra Chiini 614
Kryz 137, 162, 490, 504–5
Kubachi Dargwa 502
Kubachi, see Kubachi Dargwa
Kubeo 358–62, 376
Kuki-Naga 596
Kuman 516, 523
Kumyk 511, 514–15
Kurdish 139, 163, 522
Kurmanji Kurdish 139
Kurmanji, see Kurmanji Kurdish
Kurtöp 17, 54, 61, 597–608
Kven 526
Kwa languages 623
Kwak’wala 113, see also Kwakiutl
Kwakiutl 13, 659
Kyirong Tibetan 600
Kyirong-Kagate 596
Kypchak branch of Turkic 153
Ladino, see Judezmo
Lahu 144–5
Lak 129, 134, 137, 147
Lakes Plain languages 633, 641
Lakha 597
Lakondê 9, 11
Languages of Amazonia, see Amazonian languages
Languages of the Philippines 10–11, 14, 17, 19, 21, 29, 36, 167, 657, 674–92
Lapp, see Saami
Latgalian 142, 525
Latin 132
Latin American Spanish 36, 167, 275, 279, 726–9, 740, see also South American Spanish; Spanish
Latundê 333–8
Latvian 80, 87, 90, 96, 142, 153–4, 525, 534–6
Lengua de Señas Catalana, see Catalan Sign Language
Lezgian 267, 490, 493, 506
Lezgic languages 160, 490–2, 500, 505
Lhasa Tibetan 28, 35, 52, 70, 143, 580–96, 600
Lhokpu 596–7, 600
Lillooet 8, 110, 115–16, see also St'át'imcets
Língua de Sinais Brasileira, see Brazilian Sign Language
Língua Geral, see Nheêngatú
Lisu 144–5
Lithuanian 80, 90, 96, 142, 153, 165, 279, 521, 525, 536
Lolo(Ngwi)-Burmese languages 144, see also Burmese-Lolo languages
Luchuan dialect of Ryukyuan 18, 74
Luiseño 418, 420
Luwo 35, 611
Maaka 11, 17, 28, 35, 112, 117–19, 621–6
Macedonian 1–2, 28, 90, 125, 130–2, 146, 149–52, 167, 522
Macushi 315
Magar 597, 603–8
Magaric languages 596–7, 608
Maidu 19, 161
Máíhɨ̃̀kì 160, 351, 384
Makah 145–6
Makú languages 158–9, 360
Makuna 358–9, 365, 386
Malayalam 140
Maliseet-Passamaquoddy 431–3, 450–1, 457–8
Maltese Sign Language 741
Manange 596, 602, 608
Manchu 129, 556
Mandarin Chinese 7, 578, 595–6, see also Chinese
Mangap-Mbula 629, 633, 637–8
Manghuer 76
Mapuche 83
Maricopa 93, 146
Mataguayan 118
Mator 526
Mayo 424
Meadow Mari 536–7
Meänkieli 526
Meglenoromanian 131–2, 149, 152
Megrelian 152
Mehweb Dargwa 24, 137, 501, 504, 506, 508
Meithei 19, 60, 67
Mendi 644–5
Menominee 431
Merak-Sakteng 597
Meskwaki (Fox) 145
Mexican Spanish 95, 726–7, 730–5, see also Spanish
Mexicano 428, see also Nahuatl
Miami 431
Miao, see Hmong
Middle Mongolian 20, 22, 35, 554–9, 577–8
Middle Persian 139
Mɨka 389, see also Witoto
Mi’kmaw 17, 431, 433, 449–53, 457–8
Mingrelian 134–5
Mɨnɨka 389, see also Witoto
Mirish 596
Miwok 161
Mixtec languages 91
Mock English 255
Mock Spanish 254–5
Modern Georgian 135
Modern Japanese 36, 709–24, see also Japanese
Modern Turkish 127
Moksha Mordvin 526
Mongghol 144
Mongghul 555, 574–6
Mongolic languages 14, 17, 19, 24, 35, 74–6, 128–9, 137, 139, 142, 144, 160, 163, 554–79
Monguor 20, 555, 575–8
Montagnais 145, 431, see also Cree/Montagnais (Innu)/Naskapi
Montenegrin 133
Moose Cree 431, 436, 445
Mordva 163, see also Mordvin
Mordvin 526–9, see also Mordva
