Abstract and Keywords
Global business is organized through multiple associations, from the encompassing entities that depresent vast sections of the global business community to highly specialized bodies representing specific industries. These associations have their own private administrations and, in many cases, dispose of significant resources, which sometimes are far superior to those accumulated by intergovernmental organizations. The associations represent the negotiated positions of the relevant business groups in exchanges with intergovernmental bodies, and thus they have many opportunities to leverage public policies adopted in these forums. Some bodies are inclined to adopt business friendly policies and business associations have also important knowledge and arguments to influence policies through many kinds of participation mechanisms. In a further number of cases, associations even adopt norms and rules that become valid in governing the behaviour of business in general or in a particular sector of the economy, and they become alternatives to traditional public policy.
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