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date: 16 June 2021

(p. 799) Subject Index

(p. 799) Subject Index

2 × 2 factorial designs 46–8
3A (annotation, abstraction, analysis) model 68–70
A
Abkhaz language 235
aboutness 467 see also topic; topicalization
absolute universals 607–8
abstraction in corpora 68–9
abuses of performative speech acts 539
academic writing 575–6, 657, 668–70
vs. news writing 663–4
accent placement for focus 469–70
acceptability judgements 41–8
accessibility of discourse referents 465
accessibility hierarchy 628
Accomplishments 397, 413–16
Achievements 397, 413–16
acoustic phonetic cues 514
actants 130
action words 296 see also verbs
activation of information units 464–6
Active Filler Strategy 49–50
Activities 397, 413–16
actor and undergoer 527
adherent adjectives 33
adjacency condition 621
adjectival modifiers, as noun phrases 667
adjective clauses 214
adjective phrases 218, 325–7
topicalization 474
adjectives 94–5, 207–9, 211
adherent 33
antonyms 526–7
attributive 311, 576
vs. predicative 572
comparison 248–9
as compounds 277–8
definitions 286
denominal 228
descriptive, vs. limiting 33–7
lumping 32–7
modal 421–2
ornative (X Y-ed) 236
taking clauses as complement 316
type-specifying function 342
as valency carriers 147–8
in written language 663
adjunct clauses 333
adjunctizers, as subordinators or prepositions 31–2
adjuncts 441, 444
vs. complements 364–7
mobility vs. stackability 366
obligatory vs. optional 365–6
in valency theory 139–41
in verb phrases 306–7
in X-bar theory 304 see also modifiers
adverbial clauses, in discourse 184
adverbials
conveying stance 570
in narrative language 670–1
in valency theory 139–41
adverbs 94–5
comparison 248–9
homophonous with prepositions 211
modal 421–2
advertising language, parallelism 676
affixation 228, 244, 259
auxiliary clitics 254
and clitics 232, 246–7
comparative 248–9
negative prefixation 9–10
(p. 800) ordering 229
phonological alternation 507–8
subject–verb agreement 620–1
African American English 626
after-perfect 615
afterthoughts (repairs) 477, 561
agency, deletion 567–9
agent-oriented actions 425–6
Agentive (A) case 146
agentivity, genre variation 668–70
agglutination 223
Agree operations 490
agreement 134
and linear vs. hierarchical structure 154–5, 164
number 246
subject–verb, regional varieties 620–3
violations 53, 54
ain’t construction 618
Aktionsart (situation types) 396–7, 400, 412–17
allophones 520
allosentences 473
alternation and baselines 80–1
alternative double object construction 623–4
Alternative Semantics 468n
ambiguity 95, 96, 344, 524n
avoided by focus marking 470
in modals 434
structural 54–5, 112
American English 618, 622–3, 626–7
American structuralism 126, 127
amplitude, as phonotactic cue 508
analysis of corpus data 69–70
analysis, different approaches xxii
anaphora, for cohesion 556–7
anchoring see grounding
angloversals 637, 639–40
animacy hierarchy 613
annotation of corpora 68, 73
AntConc tool 70, 76
anterior temporal lobe 55–7
antonymy 525–7
aphasia 56
Appalachian English 615, 617, 619, 627
apposition 92
ARCHER (A Representative Corpus of Historical English Registers) 433
areoversals 639
argument-focus 469–70
argument reversal 478–9 see also inversion; passive construction
argument structure 113–16, 527–9
alternations 230
argumental compounds 269–72, 275
argumentation 21, 63 see also syntactic argumentation
asemantic derivation 236–7
aspect 397
and Aktionsart 413–14
effect on sentence properties 410–12
marking, regional varieties 616–18
perfect 405–7
progressive 397, 400–3
Aspects model (Chomsky) 138, 139
assertions, vs. presuppositions 463–4
associative interaction evidence 64
assumed familiarity model 466
assumptions in theories 67
attestation rate (AR) 639, 641–3, 646–50
attributive adjectives 311, 576
vs. predicative adjectives 572
attrition of inflection in English 246
Australian English 612, 616, 617, 623, 627, 631
automatic parsing 680
autonomy of language 516–17
vs. groundedness 511
auxiliary assumptions 67
auxiliary clitics 253–4
auxiliary verbs 206–7, 251–7
in complementizer position 314, 315–16
different analyses xxii
as indication of clause type 377–8
in verb phrases 307–8
Aviation English 658
B
back-formation 278
vs. compounding 266
background cognition 96
backward slash rule 537
Bahamian English 631
(p. 801) bahuvrihi compounds 268–9, 273
Bank of English™ corpus 66, 71
bare argument ellipsis 322–3
bare existentials 476
Bare Phrase Structure Grammar 330n
baselines and alternation 80–1
be, as auxiliary 307–8
being to V construction 594–5, 596
big mess construction 111
binarity of compounds 272–3
binary branching of phrase structure 330–2, 333
binary Merge 155–67
binding 678
binding argument 549
Binding Constraints 51
Binding Theory 164n
binominal syntagms 348–9
Black South African English, de-accenting 510
bleaching 434
blending theory 96
blends 233
blocking 237
blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signals 55–6
bootstrapping hypothesis 508–9
bottom-up generalization algorithms 76–8
boundedness and unboundedness 415
branching 330–2, 333
bridging contexts 432–3
British Component of the International Corpus of English see ICE-GB
British National Corpus (BNC)
collocation analysis 64
complements 139–45
exclamatives 393
negation 589, 618, 623
n-grams 77
non-prototypical coordination 454, 456
passive constructions 363n
phonological analysis 515
semi-modals 433, 600
sentence structure 126, 127, 130
size 658, 680
spoken vs. written English 660, 667
subordinating conjunctions 100
valency 147–8, 150
word classes 298
word order 670–1
broad focus 469–70
Broca’s area 56–7
Brown Corpus 61, 62, 586, 597, 658, 669
Brown family corpora 80, 583, 589, 596–8, 600
B-Brown 596–7
B-LOB 596–7
Brown 61, 62, 586, 597, 658, 669
FLOB 589, 597, 669
Frown 586, 589n, 597, 669
busy-progressive 617
C
Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, The (CGEL; Huddleston and Pullum) 201–21
Cape Flats English 623, 634n
Cardiff Grammar 183n
Cardiff School 340n
Caribbean English 647
cartographic approach 482n
case 145–7
distinctions, nouns vs. pronouns 25, 26
loss in English 581
pronominal 613–14
violations 53
case languages 139, 142–4
Case Theory 489
catastrophic change 584, 590
Categorial Grammar 530, 536–8
categorial particularism 295
categories 203–4
catena 135n
catenative constructions 561n
simple vs. complex 448, 451
catenative-auxiliary analysis xxii
causal relations 104
c-command 162–7
Centre for Lexical Information (CELEX) corpus 515
chains 135
chunking 188
circumstants 130
classical morphemics 223
clauses 313–17, 358–9
comment 441n
complements vs. adjuncts 364–7
coordination 453–4
vs. subordination 439–40
elliptical 322–4, 333–4
embedding 666
form types 606
fragments 562–6
grounding 97
headedness 332, 359–64
main clauses in subordinate form 411n
Merge 156–67
phonological boundaries 508
radicals 378–9, 381, 382, 384
relative 445
regional varieties 626–8
separation by punctuation 557
