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date: 16 June 2021

(p. x) (p. xi) List of figures and tables

(p. x) (p. xi) List of figures and tables

Figures

  1. 2.1 Lumping of nouns and pronouns 27

  2. 2.2 Reassignment of adjunctizers to the preposition class 32

  3. 3.1 Three illustrations of the types of information available from acceptability judgements 43

  4. 3.2 The visual logic of 2 × 2 factorial designs, illustrated using the whether-island effect design 47

  5. 4.1 Three types of evidence 62

  6. 4.2 The 3A perspective in corpus linguistics 69

  7. 4.3 Example of a Key Word in Context concordance for the lexical item school in ICE-GB, showing adjacent word class labels 71

  8. 4.4 A Fuzzy Tree Fragment for an adjective phrase (AJP) containing a general adjective head (AJHD, ADJ(ge)) with at least one premodifier (AJPR) and one postmodifier (AJPO) 74

  9. 4.5 A simple grammatical concordance 74

  10. 4.6 Examining any line in the concordance displays the sentence and phrase structure tree, showing how the FTF matches a tree in the corpus 75

  11. 4.7 Comparing frequency distributions over different time periods 81

  12. 4.8 FTF for retrieving a positive (‘¬neg’ = not negative) auxiliary verb, verb or VP (‘∨’ = ‘or’), followed by a tag question with a negative auxiliary or verb 82

  13. 7.1a Dependency representation of in the kitchen 125

  14. 7.1b Dependency tree diagram of in the kitchen 125

  15. 7.2 Stemma representing the structural order of (1) 127

  16. 7.3a Phrase structure (constituent structure) of (2) 128

  17. 7.3b Dependency stemma of (2) 128

  18. 7.3c Dependency representation of (2) 128

  19. 7.4 Dependency stemma of (3) 129

  20. (p. xii) 7.5 Representation of transfer in the case of de Pierre and Pierre’s 129

  21. 7.6 Stemma for Then she changed her mind 130

  22. 7.7 Dependency representation of ditransitive give in Word Grammar 132

  23. 7.8 Dependency representation of coordination in Word Grammar 132

  24. 7.9 Semantic dependency of Leo sent a letter to Alan 133

  25. 7.10 Syntactic and semantic dependencies of complements and modifiers of w1 134

  26. 7.11a Analysis of grammatical non-projective structure That pizza I will not eat with crossing lines 135

  27. 7.11b Analysis of That pizza I will not eat involving rising 135

  28. 7.12a Analysis of (7) without rising 136

  29. 7.12b Analysis of (7) with rising 136

  30. 7.13 The ditransitive construction 150

  31. 10.1 Structure of whose book everyone said they had enjoyed 205

  32. 10.2 Diagrams of NPs with Determiner-Head and Modifier-Head function fusion 218

  33. 10.3 Diagram of a fused relative NP with Head-Prenucleus function fusion 219

  34. 10.4 Diagram of the noun phrase this once which contains a fused Modifier-Head 219

  35. 18.1 The basic structure of clause types 379

  36. 22.1 Lambrecht’s (1994) assumed mental representation of discourse referents (alternative terms by Prince and Chafe in brackets) 464

  37. 23.1 Network of choices associated with her 494

  38. 24.1 Inverted T-model 517

  39. 24.2 A partial schema network for a verb (adapted from Taylor 2002: 184) 521

  40. 27.1 The grammaticalization chain for the modal idiom (had) better in the Late Modern Period 592

  41. 27.2 Being to V and semi-modal having to V (frequency per million words) in the OBP corpus 596

  42. 27.3 Proportion of periphrastic constructions and mandative subjunctives in the Brown family of corpora 597

  43. 27.4 Diachronic development of core modals in the Brown-family of corpora 598

  44. 27.5 Diachronic development of semi-modals in the Brown-family corpora 600

  45. 28.1 Morphosyntactic distinctions along a continuum of ‘individuality’ 612

  46. 28.2 Correspondences between non-standard and standard tense use 614

  47. (p. xiii) 28.3 Map ‘Give it me’, taken from An Atlas of English Dialects by Clive Upton and J. D. A. Widdowson (1996: 52) 625

  48. 29.1 Global network for the entire WAVE feature set (N = 235) 635

  49. 29.2 Tense and Aspect network in WAVE 638

  50. 29.3 NeighborNet clustering of L2 varieties in WAVE 645

Tables

  1. 4.1 Contingency table of frequencies exploring the interaction between the polarity of question tags and the polarity of preceding verb phrases, extracted with FTFs and then manually reviewed. The verb phrase and tag never both have a negative polarity in all 716 cases 83

  2. 14.1 Word class and feature matrix 292

  3. 18.1 The major clause types 377

  4. 18.2 Clause types, meanings, and literal forces 386

  5. 19.1 Simple and progressive forms of the ‘tenses’ 400

  6. 19.2 Vendler’s Aktionsart classes and their defining features 412

  7. 21.1 Main functions of finite subordinate clauses 442

  8. 21.2 Main functions of non-finite subordinate clauses 447

  9. 21.3 Coordination in and of phrases 452

  10. 22.1 Prince’s (1992) model of hearer-status and discourse-status and correspondences with Lambrecht (1994) and Prince (1981a) 466

  11. 24.1 Word class-phonology generalizations (adapted from Monaghan et al. 2005: 144–5) 513

  12. 27.1 Inflectional paradigm for OE bīdan ‘await’ (based on Hogg and Fulk 2011: 214) 585

  13. 27.2 Full-verb, mixed, and auxiliary syntax of dare in interrogative and negated sentences in the Brown-family corpora of American and British English (AmE and BrE) 589

  14. 28.1 Logical types of universal statement (following Greenberg), taken from Evans and Levinson (2009: 437) 608

  15. 28.2 Asymmetrical paradigms (adapted from Anderwald 2002: 199) 619

  16. 29.1 Seventy-six varieties in WAVE: world regions 633

  17. 29.2 Domains of grammar covered in WAVE (235 features in all) 634

  18. 29.3 Geographical composition of the clusters in the global network 636

  19. 29.4 Vernacular angloversals: top 6 (≥ 80%) 639

  20. (p. xiv) 29.5 Vernacular angloversals: top runners-up (≥ 70%) 640

  21. 29.6 Top diagnostic features of L1 varieties (AR ≥ 60%, AR difference ≥ 40%), sorted by AR difference 641

  22. 29.7 Top diagnostic features of traditional L1 varieties (AR ≥ 60%, AR difference ≥ 40%), sorted by AR difference 642

  23. 29.8 Top diagnostic features of high-contact L1 varieties (AR ≥ 60%, AR difference ≥ 40%), sorted by AR difference 643

  24. 29.9 Top diagnostic features of L2 varieties (AR ≥ 60%, AR difference ≥ 40%), sorted by AR difference 644

  25. 29.10 The most diagnostic features of English-based pidgins and creoles (AR of P/Cs ≥ 75%, AR difference ≥ 40%), sorted by AR difference 645

  26. 29.11 Diagnostic morphosyntactic features per Anglophone world region (AR difference region – rest of world ≥ 60%; * for medium-frequency features, ** for high-frequency/pervasive features) 648

  27. 29.12 Top distinctive features for the British Isles 649

  28. 29.13 Top distinctive features for Africa 649

  29. 29.14 Top distinctive features for the Australia Pacific region 649