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date: 26 January 2020

(p. 893) Subject Index

(p. 893) Subject Index

Aberdeen,735
aboriginal communities,834
Accenture,408, 415–16
accession: of EEC,120, 130–2;
of EU,113;
of World Trade Organization (WTO),437
acquisitions,259, 312, 336–7, 369, 374, 561, 566, 599
adaptability,260–1, 783, 852;
economic,853, 855, 857;
versus adaptation,261
adaptation,116, 154, 189, 198, 214, 216, 222, 246, 249, 260–1, 271, 670, 673–5, 845, 848–9, 851–2, 860;
economic,853;
governance of,830;
successful,848;
versus adaptability,261
adivasis,107
ADX Portland,818
Aegean,124
aerial differentiation,3–4, 8
Africa,4, 98–9, 408, 415, 419, 433, 565, 719, 722, 773, 779;
African,26, 777, 784;
African, countries,28
African Development Bank,749, 770, 785
agglomeration(s),5, 13, 28, 78, 83, 86–8, 91, 114, 116, 146–7, 152–3, 155, 180–1, 214, 253, 274, 324, 330–2, 336–9, 347–9, 352, 354–6, 359, 361, 370, 374, 568, 717–18, 735, 797–9, 827–8, 834;
advantages,184;
benefits,270, 331, 333–4, 353, 564;
cluster,334;
diseconomies,7;
economies,86, 88, 90, 308–9, 330–1, 333, 335, 337, 347–8, 352, 354, 361, 385, 577, 827, 835;
external,334–8;
geographical,413;
internal,335–8;
models of,349;
perspective,352;
regional,154;
spatial,87, 91, 202, 309;
urban,500, 792, 795
agrarian reform,107
agriculture/agricultural,22, 23, 26, 30, 33, 34, 75, 81, 82, 83, 84, 92, 105, 120, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 130, 132, 161, 427, 428, 453, 527, 667, 670, 671, 672, 683, 687, 710, 723, 724, 736;
decollectivization of,82;
dryland,669;
economy,738;
geographers,170;
labour,78
Airbnb,492
AJR model,99
Alabama,72
Alaska,669, 724
Alberta,637, 706
Alibaba,441, 570;
Alibaba Group,441
amenities,500, 506, 509–12;
absent,350;
cultural,630;
neighbourhood,800;
role of,509
American Airlines,410
American dream,66, 69
Amsterdam,563, 565–6, 571
Andes,724
Andhra Pradesh,102, 106
Angola,5, 7
Antarctic,707
Anthropocene,13, 161, 665–6, 674–5, 755, 765
Apple,7, 78, 441, 721
apprenticeship: programmes,525–6;
system,523–4
Aravind Eye Hospital,829
arbitrage,389, 417, 543, 571, 578, 586
Arctic,705, 707, 715, 727;
Arctic Circle,705;
Arctic Ocean,723
Argentina,434, 456, 565, 724
artificial intelligence,255, 411, 417
Asia,4, 19–20, 24, 26–32, 34–6, 97, 408, 410, 433, 441–2, 467, 565, 604, 719, 723–4, 792;
North,28;
South,28, 104, 399, 436, 453;
South East,28, 30, 399, 428, 436–7, 439, 793
(p. 894) Asian,12, 20, 24, 33–5, 134, 390, 408, 434, 571, 777;
countries,20, 22, 31;
development,24, 27;
economies,20–1, 26, 32, 389;
industrialization,25;
industrializers,67;
region,19–21, 27, 32, 35;
tigers,25, 27, 29, 35
Asian Development Bank (ADB),21–4, 31, 34, 36, 399, 749, 770–1, 777, 785
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank,36
Assam,106
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN),27–8, 374, 399
Athens,12, 129, 134
Atlanta,565, 817, 842–3
Atlantic,467, 472, 669, 710;
North Atlantic,73, 172
Attiki,123
Auchan,429, 430
austerity,6, 12, 28, 55, 113–14, 119, 122, 126, 130, 133–6, 149, 455, 490, 550, 857;
anti-austerity,494;
policies,131
Austin,328, 333
Austin–Round Rock,328
Australia,3, 23, 27–8, 33, 49–51, 99, 209, 234, 317, 408, 456, 565, 604, 685, 720, 761, 774
Austria,49, 50, 117