in spoken discourse 560–1, 661–2
structure, regional varieties 623–8
subordinate 212–14
finite 442–6
modifiers vs. complements 441–2
non-finite 446–51
types 375, 376–84, 394–5
mood as 420, 421
unbounded dependency 317–22
cleft sentences 118–19
clefts 56, 321, 480–1
clippings 233–4
clitics 231–2, 246–7
auxiliary 253–4
clusters 232
closed interrogatives 376–8, 382, 386, 387–8
clusters, lexical 679
COBUILD project (Collins COBUILD English Grammar) 66, 71, 100, 185–6, 495n
COCA (Corpus of Contemporary American English)
agentivity 668
complements 140, 145, 356
compounds 265, 267
modals 581, 593, 595
non-prototypical coordination 454–9
pronouns 35
pseudopartitives 349
size 658
spoken vs. written English 660, 662
valency 147–8
co-construction in discourse 563–4
code, in modals 588
coercion 181, 415–16
Cognitive Construction Grammar 121
cognitive-functional linguistics 498, 519–21
Cognitive Grammar (CG; Langacker) xxii, 88–105, 107, 341–2, 347, 363–4, 443n, 498–500
phonology 520
Cognitive Linguistics 87–8, 276, 280, 336, 352, 497n, 571
on word classes 294–5
cognitive relations 609
cognitive-semantic criteria for headedness 343
COHA (Corpus of Historical American English) 71, 115, 593–4
coherence 556
cohesion 183
explicit linguistic devices 556–7
collection-noun (CollN) constructions 349
Collins COBUILD English Grammar see COBUILD project
collocations 64, 76, 186, 679
collostructions 77–8
Combinatory Categorial Grammar 530
‘Comfortable box’ (Newlyn) 687
comment clauses 441n
commissive speech acts 380n
common ground 463–4 see also presuppositions
Communicative Grammar of English, A (Leech and Svartvik) 185
comparatives 312–13
clauses 214
(p. 803) comparison categories 248–9
vs. descriptive categories 295
compartmentalization of grammar and lexis 485
competence vs. performance, in generative grammar 18
Complement function 211
complementation 134
complementizer phrases (CPs) 314, 320–1
complementizers 160, 314–16
as subordinators or prepositions 31–2
complements
vs. adjuncts 364–7
in chains 207
clauses 198
hierarchy 367–70
internal vs. external 443
vs. modifiers 354–7, 441–2
non-finite 448
and prepositional phrases 327–8
relationship with modifiers 92
subcategorization 364, 370–3
as subordinate clauses 213
in valency theory 138, 139–41, 142–5
in X-bar theory 304
complex catenative constructions 448, 561n
Complex Noun Phrase Constraint 109
complexity 666–7
Complexity Based Ordering (CBO) 222n, 229
compositional semantics 523, 529–38
compositionality 95–6, 157–9
compounds 228
argumental vs. non-argumental 269–72
binarity 272–3
definitions 262–3, 265–6, 279–80
endocentric vs. exocentric 268–9
headedness 273–4
models 274–6
morphology vs. syntax 263–5, 267, 275–6
neo-classical 245
semantics 268–72
subordinative vs. coordinative 269, 278
syntax 272–4
types 266–8
word classes 276–9
Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, A (CGEL; Quirk et al.) 15–16, 243, 247, 250, 254, 256–7
compression 576
computational system (Chl) 490
computer-mediated communication (CMC) 659, 664–5
conceptual metaphor theory 678
conceptual overlap 363n
conceptual vs. medial approach to written/spoken distinction 659–60
conceptualization 101–4
concession 574
concordancing tools 70–1
conditional coordination constructions 391
conditional/implicational universals 608–9
conditionals 407–8
auxiliaries 253
congruence 134
conjunctions 211, 452–3
atemporal relations 94
coordinating 132–3, 328–30, 392
connectedness 134, 556–7
constative speech acts 539
constituency 37–9, 189, 203–4
constituency grammar 137, 303, 359–61, 363, 367
vs. dependency view 302
constituent order, identifying clause types 377–8, 394–5
constraints, in constructions 112
Construction Grammar (Goldberg) xxii, 106–9, 275, 280, 473–4, 480n, 482, 500–1, 679
dependency and valency 149–51
in language learning 121–2
and other approaches 120–1 see also constructions
Construction Morphology (CM) 222, 228, 235n, 245n
construction types, compounds as 265–6
constructional/phrasal theories 528–9
constructionalization, of modal verbs 590–4
constructions 187, 528
argument structure 113–16
definition 109–13
information packaging 117–19
(p. 804) modal auxiliary 116–17, 120
morphological 119–20
container-noun (CN) constructions 349
content, and function 182
content-driven approach to derivational morphology 237
context/code of auxiliaries 252
contextual deletion 142
contextual frame theory 678
contextual inflection 235
contextual relevance 547–50
contrast 194–5, 453
contrastive focus 469
control vs. raising 363n
control verbs 362
convenience thresholds 641n
conventional implicature 541, 544–5
conversation 660–2 see also spoken language
Conversation Analysis (CA) 184, 558–9
conversational implicature (CI) 541–5
Cooperative Principle (CP; Grice) 471, 541–5, 546n
coordination 132–3, 134, 328–30
clause level 453–4
of compounds 267, 269, 273–4, 278
non-prototypical 454–7
phrase level 452–3
in spoken language 661
vs. written language 666
vs. subordination 439–40, 457–60
syndetic vs. asyndetic 454–5
copula 252
ellipsis 333–4
pseudopartitives 351n
Core Syntax (Adger) 45
Coronal Lenition rule 518
corpora
American English (AmE) see Brown family corpora
approaches to research 65–8
ARCHER corpus 433
Bank of English™ corpus 66, 71
baselines and alternation 80–1
bottom-up generalization algorithms 76–8
British Component of the International Corpus of English, see ICE-GB
British English (BrE) see Brown family corpora
British National Corpus (BNC)
collocation analysis 64
complements 139–45
exclamatives 393
negation 589, 618, 623
n-grams 77
non-prototypical coordination 454, 456
passive constructions 363n
phonological analysis 515
semi-modals 433, 600
sentence structure 126, 127, 130
size 658, 680
spoken vs. written English 660, 667
subordinating conjunctions 100
valency 147–8, 150
word classes 298
word order 670–1
Brown family corpora 80, 583, 589, 596–8, 600
B-Brown 596–7
B-LOB 596–7
Brown 61, 62, 586, 597, 658, 669
FLOB 589, 597, 669
Frown 586, 589n, 597, 669
Centre for Lexical Information (CELEX) 515
COBUILD project (Collins COBUILD English Grammar) 66, 71, 100, 185–6, 495n
COCA (Corpus of Contemporary American English)
agentivity 668
complements 140, 145, 356
compounds 265, 267
modals 581, 593, 595
non-prototypical coordination 454–9
pronouns 35
pseudopartitives 349
size 658
spoken vs. written English 660, 662
valency 147–8
COHA (Corpus of Historical American English) 71, 115, 593–4
Collins Corpus, see COBUILD project
(p. 805) corpora (cont.)collocations 76
collostructions 77–8
concordancing tools 70–1
Corpus of Early English Correspondence (CEEC) 620
Corpus of Late Modern English Texts (CLMET) 592, 594
Corpus of Online Registers of English (CORE) 661
DCPSE (Diachronic Corpus of Present-Day Spoken English) 14n, 81, 583, 596n, 600
disadvantages 41
evidence gained from 61–5
experimental corpus linguistics 78–82, 83
factual evidence 61, 62–3
frequency evidence 61–2
Helsinki Corpus of English Texts (HC) 586