Muinane 388–93, 400, 404–6
Murui 20, 27, 388–400, 407–8, see also Witoto
Murui Witoto, see Murui
Mustang 596
Mỹky 16, 18, 20, 74
Nadëb 158–9
Nahuatl 428, see also Mexicano
Naija 428
Nakh languages, see Nakh-Daghestanian languages
Nakh-Daghestanian languages 9–10, 13, 18–20, 24, 35, 54, 58, 60, 67, 70, 73–5, 81, 88, 101, 106, 135–8, 152–3, 490–509
Nambikwara languages 9, 11, 13, 22, 34, 61, 67, 120–1, 169, 333–56
Nanai 129
Nangchenpa 596
Native American languages 8, 125, 145–6, 274, see also North American Indian languages
Negarotê 333–6
Negidal 128–9
Nembi 644
Neo-Aramaic 163
Nepali 113, 139, 147, 605
New Guinea Highlands, languages of 161, 629
New Guinea, languages of 2, 13–14, 22–5, 29, 33–6, 50–1, 61–2, 67, 125, 127, 161, 629–56
New Zealand Sign Language 741
Newaric languages 596, 597
Nganasan 16, 19, 21, 29, 101, 141, 526–8, 550–3
Ngiyambaa 17
Nheêngatú 8
Niger-Congo languages 613–15
Nigerian Pidgin English 622
Nilo-Saharan languages 610, 613–14, 627
Nɨpode 389, see also Witoto
Nisga’a 464–6, 468–70, 473, 478
Nisgha’a, see Nisga’a
Nivaĉle 109, 114, 118–19, 122
Nivkh 169
Niyahlosu 335
Nootkan 145–6
North American Indian languages 2, 34, 43, 125, see also Native American languages
North Arawak languages 165, 391
North Cariban languages 34, 171
North Mendi, see Mendi
North Tungusic languages 128–9
Northeast Caucasian languages 15–16, 18, 93, 152
Northern Akhvakh 54
Northern Kankanay 21, 680, 685
Northern Khanty 94, 304, 529, 545–6
Northern Mansi 543–5
Northern Nambikwara languages 169, 335
Northern Paiwan 661
Northern Paiute 18, 410, 412–20, 428–9
Northern Samoyedic languages 526, 532
Northern Selkup 546, 548
Northern Tajik 163, 522
Northern Uto-Aztecan languages 417–18
Northwest Caucasian languages 34, 136, 152–3
Northwest Coast of North America, languages of 123, 161
Northwest Indo-Aryan 161
Nukna 13, 533–6
Numic languages 410–19
Nungon 13, 70, 635–6
Nyelayu 115–16
O’odham 420–2, 429
Obdorsk Khanty 545, see also Khanty
Ob-Ugric languages 35, 141–2, 525–6, 529, 532, 543–6, 553
Ocaina 14, 388–94, 407
Oceanic languages 115, 633, 638
Odawa 431, 454–5
Odoodee 633, 637–8
Oirat 128, 555–6
Oji-Cree 431, 455, 460
Ok languages 68
Ok-Oksapmin languages 68, 633–4
Oksapmin 24, 54, 68–9, 76, 633–5, 654–5
Old Anatolian Turkish 514
Old Armenian 138
(p. 867) Old Church Slavonic 129–30, 138
Old Georgian 134–6
Old Italian 281–3
Old Japanese 723
Old Ottoman 514
Old Peninsular Spanish 726, see also Spanish
Old Persian 139–40
Old Spanish 728, see also Spanish
Old Tibetan 50, 143, 580
Old Turkic 127, 163, 513–14, 516, 522, 559
Old Uyghur 127, 522
Old Zhangzhung 596
Orejon, see Máíhɨ̃̀kì
Orkhon Turkic 127
Orochi 129
Orok 129
Ostyak, see Khanty
Ostyak-Samoyedic, see Selkup
Oto-Manguean languages 95
Ottawa, see Odawa
Paiwan 36, 657, 660–2, 673
Palikur 171
Panamanian Spanish 726, see also Spanish