automation,68, 417–18, 467
Avasant Group,419
B2C, 441
Baden-Württemberg,235, 386
Baltic,117, 120
Baltimore,565
Bandra Kurla,107
Bangalore,409, 413, 415, 418, 453, 565, 570
Bangkok,307, 390, 565, 772
Bangladesh,20–3, 26, 30, 32, 89, 455, 773
Bank of Japan,654
bankers,53, 620;
pioneer,595
banking,13, 26, 32, 397, 541, 545, 563, 566, 569–71, 577, 583–5, 615–16, 619–21, 658;
crisis,854, 857;
deregulation of,854;
investment banks,570;
mobile,570;
retail,619;
rural,107;
see also investment
bankruptcy,740;
business,129;
public,119, 133
Baraboo,333
Barbados,410
Barcelona,631
Barclays Bank,53, 571
Barings,566
Barnes and Noble,276
Barrick Gold,724
Bavaria,235
Bayes’ theorem,201, 203;
Bayesian theorists,201
behaviour: competitive,180, 199;
human,196, 198, 202;
individual,199, 205, 207–8, 732;
legitimate,199;
observed,196–7, 199, 204, 208–9, 292;
behaviouralism,197, 199
behavioural,548, 558;
approaches,3, 202;
biases,649;
concept,371;
finance literature,202;
geographies,616;
health,57;
perspective,12;
psychology,200, 203–5;
psychopathology,848;
responses,260;
revolution,12, 199, 202, 204, 207;
scientists,203;
turn in economics,8, 197
Beijing,11, 24, 28, 32, 307, 413, 565
Belgian Congo,99
Belgium,49–50, 131, 430, 490, 563
benchmark cluster definitions (BCD),325–6, 328, 330–1, 339
benefits,44, 47, 56, 59, 75, 81, 83, 90, 151, 202, 273, 332, 488, 505, 601, 630, 692, 710–11, 760, 777, 792, 831;
distribution of,144;
economic,215;
environmental,683;
housing,56;
social,84;
welfare,612
Berkeley,8, 54
Berlin,307, 313
Bermuda,562, 567
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP),101
Bhojpur,107
BHP Billiton,721
Bhumihar caste,107
Bihar,102, 106–9
biodiversity,55, 683, 697, 699, 710, 727, 751, 754–6, 761–2, 764;
loss,725;
prices,761
biopharmaceuticals,325, 332
biopolitics,617
biotechnology,153, 795
Bitcoin,279, 581–7
BITNET,275
Blackrock,570
blockchain technologies,581–2, 585–7
Bloomberg Philanthropies,817
Boca Raton,565
Boise City,333
(p. 895) Bolivian,1
Bolsa Familia,796
Bolsover,842
bonuses,527, 563, 570, 615
boom–bust cycles,648, 655, 659, 735
Borders (store),276
Boston,202, 259, 325, 328, 359, 565, 570, 817
Botswana,100, 773
Brahmin caste,107
Brazil,4, 20, 43, 75, 86, 89, 235, 307, 310–11, 352, 434, 441, 455–6, 562, 565, 650, 685, 761, 773, 796;
Brazilian,456, 544
Bretton Woods,34, 67, 374, 542, 794
Brexit,571
BRIC/BRICs/BRICS,4, 20, 75, 562
bricolage,829, 831
Bridgeport,73, 333
Britain,56, 146, 494, 620, 631, 703;
Victorian,613;
see alsoEngland;
Scotland;
United Kingdom;
Wales
British,40, 99, 315, 470, 494, 551, 616, 619, 705, 711, 750;
colonies,567;
government,620;
workers,490
British Columbia,637
British Petroleum (BP),735, 741
British Virgin Islands,567
Brno,416
broadband,271–2, 274, 279
Brookings Institution,73
Brundtland Commission,704, 713, 781
Brunei,28
Bucharest,413
Budapest,565
Buenos Aires,565
Bulgaria,120, 131
Bureau of Labour Statistics,73
Burlington,333
business process outsourcing (BPO),408, 417
business-to consumer (B2C) industries, 333, 334, 441
Cadbury,449
Calgary,565
California,54, 335, 351
California, University of,548
Cambodia,28
Cambridge, Mass,359, 833
Canada,23, 48–52, 54, 99, 234, 339, 431, 488, 491, 565, 718, 720, 774, 794, 811, 812, 813, 819, 822, 832, 834, 858;