ICE (International Corpus of English) 14n, 31n, 402n, 599
ICE-AUS 599
ICECUP 73, 75, 76
ICE-GB 680
anaphora 556–7
clefting 480
collocations 70–1, 74, 75
distributional analyses 62, 63, 64, 81–3
exclamatives 393
modals 428, 599
postponement 476–8
spoken language 73, 559–66
transitivity 66
interaction evidence 62, 63–5, 79, 81–2, 83
lexicons 76
London-Lund Corpus (LLC) 14–16, 61, 185 see also Survey of English Usage
Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English (LGSWE) 185, 495n, 558, 570, 600, 660, 661, 668
n-grams 76–7
natural language 59–60
NOW Corpus 35, 36
Old Bailey Proceedings (OBP) 593, 595–6
Oxford Children’s Corpus 593
parsed (treebanks) 59–60, 63, 71, 72–5, 80
Quirk Corpus see Survey of English Usage
sampling 79–80
spoken discourse 558, 559–66
Standard Corpus of Present-day Edited American English, see Brown Corpus
studies of genre 658
Survey of English Usage (Quirk Corpus) 14, 61, 70, 185, 680
tagged 59, 71
Time Magazine 593
tools and algorithms 68–78
Wellington Corpus of Written New Zealand English (WWC) 598n
word sketches 78
Corpus of American English (AmE) see Brown family corpora
corpus-based linguistics 65, 66
vs. usage-based approach 185–7
Corpus of British English (BrE) see Brown family corpora
Corpus of Contemporary American English see COCA
corpus-driven linguistics 65–6, 67–8
Corpus of Early English Correspondence 620
Corpus of Historical American English see COHA
Corpus of Late Modern English Texts (CLMET) 592, 594
corpus linguistics, role in grammar and lexis 495–7
Corpus of Online Registers of English (CORE) 661
CorpusSearch tool 69–70n, 73
corpus stylistics 679–80
corrected treebanks 72 see also treebanks
Correspondence Principle 151n
counterfactuality 404
cranberry morphs 245
creoloids 636n
Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) 566–7, 571
Critical Linguistics 566–7
cross-linguistic studies 13
negative concord 620
typology 197–200
vs. variation studies 607
c-structure 493
Curious Incident of the Dog in the Night-time, The (Haddon) 685
cyclic methodology 68
D
(p. 806) data collection 583
Dative (D) case 146
dative movement 476–7
de-accenting 510
de-adjectival derivation 259
nouns 235
verbs 238
declarative clauses 377, 381, 386–7
identifying 394
declarative speech acts/performatives 375, 380n, 382, 387, 402, 539, 540–1
declaratives 420
deduction vs. induction 22–3
Deep-Syntactic Dependency 134n
defamiliarization 675
defectiveness 224
definite descriptions, and pronouns 552
definite determiners 97
degree words 326–7
deictic shift theory 678
deixis, in tense 398, 404
deletion, indefinite and contextual 142
Delta Π 501
demonstrations 402
demonstrative adjectives 33–7
denominal derivation 259
deontic modality 425, 426, 428–9, 431, 436–7, 590, 594, 599
dependent-auxiliary analysis xxii
dependency clauses, unbounded 317–22
dependency grammar 124–31, 151–2, 203, 360–1, 363, 365, 367
and constituency analysis 137
vs. constituency view 302
in constructionist frameworks 149–51
long distance dependencies 134–7
types of dependency according to Mel’čuk 133–4
dependency relations 125
in Word Grammar 131–3
dependents, nouns vs. pronouns 25, 26
deranking 448–9
derivational approaches 138, 153
derivational morphology 224, 226, 244, 248, 257–60
vs. inflectional morphology 232–8
theoretical approaches 237–8
descriptive adjectives, vs. limiting adjectives 33–7
descriptive categories vs. comparative categories 295
determinatives 209, 218–19
Determiner function 209
determiner phrases (DPs) 156n
determiners 97
functionalist approach 196
as head of noun phrase xxii
indefiniteness constraint 112
deverbal derivation 259
deviation 675
Devon English 621
Diachronic Corpus of Present-Day Spoken English (DCPSE) 14n, 81, 583, 596n, 600
diachronic studies 78
diachrony of modal verbs 429–35, 587–94
diagraphs 189
dialects 199, 607
double negatives 13
in literature 681–2
plural inflections on pronouns 26
pronunciation of reflexives 609–10 see also regional varieties of English
Dialogic Syntax (Du Bois) 189
dialogue systems 559
digital communication 664–5
digital genres 661
dimonotransitivity 63, 66
direct interpretation, vs. indirect interpretation 531–3
directional interaction evidence 64
directive speech acts 380, 389, 391
Discontinuous clefts 480
discourse
definitions 554
effect on grammar 571–7
(p. 807) role of grammar 566–71
vs. grammar 182–4
discourse contexts 214–16
discourse markers 562, 573–6
regional varieties 607
discourse-pragmatic criteria for headedness 344–5
discourse referents 552
mental representations 464–6
discourse structure model 677
disjunctions 453
disjunctive coordination 392
Distributed Morphology (DM) 222, 225, 230n, 233, 239, 275–6, 294, 491–2
distribution of word classes 25
distributional analysis 296, 297–8, 299
distributional fragmentation 599
distributionalism 285, 290, 291
ditransitive constructions 63, 113, 114–16, 122, 132, 150, 500n
regional varieties 623–5
without subordinators 443
divergent grammar 673, 682, 683–9
do-support 589
Dominion Post, The 264
donkey pronouns 552n
double dependency 133n
double-head analysis 361–2
double negatives
Chomsky’s generative grammar 19
cross-linguistic comparison 13
Jespersen’s Modern English Grammar 12–13
Murray’s English Grammar 7
Quirk et al.’s CGEL 15
Sweet’s New English Grammar 10
treatment of 4 see also multiple negation
double-object constructions 258
DP-hypothesis 338–9
‘Droplets’ (Rumens) 684
D-structure 488–9
dual-system theories 486, 496, 501
dummy subjects 157
duration 412–13
dynamic modality 423–4
Dynamic Model of the development of Postcolonial Englishes 644
dynamic semantics 530n, 551–3
dynamic syntax theory 559
dynamicity 412–13
E
Early Immediate Constituents principle 472
early left anterior negativity (ELAN) 52–3
Early Modern English
modality 433–4
multiple negation 620
East African Englishes 631
East Anglia English 614, 620–1, 622, 627
echo questions 389–90
economy (ontological simplicity) 23–9
electroencephalography (EEG) 51–5
electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English (eWAVE; Kortmann and Lunkenheimer) 630
electrophysiology data 51–5
elegance (syntactic simplicity) 23, 24, 29–37
Éléments de syntaxe structurale (Tesnière) 124, 126n, 129, 145
eliciting conditions of ERPs 52–5
ellipsis
in coordinate structures 329n
and corpus annotation 73
of head nouns in noun phrases 345–8, 667
in spoken language 565–6, 661
elliptical clauses 322–4, 333–4
embedded inversion, regional varieties 626
emergent grammar 497
emphasis
of auxiliaries 252
of modals 588
end-focus 470–1
end-weight 189, 471–2
endocentric compounds 268–9, 273
endocentric structures, vs. exocentric structures 359
endonormative stabilization 644
English Grammar (Givón) 198
English Grammar (Murray) 5–7
English Reader (Murray) 5
entailments 541n, 547
entrenchment 186, 499
(p. 808) epistemic modality 426–7, 430, 431, 436, 438, 590, 591, 594
Erlangen Valency Patternbank 144n
event-denoting nominalizations 258