Panoan languages 10, 24, 34, 68, 92, 145
Papago 161, 421
Papua New Guinea, languages of 51, 61–2, see also New Guinea, languages of
Papuan languages 5, 20, 629–56, see also New Guinea, languages of
Paranan 676–7, 692
Passamaquoddy-Maliseet 431–3, 457–8
Pastaza Quichua 5, 28, 32, 202–21, see also Quechua
Pazeh 657
Peninsular Spanish 726–30, 734–9
Penobscot 431, 434, 450–1, 457, 460
Permic languages 35, 141, 163, 526, 532, 536, 540–2, 553
Persian 127, 139, 163–5, 514–16, 521
Peruvian Spanish 107, see also Andean Spanish; South American Spanish; Spanish
Pima 421
Piman 421
Piratapuyo 358, see also Wa’ikhana
Pisamira 358–9
Plains area 161
Plains Cree 431, 436, 445, 454, 459
Pole 633, 636–7, 645, 651, 654, 656
Polish 6, 88, 91, 96, 102–5, 142
Pomoan languages 24, 34, 54, 69, 73, 115
Portuguese 7, 32, 36, 149, 158, 165–71, 253, 725–35, see also Brazilian Portuguese
Potawatomi 431
Pre-Proto-Mongolic 163, 554, 557–9
Proto-Abkhaz 153
Proto-Algonquian 145, 431, 461
Proto-Circassian 153
Proto-Eskimo 95
Proto-Finno-Ugric 141
Proto-Indo-European 142
Proto-Kartvelian 135
Proto-Mongolic 128, 144, 163, 554–9
Proto-Nakh-Daghestanian 137
Proto-Ngwi 144–5
Proto-Tukanoan 159–60, 359, 386–7
Proto-Tuyuka 386
Proto-Uralic 141
Proto-Uto-Aztecan 416–19, 428
Proto-Western Tukanoan 160, 387
Proto-Witotoan 389
Puyuma 657
Qiang 49, 50, 59, 77–83
Qinghai Bonan 21, 574–8, see also Bonan
Qinghai Oirat 555–6, 574–7
Qinghai Sprachbund 556
Quechuan languages 10, 25, 32, 34, 61, 104, 187, see also Quechua
Quichua, see Pastaza Quichua
Resígaro 389, 391
Retuarã 165, 358
Retuarã-Tanimuka 358–9, 364–5, 381, 386, see also Retuarã
(p. 868) Rgyalrong languages 48
Rgyalthang Tibetan 48, 54, 56, 602–3
Rio Grande Tewa 164
Roma, see Romani
Romance languages 2, 4, 36, 88–9, 95, 131–3, 136, 149–50, 167, 275, 580, 725–40
Romani 133–4
Romanian 131–3, 149–52, 732
Rukai 657
Russian Sign Language 741
Rutul 490
Saami 163, 526–30
Saaroa 17, 19, 21, 29, 36, 92–5, 104, 170, 657, 665–8, 673
Sabanê 22, 67, 83, 333–8, 346–8, 356
Saisiyat 657
Salaca Livonian 534, see also Livonian
Salar 510–15, 574
Salish languages 8, 110, 113, 123, 161
Samo 14, 633–5, 656
Samoyedic languages 19, 21, 23, 35, 141–2, 154, 525–9, 532, 546–53
Sanskrit 2, 48, 125, 138–9, 160
Santali 115–16, 123
Sanuma 67
Sanzhi, see Sanzhi Dargwa
Sanzhi Dargwa 70, 75, 493–9, 501
Sararé, see Katitãulhu
Sardinian 732
Sastod Rgyalrong 48
Sauk 431
Saxwentesu 336
Seediq 657
Semitic languages 33, 163
Serbian 88, 130, 133, 149
Serbian−Croatian, see Serbian
Serrano 420–1
Setu 526
Shawnee 431
Sherpa 596
Shigatse 596
Shilluk 2, 13, 610–12
Shipibo-Konibo 10, 13, 17, 21, 29, 93–5, 101, 253, 746
Shira Yughur 128, see also Shira Yugur
Shira Yugur 555–6, 574–8
Shiwiar 214
Shoshoni 414–15, 418
Shuri dialect of Luchuan 69
Sicilian 732
signed languages 5, 13, 36, 42, 741–54
Sihuas Quechua 26, 61, see also Quechua