Canadian,54, 134, 232, 495, 509, 718
Canary Wharf,485
Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI),420
Cape Town,784
capital: accumulation,81, 102, 107, 151, 251, 477, 629, 633–4, 742, 850;
globalized,115;
gains,64, 71, 75, 621;
investment,64, 66, 71, 75, 543, 580, 725;
mobility,64, 577, 801
capitalism,4, 8, 12, 29, 35–6, 115, 131, 144, 146–7, 159–61, 163–5, 167–8, 171, 450, 466, 472, 495, 541, 544, 549, 558, 580, 592, 596–7, 599, 603–5, 614, 629–33, 640, 648, 841, 859;
agrarian,104;
Anglo-American,238;
casino,649;
Chinese,235;
climate,684;
contemporary,384;
crisis of,6, 35;
crony,149;
finance,99, 612;
finance-led,603, 648;
financial,596–7, 621;
German,238;
global,19, 35–6, 544, 854;
globalized,171, 477;
globalizing,163, 171–2;
knowledge-based,499–500, 508, 512;
modern,699;
national,115;
organization of,469;
patrimonial,511;
regulatory,638;
shareholder,649;
transformations of,236;
variegated,35;
varieties of,188–9, 222, 234–6, 465, 543, 550, 857
capitalist,79, 597;
accumulation,115, 541;
change,623;
cities,629;
countries,467;
crisis,542, 550;
democracies,208;
development,115;
dynamics,395, 548;
economy/economies,34, 144, 146, 159–66, 168–71, 188, 386, 391, 544, 548;
firms,384;
formations,550;
free-market,723;
growth,580;
industrialization,795;
labour process,469, 479;
modes of production,621;
non-capitalist,604;
objectives,448;
production,622;
reproduction,541;
restructuring,479;
social relations,115;
societies,612;
system,144, 468, 540, 591–4, 604, 850;
take-off,630;
trade,717;
transformation,471
capitalization,577, 582
carbon: accounting,684, 686–7; 685, 694, 697;
emissions,5, 683–4, 686–7, 708, 710, 761, 765;
pricing,692, 757, 761;
sinks/sinking,689, 697;
tax,675, 758
(p. 896) carbon dioxide,5, 685, 710–11, 754, 765;
see also CO2
Carbon Disclosure Project,674, 686
Caribbean,410, 561, 567, 794
Caribbean Data Services,410
Carnegie Mellon,199
Carrefour,429–30, 438–40
Casino,430, 440–1
caste system,109
Catalonia,7, 819
Cayman Islands,560, 567, 571
CB Richard Ellis (CBRE),431–2, 442
Central,124
Central America,4, 416, 434
Central Attiki,124
Central Bank of Russia,586
Central Europe,134, 389, 428, 560
Changzhou,28
Channel Islands,560
Chennai,100, 413, 665
Chesapeake Energy,739
Chevron,721
Chhattisgarh,102, 107, 109
Chicago,565, 578, 795, 817, 842
Chicago Board of Trade,655
Chile,434, 437–8, 495, 685, 724;
Chilean,217
China Sea,34
Choices (cooperative community),531–2
Chongqing,235
Cisco Systems,7, 235, 409
Cities Alliance,786
Citigroup,563
City Energy Project,817
city size,78, 85, 86, 87, 88, 349, 351
clean energy,696–8, 757, 760;
clean technology,7, 764
Cleveland,274
climate: change,6–8, 13, 30, 591, 601, 665–76, 683–9, 691–2, 697–9, 705, 715–16, 719, 721, 725, 727, 750, 757–8, 760–1, 763–5, 793, 803, 815, 840, 855, 860;
see also global warming;
economics,665, 671;
shocks,666–8, 670, 672, 675;
stability,757
Club of Rome,706–7, 709, 712, 752
cluster(s),12, 182, 184, 214–19, 246, 256, 307, 315, 318, 324–6, 330–2, 334–7, 347–8, 351–5, 358–61, 385, 389, 391, 399, 410, 413–14, 501, 577, 797, 799, 827, 831;
agglomerative,348;
analysis,326, 330, 506;
approaches,181, 216, 328;
benchmark,325, 328, 330;
business,793;
connections between,312–13;
cluster(s), creative industry,306–9, 311–12;
cultural industry,309–10;