event-related fields (ERFs) 52, 55
event-related potentials (ERPs) 52–5
evidence, from corpora 61–5
evoked activity and induced activity 51–2
exceptional case marking clauses 306
exclamative clauses 377, 383–4, 393–4
exclamatory adjectives 33
exemplar-based model 497–8
Exemplar Theory 520
exhaustification operator 550–1
existential modality 424
existential there construction 475–6, 670
exocentric compounds 268–9, 273, 277
exocentric structures, vs. endocentric structures 359
exonormative stabilization 644
experimental corpus linguistics 78–82, 83
explanatory grammars 8–9
expletive insertion 244n, 264
explicature/free enrichment 549–50, 552
explicitness, loss of 576
exploration cycle 75
expressive speech acts 380
Extended Projection Principle (EPP) 157
external deviation vs. internal deviation 675
External Merge 162
extraordinary balanced coordination (EBC) 456
extraposition 181, 477–8
eye-tracking data 48–51
F
factual evidence 61, 62–3
‘false grammar’ 7 see also grammatical errors
features of input 88
felicity conditions 539
feminism 683
fictional genres 664, 667
filler-gap dependencies 49–50
fillers and gaps 318–20
finite subordinate clauses 442–6
Finnish, inflection 234
Fisher’s exact test 77
flapping 518
FLOB corpus 669
Fluid Construction Grammar 121
focus 193–4, 468–70
end-focus 470–1
movement 470, 474
prosodic 510
foregrounding 675–6
form–meaning pairings (schemas) 107, 110–11, 118, 119, 228
form of noun phrases 338
formal-generative grammars, phonology 511, 516–19
formal judgement experiments 45–8
formal semantic approaches to speech acts 380–4
formalist vs. functionalist approach 121, 606, 671
forward slash rule 537
Foundations of Cognitive Grammar (Langacker) 88
FrameNet project 147, 524n
frames 146–7
frameworks, different approaches xxii
free enrichment/explicature 549–50, 552
free indirect speech 683
free morphemes, as markers of tense 398
free relatives 321–2
French
adjectives 545
reflexivity 199
stress patterns 506
subjunctive 198
frequency effects 184, 573
frequency evidence 61–2, 78
fronting operations 159–60, 163, 474–5
FROWN corpus 669
function 204
and content 182
vs. form 121, 606, 671
and structure 181
function fusion 218–19
function words, as clitics 231–2
functional approaches
to discourse 555
to language change 583
(p. 809) functional-cognitive grammars, phonology 511
Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG; Hengeveld and Mackenzie) 121, 183, 191–2, 340n, 482
information structure 192–5
Functional Grammar (FG; Dik) 183, 191
functional heads 225–6
functional interpretation of ERPs 52–5
functional linguistics 180–2, 336, 493–5
corpus-based vs. usage-based approach 185–7
grammar–discourse interface 182–4
hierarchical structure 189–92
information structure 192–5
language processing 187–9
and language typology 197–200
noun phrases 195–6, 340–1
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 55–7
Functional Sentence Perspective 461, 471
functional structure 528
functional typology, on word classes 295–7
future-projecting categories of modals 425
future tense in English 408–9
Fuzzy Tree Fragments (FTFs) 73–5, 80, 82, 83
G
gapping 324, 627
gaps and fillers 318–20
garden-path sentences 53, 54
gender, pronominal 611–12
gender distinctions, nouns vs. pronouns 25, 26
gender mismatch effect 50
generalized conversational implicatures (GCIs) 541, 543, 544
Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (GPSG) 162, 217, 302, 309, 313, 314, 330
generative approaches 153, 370, 488–93
to language change 583–4
generative grammar xxii, 17–20, 107, 153, 182, 335–6, 363n, 443n, 516–19
binary Merge 155–67
c-command 162–7
hierarchical structure 154–6, 164
reflexives 167–74
VP ellipsis (VPE) 174–8
on word classes 291–4
Generative Lexicon model 237
Generative Linguistics 505
Generative Semantics xxii, 528, 540
Generative Syntax (GS) 338–40, 344, 351, 355
generative transformational grammar 127
generic modality 424
genitive case 195–6, 246–7
nouns vs. pronouns 26
role of genre 656
genre 654–6
agile vs. uptight 656–7
spoken language 660–2
vs. written language 658–60, 665–71
studies of variation 656–8, 665–71
written language 662–5
German 139, 142–4
interrogatives 395
reflexivity 199
Germanic languages
de-accenting 510
philology 8
gerund 250–1
vs. present participle 27–9
in subordinate clauses 446
gerund-participles 362, 368, 370–3
get-passive constructions 256–7
given-before-new principle 471, 472
givenness, vs. newness 462–6, 467n, 480–1
Givenness Hierarchy 465n
glottal replacement rule 518
Glue Semantics 531, 537–8
go and V construction 458–9
government 134
Government and Binding (G&B) theory 309, 487, 488–92, 496, 530
governors 127–8
gradient grammar 605
gradient phonetic effects 508
grammar–discourse interface 182–4, 555–66, 658–60, 665–71
(p. 810) grammar and lexis 485–8, 501–3
continuum in Construction Grammar 107–8
functional models 493–5
generative models 488–93
role of corpus linguistics 495–7
usage-based theories 497–501, 503
Grammar of Speech (Brazil) 187–8
grammarians 3–20
definitions of word classes 281–91
grammars, traditional 202–3
grammatical argumentation see syntactic argumentation
grammatical complexity 666–7
grammatical errors 234
exercises in identifying 7
in literature 6–7
grammatical metaphor 100
grammatical priming 65
grammaticality
acceptability judgements 41–8
and sentence processing speed 49
grammaticalization 419n, 424, 459, 572–7, 584, 590
and modality 429–35, 590–4 see also language change
grammemes 133n
grounding (anchoring) 96–8, 342, 389, 442, 449, 464–5, 471, 479
Gullah variety 618
H
habitual aspects, regional varieties 616
(had) better modal construction 592–4
haemodynamic responses 55–8
hashtags 665
head inflection 236, 260
Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG; Pollard and Sag) 162, 164n, 204–5, 217, 294, 302, 306, 309, 313, 314, 320–1, 330–1, 360, 492, 496, 528, 529, 531
headedness
of clauses 332, 359–64
of compounds 273–4
in noun phrases 342–53
relational vs. non-relational nouns 353–7
hearer-oriented vs. speaker-oriented approach 472
Heart of Darkness (Conrad) 677–8
Heavy Noun Phrase Shift 509
Helsinki Corpus of English Texts (HC) 586
hierarchical structure 154–6, 164, 189–92
hierarchy of individuation 612, 613
‘Highwayman, The’ (Noyes) 675–6
holistic views of language 486
hortatives 390–1
host words 232
How do you do? construction 93n
human language processing 559
hyponyms 268, 273
hypotheses 23, 30n
testing with experimental corpus linguistics 78
hypothesis-falsification approach 23
I
ICE (International Corpus of English) 14n, 31n, 402n, 599
ICE-AUS 599
ICECUP 73, 75, 76
ICE-GB 680
anaphora 556–7
clefting 480
collocations 70–1, 74, 75
distributional analyses 62, 63, 64, 81–3
exclamatives 393
modals 428, 599
postponement 476–8
spoken language 73, 559–66
transitivity 66
iconicity 686
identifiability 465
Identity Function Default 227
idiomatic constructions 110–13
defining nouns in 285
modal (had) better 592–4
