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date: 31 May 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter analyses the emergence and development of intellectual property (IP) systems in South America as they have evolved since the early Pan-American treaties and the Paris and Berne Conventions, and how they have been influenced by national constitutions, domestic laws, and—most recently—international trade agreements. It highlights the coexistence of distinct landscapes for several decades before the TRIPs Agreement entered into force and brought minimum standards of harmonization. Before that, IP regimes in South America matured according to each country’s own conception of IP, resulting in different national statutes and constitutional provisions and producing a unique regional IP legal and policy landscape. From a regional perspective, South America has made efforts to create local systems of IP protection, but with limited success. The result is a fragmented system that still needs to relate to multilateral and bilateral rules, creating a challenging regulatory environment.

Keywords: Intellectual property, South America, Pan-American conventions, TRIPs Agreement, flexibilities, comparative law, innovation systems, bilateralism, regionalism, industrial and technological developments

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