definition(s),325–6, 328;
development of,352;
entertainment,313–17;
film,311;
geographical,420, 509;
high-tech,353, 413–14;
industrial,213, 236, 376, 499, 501, 826;
IT,418;
liberal,236;
localized,456;
manufacturing,181–2, 184;
multifunctional,471;
multi-linkage,328;
multiple,338, 355;
professional services,184;
regional,182–3, 330, 333;
region-specific,330;
relationships,181, 182;
research,181, 183, 186, 325;
role of,331;
specialized,307, 353;
strong,338–9;
structure of,356;
study of,353, 360;
subregional,28;
talent,504;
temporary,187, 299;
theory,184, 330;
urban,183;
US,332, 333
clustering,146, 181, 215, 222, 306, 308–9, 326, 328, 349, 354, 360, 508, 511–12, 795, 799;
industry,214;
of creative production,308;
of talent,499–500, 502, 509, 511;
spatial,215, 217;
urban,184
CO2, 30, 685–8, 694, 696, 754–5, 757–8, 761, 765;
emissions,30, 687, 758–9;
greenhouse gas(es) emissions
coal,27, 80, 359, 469–70, 668–9, 675, 703–4, 708–9, 712–13, 715, 723, 725, 751–2, 754, 762–3, 765;
mine closures,841–2;
miners’ strike,469
co-creation,287–91, 294, 298;
definition,286, 299;
geographies of,300;
logic of,289;
mapping,290;
practices,287, 298–300;
situating,289;
spatial logistics of,299;
temporary,299;
types of,291;
typology of,290;
value,286, 287
cognition,2, 197, 199, 204–5, 207–8
cognitive legitimacy,215
CoinMarketCap,582
collective bargaining,493, 520
co-location,12–13, 185, 197, 202, 215–17, 296–7, 325–6, 332–3, 335–6, 409, 416–17, 564, 827;
benefits,349;
cross-border,376
Cologne,11, 236
Colombia,773
colonialism,99, 454, 719;
postcolonial,172, 449, 454, 457, 718, 720
commerce,145, 441, 629, 693–4;
electronic,276–7, 440–3;
net based,471;
patterns of,3
commercialization,255, 261–2, 827, 830;
of Internet,272
commodification,170–1, 673, 687;
of labour,476
commodities super-cycle,716, 721–2, 727
commoditization,410, 413–14, 419, 421
Commodity Futures Modernization Act,650
Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC),656–7
communication(s),7, 64, 154, 161, 163–4, 172, 183, 185, 218, 269–71, 279–80, 293, 299, 312, 371, 374, 390, 394, 338, 411–12, 478, 501, 575, 579, 584, 742, 761, 811;
channels,412;
digital,275, 279;
electronic,270, 278;
fibre-optic networks,560;
global,449, 632;
Internet-enabled,274;
patterns,274;
technology,316;
technologies,185, 375, 763;
transfer,411
communism,6;
rise of,144;
communist,81–2, 102, 630, 723
Communist Party of India,102
community benefits agreements (CBAs),800–1
competition,8–9, 33, 67, 101–2, 131–2, 148, 164, 166–7, 215–16, 252, 259, 297, 311, 314, 349, 390, 415, 432, 438, 470, 478, 542, 569, 621, 637, 669, 720, 797, 844, 851–2, 859;
forces of,635;
imperfect,558;
import,332;
intra-firm,375;
local,418, 434;
oligopolistic,794;
perfect,166, 167;
spatial,97, 166;
status,293
competitiveness,84, 114, 127, 133, 180–1, 219, 330, 391, 512, 568, 811, 816, 827, 834, 840, 843, 857;
cultural,311;
dynamic,855;
firm and regional,324;
global,831;
industrial,542, 544;
inner-city,799;
local,512;
national,398;
pro-growth,784;
regional,792, 793, 815
complexity theory,214
Congo,709
Conlumino,442
Connecticut,72–3
conservation,256–8, 683, 687, 697
consolidation,113, 257, 410, 435–7, 439, 566, 719;
industry,571;
political,796