idiomatic expressions 91, 93, 108–9
as constructions 110–13
idiosyncratic constructions 333
illocutionary acts 539–40
(p. 811) illocutionary force 375, 379–80, 384–6
immediate observer effect 670
imperative mood 420
in Aviation English 658
clauses 377, 378, 382–3, 390–2, 395
let 256
implicational/conditional universals 608–9
implicature theory 538, 541–5
impoverishment 226
inalienable possession 199
increments 187
indefinite adjectives 33
indefinite deletion 142
indefinite determiners 97
independent reference, nouns vs. pronouns 25, 26
indeterminacy 188, 524n
indexicals 548
indexing of corpora 76
Indian English, de-accenting 510
indicative mood (factual modality) 419, 420
indirect interpretation, vs. direct interpretation 531–3
indirect licensing 565
indirect object shift 476–7
indirect observations 67
indirect speech acts 385, 392
induced activity and evoked activity 51–2
induction vs. deduction 22–3
inferential-realizational models 227
infinitives
contraction of to marker 254–5, 256
perfect forms 71
vs. V-ing 657
infixes 244n, 264
Inflection Phrases (IPs) 359
inflectional attrition 246
inflectional category 133n
inflectional morphology 224, 244–57
vs. derivational morphology 232–8
inflectional paradigms 226–7
informatics 461
information
given and new 462–6, 467n
new, accenting 510
information structure 117–19, 192–5, 461–2, 473–81
approaches 481–2
definition 461–2
focus 468–70
ordering principles 470–2
syntactic form 470–3
topic 466–8
informational asymmetry 461
Informative-presupposition it-clefts 480, 481
inherent endpoints 415
inheritance hierarchies 492
Inheritors, The (Golding) 684–5
inner circle Englishes 605, 631
Instrumental (I) case 146
intensifying adjectives 33, 36n
interaction evidence 62, 63–5, 79, 81–2, 83
interactional linguistics (IL) 558–9
interjections 287
internal deviation vs. external deviation 675
Internal Merge 162–3
International Corpus of English see ICE
International Corpus of English Corpus Utility Program see ICECUP
interpretation, direct vs. indirect 531–3
Interpretive Composition 530, 534–6
Interpretive Progressive 403n
interrogative clauses 377, 381, 387–90
identifying 394–5
interrogatives 315, 317–19, 420
adjectives 33
and constituent noun phrases 38
ellipsis 323–4
functional approach 185
identifying 378
open vs. closed 381–2, 387–8
types 376 see also questions
intersubjectivity 436
intonation 511
inversion 479
of auxiliaries 252
embedded, regional varieties 626
modals 588
inverted T-model 517
Invited Inferences Theory of Semantic Change (IITSC) 432
Irish English 605, 615, 616–17, 626, 628, 631
reflexives 611
island constraint violations 53, 54
island effects 46–8
islands 161
it-clefts 118–19, 480–1
it-extraposition 477–8
Italian, multiple negation 620
J
junction 128–9
K
Key Word In Context (KWIC) 70–1, 496
KISS (Keep It Short and Simple) principle 23
knowledge of language 87, 91, 107
identifying idiomatic language 112–13
L
L1 Englishes vs. L2 Englishes 631–9
Lancaster-Oslo-Bergen Corpus (LOB) 663, 669
landmarks 479
and trajectors 91–2, 95, 364
language acquisition 88, 89
according to Chomsky 17–19
Construction Grammar in 121–2
distributional cues for identifying word class 297
lexical categorization 293, 512, 514
written language 663
language change 573, 581–3
according to Otto Jespersen 11
according to Henry Sweet 9
approaches 583–4
catastrophic 584, 590
incremental 584, 590
mandative subjunctive 595–7
language contact 198, 597, 617, 636n
Language Faculty 18–19, 293
language processing, in functional linguistics 187–9
language typology 197–200, 497n, 606–7
language universals 607–9
Latin 202, 227
learnability 19
left anterior negativity (LAN) 52, 53
left dislocation 118, 474–5
in spoken language 561, 661
legal texts 657
lesion mapping 57
let-imperative 256
Level Ordering (Stratal Ordering) 229
lexeme-based models of morphology 224, 228, 235
lexeme formation, vs. word creation 233–4, 245
lexeme individuation problem 235
lexeme-and-paradigm models 226, 239
lexemes 226
lexemic relatedness 232–8
lexical categories xxii, 94–5
assignment 24–7
changed in literature 684
in Cognitive Grammar (CG) 341–2
of compounds 276–9
definitions 281–91
implicational connections 608
language acquisition 293, 512, 514
morphology 246–57
phonological cues 520–1
phonology 511–16
reconceptualization 29–32
structuralist analysis 298–300
tagging tools 679–80
theories 291–8
as valency carriers 147–9
lexical decision experiment 496, 506
Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG; Bresnan et al.) 162, 164n, 204–5, 217, 220n, 302, 306, 314, 330, 493, 496, 527n, 528, 529
lexical-grammatical searches 71
lexical integrity 228
lexical opposition 525–7
Lexical Phonology (Kiparsky) 229, 507–8
lexical relatedness 230, 231, 257, 259, 524–7
lexical retention 435
lexical semantics 523, 524–7
(p. 813) lexicalist hypothesis 491
lexicalist theories 528–9
lexicalization, of compounds 274–6
lexicon 76, 489, 492–3
models without 491
lexicon–grammar interface 527–9
in Construction Grammar 107–8
lexis and grammar 485–8, 501–3
functional models 493–5
generative models 488–93
role of corpus linguistics 495–7
usage-based theories 497–501, 503
lexis, simple vs. complex 487
limiting adjectives vs. descriptive adjectives 33–7
linear order
vs. hierarchical structure 154–5, 164
vs. structural order 127–8
linear structure 184
Linear Unit Grammar (Sinclair and Mauranen) 188–9
linearization process 57
Linguistic Inquiry (LI) journal 43, 45
literal force hypothesis 385
literary language 658, 689–90
approaches 674–8
corpus stylistics 679–80
difference from everyday language 674–5
nominal vs. verbal grammar 686–7
non-standard forms 680–2
spoken forms 682–3
ungrammaticality 683–6
verbal delay 687–9
live reports 402
localization of grammatical operations 56
locutionary acts 539–40
Logical Form Semantics 530, 536, 537n
logogenesis 183
London-Lund Corpus 14–16, 61, 185 see also Survey of English Usage
long distance dependencies 134–7
long distance dependency clauses see unbounded dependencies
Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written English (LGSWE) 185, 495n, 558, 570, 600, 660, 661, 668
lumping
adjective classes 32–7
vs. splitting 25–7
M
machine metaphor 517
magnetoencephalography (MEG) 51–2, 55
Mainstream Generative Grammar 528
Major Phonological Phrase (MaP) 507
Mandarin Chinese, interrogatives 394
mandative subjunctive 595–7
manipulation verbs 369–70
manner maxim 542, 543
Manx language 13
mapping 528, 531–2
Mapping Theory 527n
‘Margaret in the Garden’ (Davidson) 689
marking
future tense 408–9
progressive aspect 400–3
tense 403–7
matching conditions 175, 188
maxims, conversational 542
meaning 523–4
argument structure 527–9
boundary issues 545–53
compositional semantics 529–38
lexical semantics 523, 524–7
pragmatics 538–45
measure-noun (MN) constructions 349–50, 352
medial vs. conceptual approach to written/spoken distinction 659–60
medial object perfect 615
medical language 657, 658, 667
spoken 662