Sinitic languages 574, 596
Sino-Tibetan languages 48–9, 60, 74, 111, 113, 125–8, 143, 187, 596, see also Tibeto-Burman languages
Siouan languages 161
Siriano 358–9, 365–7, 373, 386
Situ Rgyalrong 48
Siwaisu 335
Siwu 623
Slavic languages 88, 91, 129–30, 133, 149, 151, 165, 521, see also Balkan Slavic languages
Sliven Romani 133, 162
Sm’algyax 169, 464–5
Solon 128–9
Songhay, see Koyra Chiini
Sonora Yaqui 415, 424
South America, languages of 4, 17, 33, 43, 61, 125, 134, 151, 202–59, 262, 315–408, see also Amazonian languages, Andean languages
South American Spanish 17, 134, 725–40, see also Latin American Spanish, Spanish
South Caucasian languages 34, 134, 152, 490, see also Kartvelian languages
South Conchucos Quechua 25–6, 29, see also Quechua
South Kipchak 514
South Oghuz 513–14, see also Oghuz
South Siberian Turkic languages 514
South Slavic languages 149
South Tsimshian (Sgüüxs) 464, 489
Southeastern Tepehuan 409, 414–15, 422–3, 426–9
(p. 869) Southern Estonian dialects 153, 526
Southern Mongolic languages 24, 555–6, 574–5, 578
Southern Nambikwara 61, 333–41, 344–5, 348, 353–6
Southern Numic languages 412, 415
Southern Paiute 161, 167, 412–18, 429
Southern Pomo 115–16
Southern Samoyedic 526
Southwestern Ojibwe 431, 447, 456
Sowaintê 335
Spanish of Ecuador 106, 167, 727, 731, see also Ecuadorian Spanish
Spanish of La Paz 151, 166, see also Ecuadorian Spanish
Spiti 597
St'át'imcets 8, 72–3, 91, 98, 288–98, 302, 310, 506
Standard Average European 207, 218
Standard Dargwa 493–5, 501
Standard Tibetan 79, 81, 580
Sudanic belt, languages of 610, 613
Surgut Khanty 532, 545–6
Svan 134–5, 152
Swampy Cree 431, 436, 445–6
Tabasaran 490
Tagalog 22, 167, 676–80, 684–92
Tai-Kadai 33
Tajik 139, 162–3, 522
Takic 409–11, 414, 419, 428
Taku 23, 47–62
Talysh 140
Tamang-Gurung-Thakali-Manange 596, see Tamangic languages
Tamangic languages 596–7
Tani languages 54
Tanimuka-Retuarã, see Retuarã-Tanimuka
Taracahitian languages 410–11
Taracahitic 424
Tarahumaran 422–5, 429
Tatar 9, 15, 17, 75, 89, 94–5, 106, 141, 153, 511, 514–18, 525, 542
Tawandê 335
Tawgi, see Nganasan
Tepehuanic languages 421
Tepiman languages 409, 411, 414, 421–9
Tetelcingo Nahuatl 427
Thai 596
Thangmi 597
Thao 597
Themchen 596
Thulung Rai 597
Tibetan-Kanauri 596
Tibetic languages 10, 12, 23–4, 35, 41, 47, 49–50, 54, 143–4, 580–94, 596–7, 600, 605–8
Tibeto-Burman languages 9, 12, 18–19, 23–4, 30, 35, 134, 143–5, 161, 580–609, see also Sino-Tibetan languages
Tiriyo, see Trio
Tlaxcalan Nahuatl 428
Tok Pisin 247
Tonkawa 161
Tosk 149
Trio 3, 13, 27–9, 34, 74, 315–32
Tsafiki 49, 77, 93–4
Tsakhur 29, 490–3, 497, 504–5, 509
Tsezic languages 77, 137, 490, 493, 498, 500, 506
Tshangla 596–7, 600, 604, 608
Tsimshianic languages 35, 169, 463–89
Tsova-Tush 490
Tübatulabal 410–11, 415, 417–19, 428
Tukanoan languages 67, 69–70, 357–87, see also Eastern Tukanoan; Western Tukanoan