construction,29, 32, 73, 120, 122–7, 129, 131–2, 135, 356, 434, 457, 468, 475, 491–2, 522–7, 529, 614, 634, 761, 834;
carbon market,686;
industry,522, 526;
jobs,530, 793, 800;
pipeline,735;
tools,526;
well,740;
workers,520, 522
consumerism,24, 580
consumption,1, 3, 5, 24, 27, 33, 55, 59, 83, 91, 102, 113, 131–3, 135, 149, 161, 168, 172, 287, 298, 306, 313, 316, 339, 385, 427, 435, 443–4, 452, 454, 457, 501, 545, 549, 576, 580, 593–4, 601, 611, 613, 616, 619, 628, 690–4, 706, 712–13, 726, 753, 756–9, 795;
consumer behaviour,277, 279;
creative,308–9;
cultural,580;
decline,129;
excessive,754–5;
geography of,287;
goods,349;
growth,104;
household,119;
local,797;
mass,47, 632;
meat,716;
natural resources,591;
of financial products,612;
passive,294;
patterns,182, 398, 797;
personal,613;
post-consumption,397;
private,123, 135, 633;
resource,720
convenience stores,429, 435–6, 439
Copenhagen,306, 313–15
Corbridge, S.,97
core–periphery,113, 115, 117, 120, 126, 130, 133–5, 253, 360, 368–9, 376–7, 717, 727;
contradictions,113–14, 131;
divergence,114;
dynamics,722, 727;
polarization,120;
political economy,115;
research,719;
theory,716–18, 720;
see alsoperiphery
Cornwall,475
corporate citizenship,448;
culture,397, 435, 801;
responsibility,448–51, 455
corporate social responsibility (CSR),13, 411, 419, 449–55, 457, 726
Corporation for Enterprise Development,802–3
corruption,26, 32–4, 97, 100, 154, 727;
government,726, 739
Cosco,134
(p. 898) cost curve,349, 351, 629
Costa Rica,416, 453, 687;
Costa Rican,454
cost–benefit analysis,630, 760–1, 798
Council of Foreign Relations,820
Craigslist,279
creative: class,500, 502, 504–6, 510–11;
class dynamic,795;
destruction,256, 258, 722, 841, 851–2;
industries,8, 13, 215, 305–11, 313, 317, 486, 509
credit: risk,614;
scores,614;
scoring,612–14, 616
Credit Suisse,40, 65
Crete,124
Croatia,118, 120, 122
cronyism,26, 154
crowdsourcing,419–20
cultural hegemony,307, 311;
Western,307
customer,180, 287–91, 408;
base,613;
care,451;
pressures,385;
role of,286;
Schumpeterian,300;
site,293
customer–supplier connections,354;
customer–supplier interactions,349
customization,289, 306;
mass,288
cyber security,7
Cyprus,117, 119, 133, 135, 567
Czech Republic,120, 416, 434, 440
dalit community,107, 109
Danish Film Act,314
Danish Film Institute,314, 318;
Danish, films,315
Dar es Salaam,669
Darwinian,252;
Darwinism,214;
Darwinian, theory,247;
Dayton,333
DCMS,305
debt crisis,113, 131–2, 134, 544;
Latin American,545
decision-making: individual,197, 199–200, 202, 204–6
decolonization,720
deforestation,30
deindustrialization;
Delaware,561
Delhaize,430, 439
Delhi,24, 89, 100, 107;
New Delhi,101–2
Dell’s Idea Storm Forum,292;
Dell strategy,288
Deloitte,431, 433, 438, 440–1
Denmark,48–51, 120, 306, 314, 489;
Danish313–15
Denver,817
Department for International Development,781, 786
dependency theory,35
Depression,65, 374
deregulation,8, 437, 443, 449–50, 471, 479, 486, 542, 546, 611, 618–19, 813, 816, 821, 854;
financial,650;
see also under financial;
global financial crisis (GFC);
regulation;
reregulation
derivatives,559–60, 563, 566, 646–50, 652, 656, 659–60, 691–4, 696;
commodity,646;
trading,647;
weather,673
desertification,30
deskilling,418, 467;
workplace,468
Detroit,215, 274, 331
deunionization,69;
Deutsche Bank,547, 563
Deutsche Börse,579