mental lexicon 341
mental representations of discourse referents 464–6
Merge operation 155–67, 490–1
(p. 814) metaphor, and modality 431–2
metonymy 269
and modality 432
Middle English
double negatives 10
modality 433, 591
mood marking 586
negative prefixation 10
mimesis 686
mind-style 684–5
minimal type theory 533
Minimalist framework 302, 306, 307–9, 313–15, 319, 326, 328, 331–3, 363n
Minimalist Program (MP) 19n, 153–67, 490, 530
Minimalist syntax, and Distributed Morphology 225
misfires of performative speech acts 539
Mismatch Negativity (MMN) 502
mobility vs. stackability of adjuncts 366
modal auxiliary constructions 116–17, 120, 252–3
modal source 427–9
modal verbs 422–3
diachrony 429–35, 587–94
frequency data 80–1
future tense 408–9
performativity 428–9
in tag questions 389
modality 418–19
adverbs and adjectives 421–2
aspect 402
conceptualization 103–4
conditional as 407–8
deontic 425, 426, 428–9, 431, 436–7
in discourse analysis 569, 570–1
dynamic 423–4
epistemic 426–7, 430, 431, 436, 438
existential/generic 424
and grammaticalization 429–35, 582, 585, 586–95, 597–601
and constructionalization 590–4
grounding 97–8
movement 434–5
non-epistemic 425–6, 430
root 425
subjectivity 435–7
model theory 531–3
Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles (Jespersen) 11–13
modification 134
modifiers
vs. complements 92, 354–7, 365, 441–2
in compounds 264–5
of nouns 207–9
subordinate clauses as 212, 214 see also adjuncts
modularity 517, 519
modularity hypothesis 485–6, 488
moment of speech (MoS) 397, 398, 401–7, 416
Montague Grammar 537
Montague Semantics 529–30n, 532
mood 376, 418, 419–22
grammatical change 582, 585–6, 594–7
Morpheme Structure Conditions (MSCs) 519
morphological constructions 119–20
morphological dependency (Morph-D) 133–4
morphology 222–3, 502
alternative models to the classical approach 224–8
in Cognitive Grammar 499–500
definitions 223–4
derivational vs. inflectional 232–8
different types 230–2
Distributed Morphology (DM) 491–2
lexical vs. syntactical 487
vs. syntax in compounding 263–5, 267, 275–6
theoretical approaches 237–8
word classes 246–57
word structure 229–30, 244–6
morphomes 227
morphomic stems 249–50
morphosemantic mismatches 236, 259–60
morphosyntactic criteria for headedness 343–4
morphotactics 223
Move operations 490–1
movement 159–62
movement test for constituency 37–8
moving window self-paced reading tasks 48
(p. 815) multiple negation 619–20 see also double negatives
multiword expressions (MWEs) 108–9, 222n, 231, 235
mutual dependency 133n
mutual entailment 525
N
N400 effect 52, 53–4
naïve falsification 67
narrative language 657, 658, 664, 667, 670–1, 682–3
layers 677–8
Narrative Mode (Smith) 414
narrow focus 470
National Curriculum Glossary 299
natural language corpora 59–60
natural language processing (NLP) 72
negation
of auxiliaries 207, 252
contractions 12
double see double negatives
historical context 9–10
of imperative clauses 390–1
of modals 588
regional varieties 618–20
of tag questions 81–2, 83
Negation in English and Other Languages (Jespersen) 13
negative concord 619–20 see also double negatives
NeighborNet 632, 643, 645
neo-classical compounding 245, 262
neologisms 233–4
ne-prefixation 9–10
Network Morphology 227n, 237
neuroscientific approaches 502
never as negator 619
New English Dictionary on Historical Principles 12
New English Grammar, Logical and Historical, A (Sweet) 8–10
New Zealand English 509, 617, 631
Newfoundland English 612, 614, 615, 618, 627
newness vs. givenness 462–6, 467n, 480–1
news writing 567–9
vs. academic prose 663–4
genre 657
vs. personal letters 667
n-grams 76–7, 679
NICE (Negation, Inversion, Code/Context, Emphasis) properties of auxiliaries 251–2, 255–6, 423, 587–8
nominal phrases see noun phrases
nominalization 258, 568–9, 576
in literary language 686–7
suffix -er 119–20
non-argumental compounds 269–72
non-compositional meaning 120
non-finite subordinate clauses 446–51
non-relational nouns vs. relational nouns 353–7
nonsense words 297–8
non-sentential units (NSUs) 562–6
North of England variety 613, 614, 626, 627
alternative double object construction 623–4
Northern Subject Rule 621–2
noun clauses 213
noun phrases 308–13, 335
appositive 576
complexity 666–7
as constituents 37–8
different analyses xxii
ellipsis in 667
functionalist approach 195–6, 340–1
headedness 342–53
internal structure 337–42
in spoken discourse 572
substituted by pronouns 38
nouns
classed alongside pronouns 25–7
as compounds 276–7
de-adjectival 235
denominalization 228
gerunds vs. present participles 27–9
grounding 97
inflection 246–7
mass vs. count 94
as modifiers 207–9, 576
plural morphology 223, 227
(p. 816) pronouns as subclass 206
relational vs. non-relational headedness 353–7
as valency carriers 147–8
novel grammatical events, in corpora 63
novel words, in corpora 62
NOW Corpus 35, 36
null hypotheses 30n
number agreement 246
and linear vs. hierarchical structure 154–5, 164
numbers
ordinal 236
numeral adjectives 33
O
object control vs. subject control 362n
object words 296 see also nouns
objectification and subjectification 101–4
Objective (O) case 146
obligatoriness vs. optionality of adjuncts 365–6
obligatory bound roots 245
observations, indirect 67
Occam’s Razor, Principle of 23, 24, 30
Old Bailey Proceedings (OBP) corpus 593, 595–6
Old English 434
development into Modern English 9
double negatives 10
gerunds 29
mood marking 585–6
negative prefixation 9–10
reflexivity 610
word order 197
onomasiological approach 237
ontological simplicity (economy) 23–9
open propositions 464, 469
Optimality Theory (OT; Prince and Smolensky) 225n, 493n, 517, 518–19
optionality 139, 141–2
vs. obligatoriness of adjuncts 365–6
ordering principles 470–2
ornamental rule complexity 642
orthography, of compounds 265
outer circle Englishes 605, 631
overdifferentiation 224, 249
overgeneration 225n
Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (Hornby) 152
Oxford Children’s Corpus 593
Oxford English Dictionary (OED) 62n
Oxford University 8
Ozark English 617
P
P300 effect (P3b) 54
P600 effect (syntactic positive shift) 52, 53, 54–5
Pakistani English 631
Pamphlet for Grammar (Bullokar) xxi
Pāṇinian Determinism 227
paradigm-based models of morphology 239
Paradigm Function Morphology (PFM; Stump) 222, 225, 226–7
paradigmatic atrophy 598
paralinguistic communication 659
Parallel Composition 531, 536–8
parallelism 675–6
parsability 229
parsed corpora (treebanks) 59–60, 63, 71, 72–5, 80
parsimony principle 23
parsing stage 57
parsing units 560
part-noun (PN) constructions 349
partially schematic constructions 499
participant roles 139
particles 31n
particularized conversational implicatures (PCIs) 541, 542–3
partitives 573
parts of speech see word classes
passive construction 305–6, 478–9
in academic writing 668–70
imperative clauses 391
valency 142, 144
passivization of constituents 37
(p. 817) past tense, regional variation of to be 622
Pattern Grammar (Hunston and Francis) 186, 495n