Tümpisa Shoshone 414
Tundra Nenets 23, 526, 548–50
Tungusic languages 128–9, 141, 555, 578
Tungus-Manchu languages 128–9
Tunisian Sign Language 741
Tupí-Guaraní languages 8, 52
Turkic languages 2, 9, 12, 15–18, 20, 35, 42, 71, 75, 68, 78, 88–90, 94, 103, 106, 125–9, 136–41, 149–52, 160–5, 187, 263, 467, 505, 510–25, 536, 539, 542, 553–5, 574, 592
Turkish dialects of the Trabzon province 165, 521
Turkmen 127, 511, 514, 516–17, 522
Tuvan 511, 515, 522–3
Ubykh 136, 153
Udi 137
Udihe 129
Udmurt, see also Votyak
Uduk 627
Uighur 57
Ulcha 157
Umbu-Ungu 635
Upper Chuvash 127, 514–15
Upper Mangdep 597, 600
Upper Piman 421
Uralic languages 13, 16, 18, 35, 40, 42, 74, 126, 140–60, 263, 525–3
Urama 25
Urique Tarahumara (Rarómuri) 422, 425
Usan 95
Uto-Aztecan languages 14, 28, 34, 161, 163, 167, 409–30
Vaupés River Basin linguistic area 32, 154–60, 165–8, 171, 359–60, 387, 408
Veps 526–8
Verde Valley Yavapai 167–8
Vlach 149
Vogul, see Mansi
Volga Turkic 141
Volga-Kama region 525, 536, 542
Volga-Kama Sprachbund 536, 542, 553
Volga-Kama Uralic languages 141–2
Võru dialect of Estonian 526
Votic 141, 526, 530
Votyak, see Udmurt
Waikisu 335
Waimajã 359, see also Bará
Wakalitesu 335
Wakashan 113, 123, 145, 161
Wakhi 139
Wambule 597
Wanano 18, 69, 83, 156, 159, 358, see also Kotiria
Wanka Quechua 20–2, 93, 104, 209, 224, see also Quechua
Wapha 621
Warlpiri 95, 161
Warluwarra 161
Washo 161
Wasusu 335–6
Wayana 13, 27–9, 34
West Caucasian languages 490, see also Northwest Caucasian languages
West Chadic languages 621
West Greenlandic 9, 95, 268
West Himalayish languages 596, 608
West Kutubuan languages 645, 650
West Oghuz, see Oghuz
West Tsezic languages 137, 506
Western Abenaki 431, 457
Western Armenian 21, 138, 153, 522
Western Desert 161
Western Mono 415
(p. 871) Western Nilotic languages 610
Western Numic languages 412
Western Shira Yugur 574
Western Shoshoni 415
Western Tarahumara 425
Western Tukanoan languages 157, 159–60, 358–9, 384–7, see also Tucanoan languages
Wintu 95, 97, 104, 146, 161, 170, 266
Wissel Lakes languages 633, 635, 654
Witoto 2, 14, see also Murui
Witotoan languages 2, 14, 20, 34, 163, 388–400, 406
Woodland Cree 431
Woods Cree 436, 445
Wu Chinese 113, see also Chinese
Wutun 76, 574
Xevsur 136, 140
Xinjiang Dagur 574
Yakkha 605
Yalapmundu 335
Yami 657
Yamphu 597
Yana 161
Yankunytjatjara 161
Yanomami languages 3
Yaqui 410, 415, 424, see also Sonora Yaqui
Yazguylam 139
Yellow Uyghur 510–11, 520, 523
Yenissei Samoyedic, see Enets
Yoeme, see Yaqui
Yokuts 161
Yolmo 596
Yongning Na (Mosuo) 12
Yopno 654
Yuanga 115–16
Yucatec Mayan 125
Yuchi 123
Yucuna 165
Yuhup 154–60, 367, 387
Yukaghir 16, 18, 20, 22, 67, 78, 80, 83, 160
Yukpa 315
Yuma 125
Yuman 146, 167
Yurak, see Nenets
Yurakaré 26, 246
Zakatal Avar 24, 508
Zan 134
Zaparoan languages 214
Zazaki 139–40
Zyrian, see Komi Zyrian