developing countries,5, 63, 66–8, 83, 92, 97, 408–9, 417–18, 436, 720, 722, 750, 772–5, 783, 792, 796, 800, 803
development,12–13, 20, 23–4, 26, 66, 75, 86, 107–8, 115, 135, 144–5, 147–50, 154, 179, 183, 185, 220, 222, 230, 235, 407, 418, 479, 670, 673, 705, 711, 715–17, 719–20, 722–3, 725–7, 734, 736–7, 741, 760, 763, 770, 775, 782–4, 794, 797, 815, 820, 831, 833, 840, 843–4, 849–53;
adaptive,846;
agencies,853;
agreements,800;
benefits,398;
capacity,801;
capitalist,115, 188, 592;
cluster,181, 184, 218, 352;
commercial,134;
community,800, 802;
dimensions of,786;
disparities in,146;
early stages of,66;
East Asian,388;
economic,2, 8, 12, 20, 22, 29, 35, 79, 97, 144–5, 148–55, 188, 190, 199, 221, 233, 300, 305, 307, 352, 366, 376, 383, 395, 398, 418, 427, 433, 473, 499–500, 509, 512, 601, 619, 630, 666, 674, 716–17, 720, 722, 783, 785, 826, 854, 856, 859;
endogenous,799;
energy,734;
equality,728;
financial,623;
foundations (p. 899) of,145;
from within,799;
geographical,144, 168, 236, 317;
geography of,146;
global,722;
industrial,30;
industry-led,716;
inequitable,772;
infrastructure,635, 638, 640;
initiatives,419;
level of,67;
local,394, 784, 801, 855;
local and regional,389, 391;
local economic,857;
long-term,260;
market,397, 622;
model,69;
national,31, 80, 622;
objectives,724;
of Asia,27;
of China,27, 90;
of countries,260;
of privatization,133;
orderly,155;
participatory,787;
paths/pathways,261, 794;
planning,667;
policies,147, 155, 398, 672, 721, 828;
political,720;
pressure of,715;
process(es),288, 290, 292–3, 633, 721, 783;
product,187;
programmes,793;
projects,293;
prospects,26;
real-estate,800;
regional and local,793;
resource,724, 727;
resource-based,716;
resource-led,725;
retail,444;
societal,66;
socio-economic,775, 776;
spatial,19, 25;
strategies,92, 782, 784, 785, 796;
studies,383;
sustainable,8, 704, 716, 719, 749, 858;
technology,827;
territorialized,388;
theorists,719;
trajectory,261;
uneven,2, 8, 10, 14, 19, 26, 29, 35, 115, 214, 394, 542, 667, 716–18, 795, 803, 811, 840, 844, 849, 859;
uneven regional,850;
urban,71, 222, 541, 722;
urban and regional,391;
user-driven,291;
ventures,591;
workforce,801–3
devolution,79, 389, 800–1, 811–15, 819, 821, 858
diaspora(s),312, 316;
communities,415;
diasporic connections,313;
Indian,316;
waves,415
dichloroacetic acid (DCA) forum,297
differentiation,2, 7, 169, 180, 189, 246, 550, 684, 779, 812;
axes of,486;
definition,246
digital spaces,580;
digitization,309–10, 409, 413
dirty energy,759, 760
disinvestment,435, 469, 810, 815–16, 821–2, 851;
see also investment
Disney,312
diversification,23, 152, 202, 214, 22–1, 331, 373, 594, 596, 603;
international,374;
livelihood,672;
over-diversification,595;
portfolio,596, 650;
regional,222, 260
division of labour,143, 469, 499, 509, 629;
international,114, 133, 367;
new international,25, 35;
social,185;
Dogecoin,581
Doncaster,842
Dongguan,82, 92
Doris Duke Foundation,817
Dow Jones Index,650
dual system (eryanzhi),78, 80, 82–3
Dubai,317, 565
Dublin,565, 571
Durban,784
Dutch East India Company,563, 566, 594
dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model,545, 548, 552
Easington,842
East India Company,716
Eastern Gangetic Plains,673
economic crisis,70, 133, 337, 440;
Asian,434;
global,6–7, 100, 108, 428, 442, 444, 549