pedagogy, written language 663
perfect periphrasis 398
perfect tense/aspect 405–7
regional varieties 615–16
performance vs. competence, in generative grammar 18
performative hypothesis 540–1
performatives/declarative speech acts 375, 380n, 382, 387, 402, 539, 540–1
performativity in modal verbs 428–9
periphrasis 231, 255–6
perlocutionary acts 539, 540
person distinctions, nouns vs. pronouns 25, 26
personal letters, vs. news writing 667
Personal Nouns 259–60
personification 674
perspective, in narrative text 658
PFM 233
philology 8
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 664
Phonetic Implementation Rules 508
phonetics, contributions of Henry Sweet 8
phonological dependency 133
phonological representations 88–9
phonology 504–5
compositionality 95
hierarchical structure 189–90
in lexical categorization 297–8
as part of a grammar 516–21
sentence-level 508–11
and word classes 511–16
word-level 505–8
phonotactic cues 506–9
phrasal categories 203–4
phrasal/constructional theories 528–9
phrasal verbs, as compounds 278–9
phrase structure 301–4, 358
adjective phrases 325–7
branching 330–2, 333
components 332–4
coordination 328–30, 452–3
headedness 342–53
nominal phrases 308–13, 337–42
prepositional phrases 327–8
rules (PSRs) 489, 492
syntax 203
verb phrases 305–8
violations 52–3, 54
phrases, phonological boundaries 508
Phrases in English website 77
pidgins and creoles 631, 644–6
Pincher Martin (Golding) 685
pitch contours 511
plain text corpora 59
plural inflections, nouns vs. pronouns 25, 26
pluralization 223, 227
poetry 658, 682, 684, 686–9
polar questions 376–8, 382, 386, 387–8
polarity emphasis of auxiliaries 252
polarity tags 388–9
polyfunctional properties of modal verbs 422
polysemy 524n
Position-of-Subject Constraint 621
possessive adjectives 33–7
possessive inflection 246–8
possessives 209
prenominal 98
postponement 475–8
‘Potatoes’ (Sansom) 686–7
poverty of the stimulus 17–18
pragmatic approaches to speech acts 379–80
pragmatics 523, 538–45
pragmatics–semantics interface 546–7
Prague Linguistic Circle 181, 183
Prague School 126, 466, 471
predicate-focus 469–70
predicative adjectives vs. attributive adjectives 572
prefixation, negatives 9–10
prenominal possessives 98
Prenucleus function 215, 218
prepositional complements 144–5
prepositional phrases 327–8
as adjuncts 140
as clause fragments 563
as complements and modifiers 365
as modifiers 576
and pseudopartitive constructions 348–9
(p. 818) prepositional verbs, constraints 112
prepositions
ambiguity 95
use in apposition 92
atemporal relations 94
classified separately from subordinating conjunctions 29–32
as compounds 279
definitions 209–11
subordinate clauses as 212–13
taking clauses as complement 316
as valency carriers 148
prescriptivism 202, 284
present participles vs. gerunds 27–9
present perfective paradox 402n
presuppositions 544–5, 546–7, 552
vs. assertions 463–4
preterite present verbs 429, 434, 587n, 588
priming 188–9, 678
Principle of Compositionality 530
Principle of End Focus 117, 119
Principle of End Weight 117–18
Principle of Unmarked Temporal Interpretation (Declerck) 414
Principles and Parameters (P&P) theory 488, 528, 530
problem of induction 22
problem of quantifier domain restriction 547–8, 550
pro-forms
interrogative 394–5
in substitution tests 38
progressive aspect 250, 256, 397, 400–3
and Aktionsart 413–14, 415
regional varieties 617–18
Progressive of Affect 403n, 411
prohibitives 390–1
Projection Principle 489
projection problem 547
promiscuous attachment 232, 246–7
pronominal systems, regional varieties 609–14
pronominalization test 354–7
pronouns
classed alongside nouns 25–7
coreference 50
and definite descriptions 552
dropping 584
exchange 613–14
gender 611–12
inflection 247–8
resumptive 627–8
as subclass of nouns 206
substituting constituent noun phrases 38
weak and strong 507
proper adjectives 33
property words 296 see also adjectives; modifiers
propositional acts 296
propositional synonymy 525
propositions 463, 469
Prosodic Bootstrapping hypothesis 508–9
prosodic constraints 506–8, 509–10
Prosodic Hierarchy 509
Prosodic Word (PWd) 507
prosody, word class alternations 511
prototypes 524n
pseudo-clefts 321 see also wh-clefts
pseudo-coordinative constructions 458
pseudopartitives 196, 348–53
pseudo-passive constructions 306
psycholinguistics, identifying word classes 297–8
psychological realism 296
punctuation, separation of clauses 557
Q
quality maxim 542
quantifier domain restriction 547–8, 550
quantifier-noun (QN) constructions 349–50, 352
quantity maxim 542
questions
intonation 511
speech acts as 384–5
‘Queue’s Essentially, The’ (Dunmore) 688
Quirk Corpus see Survey of English Usage
R
(p. 819) raising 362
vs. control 363n
rank scales 190
reading time data 48–51
Readjustment Rules 226
reconceptualization of word classes 29–32
recursion 530n
reference point, cognitive 98–101
Reference point, tense 405–6, 407
referential dependencies 164–7, 171
referential index 293
reflexives 167–74, 199, 248
in regional varieties 609–11
role of genre 657
regional varieties of English 598n, 599, 604–6
aspect marking 616–18
clause structure 623–8
distance between areas 634
double negatives 13
in literature 680–2
negation 618–20
plural inflections on pronouns 26
pronominal systems 609–14
relative clauses 626–8
subject–verb agreement 620–3
tense marking 614–16
typological approach 606–9
World Englishes 630–2, 650–3
angloversals 637, 639–40
distinctive and diagnostic features 646–50
morphosyntactic variation 632–9
variety types 640–6
register 655 see also genre
relation/relevance maxim 542
relational grammar 204
relational nouns vs. non-relational nouns 353–7
relative adjectives 33
relative clauses 56, 445
regional varieties 626–8
Relevance Theory 542n, 549
repairs (afterthoughts) 477
repetition 675–6
representative speech acts 380, 381, 387
research bias 66
restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses 445
result nominalizations 258
resultative constructions 114
Resultative Imperfective 403n
resumptive pronouns 627–8
Rhetorical Structure Theory 183
Richness of the Base 517, 519
right dislocation 477, 561
in spoken language 661
Rising Principle 135–6
Role and Reference Grammar 121, 183, 190–1, 340n, 443n, 482, 527
Romance languages
de-accenting 510
subjunctive mood 421
root modality 425, 590, 600
roots 225
rule-to-rule hypothesis 531
Russian
irregularities in inflection 234
segmentation 230
Russian formalism 674, 675
S
sampling 79–80
sampling frame 59
Sapir–Whorf hypothesis 683
scalar implicature 550–1
scale structure 526–7
schema-instance relations 90–1
schemas (form–meaning pairings) 228, 501, 502
schematic constructions 108–9, 499
nominal constructions 92–4
Science journal 664
scientific language 575–6, 658, 668–70
scope 191
Scottish English 615, 617, 618, 626, 627, 628
scrambling 56, 197
S-curve model of language change 583
second language acquisition, Construction Grammar 121–2