economic development: community,801;
equitable,786;
regional,797, 799
economic growth,3, 5, 12, 21–2, 25, 31, 33, 55, 63, 66–7, 78, 80, 83, 92, 97–106, 108–9, 144–5, 147–8, 150, 152, 199, 273, 305, 331, 479, 499, 501–3, 505, 509–12, 539, 544, 550, 557, 580, 620, 629, 649, 666–7, 670–1, 674, 687, 703–4, 706, 711, 713, 722, 726, 749–50, 755–8, 764, 770–7, 779–84, 786, 794, 796, 828, 840, 844, 848, 856, 860;
benefits of,772, 778;
continued,757;
equitable,14, 770–1, 776–86;
in China,772;
inclusive,777–80, 785;
indefinite,754;
inequitable,775;
models,764;
national,722;
rapid,710;
regional,793, 796, 798, 853;
stages of,630;
sustainable,712, 780, 858;
urban,774, 781, 783
economic relations,4, 7, 181;
global,715
economies of overview,184
economies of scale,5, 28, 85, 146, 183, 185, 249, 373, 501, 567, 603, 613, 717;
location-specific,374
economism,161
ecosystem(s),13, 153, 245–7, 250, 253–5, 259–62, 628, 669, 674–5, 683, 695–6, 699, 709–10, 712–13, 751, 755, 811, 845, 852–3, 856;
biological,247, 252, 255;
boundaries,254;
concept,262;
definition,246–7;
development of,256;
disturbed,258;
diversified,261;
entrepreneurial,264;
eframework,251;
interdependencies,258;
mapping,253;
national entrepreneurial,262;
outcomes,261;
resilience,260;
social,257;
structures,258;
succession,255, 256;
view,250
education,25–6, 31, 68, 74–5, 92, 98–9, 104, 122–6, 145, 147, 151, 206, 272, 316, 478–9, 502–6, 509, 519, 521, 614, 628, 630, 749, 772, 774, 779–80, 795–6, 798, 801–4, 821, 827, 858;
access to,419;
consumer,261;
financial,595, 618;
formal,309;
higher,495;
system,630;
universal,794
educational attainment,500, 502–6, 801
Egypt,419
electrification,104;
rural,107
electronic trading,570
email spam,586
emigrants,832;
see also immigrant(s);
immigration;
migrants;
migration
Emilia-Romagna,235, 798
emissions markets,685, 686
employee turnover,234, 561
employment,22, 64, 67–9, 72–3, 82–3, 85–6, 90, 92, 104, 107, 109, 114, 116–18, 120, 122–3, 125–7, 129, 132, 134–5, 150, 154, 232, 234, 259, 273–4, 326, 330–3, 353, 407, 415, 418–19, 465–8, 472–3, 475, 477–8, 486–7, 489, 494–5, 503, 505–6, 509, 523, 528, 545, 564, 570–1, 615, 669, 671, 777–80, 785, 795, 801, 804, 813, 827, 833, 841, 847–8;
agencies,491, 492, 853;
benefits,490;
collapse,133;
decent,779;
fair,479;
flexible,529;
full,568;
global,418;
growth,219, 273–4, 331, 353;
informal,779;
insecure,527;
insecurity,487;
intermediated,488;
international,312;
markets,107;
non-agricultural,779;
non-standard,492;
norms,472;
part-time,490;
precarious,487, 490–1, 495;
private,126;
productive,780;
protective,528;
public-sector,796;
regulation,493;
relations,469;
restructuring,802;
rights,467, 49–4;
security,472;
self-employment,114, 127, 130–2, 135, 486, 491–2, 798;
specialization,328;
standards,493;
temporary,491;
triangular,493;
women’s,476
endowments,230, 261, 373, 386, 398, 465, 591, 596, 602, 645, 652;
natural resource,812
energy transitions,14, 675, 732–4, 742;
England,143, 488;
see also Britain;
United Kingdom
Enron,279
entrepreneurial,13, 24, 31, 102, 113, 116, 126, 130, 135, 149, 153, 184, 223, 245–6, 261–2, 264, 287, 312, 353, 415, 493, 509, 617, 621, 799, 803, 856;
activity,257;
networks,798;
opportunity,258;
potential,257
entrepreneurialism,150–1, 826–7
entrepreneurs,25–6, 32, 98, 153, 155, 185, 215, 220, 246, 250, 252, 259, 261, 272, 300, 338, 353, 504, 506, 577, 601, 793, 798, 818, 820, 828–9;
civic,239;
returnee,415;
user,300
entrepreneurship,100, 114, 120, 122, 127, 130–2, 134–5, 144, 154, 164, 186, 248, 254, 256, 261–2, 326, 330–3, 338, 348, 353, 360, 398, 415, 470, 504, 792, 797–9, 802–3, 816, 819, 832;
inclusive,830;
social,419
environment,1–3, 5, 11, 21, 40, 80, 91–2, 107, 170, 181, 187, 196, 198–9, 203, 205, 209, 214, 219, 221, 236, 249–50, 252, 257, 289, 296, 299, 324, 334, 370–1, 392, 448, 450, 453, 557, 594–5, 602, 637, 658, 674–6, 689, 703, 715, 718, 721, 723–4, 735, 749, 751, 756, 822, 833, 855;
built,633;
deregulated,814;
financial,616;
global,619;
institutional,793, 827, 828;
natural,687, 689, 694, 697, 698;
policy,814;
regulatory,741;
zero-growth,764
environmental,2–4, 8, 14, 19, 24, 30–1, 33, 55, 80, 98, 152, 161, 172, 199, 254, 349, 392, 398, 420, 437, 448–9, 580, 632–4, 675, 687–8, 692, 694, 697, 716, 718, 720–1, 725, 737, 739–40, 750, 755–6, 759, 765, 775, 781, 786, 839–40, 859;
advocacy,815;
auditing,451;
challenges,764;
change,715, 719, 721, 723;
conditions,474;
constraints,716, 727, 750, (p. 901) 760, 764;
cycles,686;
damage,724, 726, 757;
degradation,30, 349–50, 683, 765;
determinism,3–4, 8, 172, 199, 674, 718, 723;
diversity,501;
externalities,683;
finance,685, 694–5;
hazards,668, 670, 737;
impact assessment,725;
issues,749;
justice,666;
limits,723;
management,683;
outcomes,639;
policy/policies,757, 762;
pressures,750;
problems,754, 755, 761;
protection,449, 721, 728, 741, 750;
resistance,724;
resources,684, 693;
responsibility,450;
socio-environmental,690–1, 694;
sustainability,557, 594;
systems,687;
vulnerability,725
Epirus,124
equitable growth,785, 793, 798–9
equity capital,636, 640
Erkner,300
essentialism,204, 207
Estonia,118, 131, 491
Ethical Trading Initiative,453
ethical: arguments,66;
barriers,835;
codes,452, 454;
consumers and producers,456;
consumption,452;
issues,456;
labour codes,453–4;
performance,449;
responsibility,450;
standards,449, 452, 455;
trade,452, 455
ethnicity,2, 474, 510, 780
EU24, 129;
EU27, 125–6;
EU28, 117, 120, 127
Eurobank Properties,134
Europe,6, 9, 21, 26–7, 29, 33–4, 47, 59, 67, 113–14, 117, 120, 126, 129–32, 134, 143, 154, 311, 313–14, 408, 410, 433, 441, 456, 491, 493, 519, 565, 570, 604, 620, 631, 685, 687, 708, 718–19, 726, 793–4, 859;
East,389;
Eastern,428, 434, 560;
medieval,558, 594;
Western,311, 315, 467, 471, 488
European,4, 7, 34, 44–5, 48, 53, 55–7, 92, 113–14, 119–20, 122, 126, 130–1, 133, 135, 154, 234, 305, 311, 314–16, 330, 339, 361, 374, 376, 408, 416, 428, 431, 486, 495, 503, 542, 631–2, 770, 783;
countries,489;
Eastern,567;
integration,113, 133, 632;
retailers,443;
Western,306, 310–11, 408, 429
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD),749
European Banking Authority (EBA),53
European Central Bank (ECB),113, 115, 119, 135, 581–3
European Cluster Observatory,330, 339
European Commission (EC),113, 115, 119, 126–7, 131, 133, 135, 305, 656, 770, 783, 785;
European Economic Community (EEC) accession,120, 130
European Monetary Union (EMU),113, 122, 127, 131–2, 135
European Single Market,374
European Union (EU),34, 44–6, 48, 53, 56, 92, 113–14, 117–18, 120, 122–3,