Segmentation Problem 229–30, 246
self-paced reading data 48–51
Semantic Coherence Principle 151n
semantic dependency (Sem-D) 133, 134
(p. 820) Semantic Function Hierarchy 494
semantic maps 609
semantic primitives 237–8
semantic representations 88–9
semantic violations 54–5
semantics, of compounds 268–72
semantics–pragmatics interface 546–7
semantics–syntax interface 530–1
semi-auxiliaries 255, 256
semi-modals 422, 434, 587, 589
language change 594–5, 596, 597, 599–601
Semiotic Grammar 183n
sentence-focus 469–70
sentence hierarchy 127–8
sentence phonology 508–11
sentence processing
Broca’s area 56–7
and grammaticality 49
sentence radicals 378n
sentences 555
in spoken language 562, 661
sentential meaning, effect of tense and aspect 410–12
sentential negation 618–19
Separation Hypothesis/Separationism (Beard) 225, 227
Sequence of Tense 404
sequential scanning vs. summary scanning 294–5
serial verb construction 197, 198
Shetland English 613, 615
Short Introduction to English Grammar (Lowth) 6
Sign-Based Construction Grammar (SBCG) 121, 222n
similarity relations 90
simple catenative constructions 448, 451
Simpler Syntax Hypothesis (Culicover and Jackendoff) 23
simplicity 23–37
Single Competence Hypothesis (Marantz) 40
single-system models 486, 496–7, 501
Singlish 636n
situation types (Aktionsart) 396–7, 400, 412–17
situation-type shift 415
SketchEngine 77–8
SLASH feature 162
small clauses 306
social class 6
social varieties, in literature 680–2
Southeast of England variety 613, 614, 619
Southwest of England variety 611, 613–14, 617, 627
Spanish
inalienable possession 199
multiple negation 620
speaker-oriented vs. hearer-oriented approach 472
specifiers 307, 311
in X-bar theory 304
speech acts 375, 538–41
illocutionary force 375, 379–80, 384–6
meaning 378–84
speech-making, parallelism 676
Spell-Out function 225
splitting vs. lumping 25–7
spoken language 557–66, 660–2
data for spontaneous speech 16
represented in literature 682–3
vs. written language 182–4, 658–60, 665–71
spontaneous speech 16
S-structure 488–9
stackability vs. mobility of adjuncts 366
stance 570–1
Standard Average European 198–9
Standard Corpus of Present-Day Edited American English, see Brown Corpus
Standard English 631n
definition 604–5
Stanford Parser 72, 137
States 397, 413–16
statistical inference 65
statistical universals 608
stative verbs 402
storage 497–8
storytelling 670–1
stranding 202
Stratal Optimality Theory 508
Stratal Ordering (Level Ordering) 229
stratified samples 79
(p. 821) stress
in compounds 267
patterns 506–8, 509–10
and word classes 520–1
stress shift, triggered by affixes 229
Stressed-focus it-clefts 480
strict ellipsis account 565–6
strong lexicalism 523
structural order vs. linear order 127–8
structuralist approach to word classes 298–300
structure, and function 181
structured inventory of units 90–2
stylistics
approaches 674–80
corpus approach 679–80
subcategorization 211, 364, 370–3
subject 360–4
complements 362
control 451
vs. object control 362n
gapping 627
semantic roles 581
Subject Island Constraint 50
subject–verb agreement
regional varieties 620–3
test 343, 349
subjectification and objectification 101–4
subjectivity 420, 571
absent in dynamic modality 424
in modality 435–7
subjectless clauses 100–1
subjunctive mood (non-factual modality) 198, 419, 420–2, 438
grammatical change 585–6
mandative 595–7
subordinating conjunctions, classified separately from prepositions 29–32
subordination 134, 212–14
vs. coordination 439–40, 457–60
finite subordinate clauses 442–6
genre variation 666
modification vs. complementation 441–2
non-finite subordinate clauses 446–51
subordinative compounds 269, 278
substitution 356
of head nouns in noun phrases 346–7
test for constituency 38–9
summary scanning vs. sequential scanning 294–5
superadditive effects 48
superiority effect 394
superlatives 248
supplementation 562
suppletive derivation 244–5
suprasegmental constraints 506–8, 509–10
Surface-Syntactic dependency (SSynt-D) 134n
surface syntactic dominance criteria 134
Survey of English Dialects (Orton) 607
Survey of English Usage 13–64, 185, 680
Quirk Corpus 61, 70
suspended affixation 232
suspensions 188
Sydney School (Systemic Functional Grammar) 340
syllable onset requirement 95
symbolic units 88–90
syncretism 224, 226, 249
syndetic vs. asyndetic coordination 454–5
synonymy 524–5
syntactic argumentation 21, 63
constituency 37–9
general principles 22–37
syntactic dependency (Synt-D) 131–2, 133, 134
syntactic island constraints 50
syntactic positive shift (P600) 52, 53, 54–5
syntactic representations 217–20
syntactic simplicity (elegance) 23, 24, 29–37
syntactic tense and aspect 410–12
syntactic tests, modifiers vs. complements 354–7
syntactic violations 52–3, 54
syntax
according to Henry Sweet 9
structured inventory of units 91–2
symbolic units 89–90
vs. morphology in compounding 263–5, 267, 275–6
syntax-driven models of morphology 239
syntax–semantics interface 530–1
synthetic approach to word classes 297–8
(p. 822) Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG; Halliday, Sydney School) 183, 190, 340–1, 347, 351, 443n, 494–5, 556
Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) 571
T
tabular function 536
tag questions 81–2, 83, 388–9
tagged corpora 59, 71
tagmemics 204
Tasmanian English 612
taxonomy building 21
telicity 396, 412–13
templates 529
Temporal Discourse Interpretation Principle (Dowty) 414
tense 397–9, 400
and Aktionsart 413–14
conditional as 407–8
deictic (absolute) vs. anaphoric (relative) 407n
effect on sentence properties 410–12
in finite subordinate clauses 442
future in English 408–9
grounding 97
marking, regional varieties 614–16
movement 414–15
past vs. non-past 403–5
perfect 405–7
Text World Theory 678
texture 183
that-clauses 136–7, 143, 316
thematic roles 528
theme–rheme structure 181, 466
theory-driven linguistics 66–8
theta-roles 361n
theticals 562
TigerSearch 73
timeless truths 423–4
to-contraction 254–5, 256
tone 511
topic 192–3, 466–8
it-clefts and wh-clefts 481
Topic-Familiarity Condition 468n
topicalization 56, 118, 215–16, 321, 474–5
of constituents 37
traditional grammar 360–1
trajectors 451
and landmarks 91–2, 95, 364
transfer 128–9
Transfer-Caused-Motion construction 476n
transformational approaches 138, 153
transformational component 488
transformational framework 19n
transformational-generative grammar 217
Transformational Grammar 204–5, 274, 302, 303
transitive phrasal verbs 31n
transitivity framework 63, 66
transpositional lexemes 231
transpositions 224, 230–1, 248–9n, 258n
tree fragments 73–5
treebanks (parsed corpora) 59–60, 63, 71, 72–5, 80
triangulation 67–8
truncations 236
truth conditions, synonymy 525
try and V construction 457–8
turn-taking analysis 184, 558
two-component theory of aspect 415
type-driven translation 531
Type-Logical Grammar 530
type-specifying functions 342
Type-of-Subject Constraint 621
type theory 533–4
typological approach, regional varieties 606–9
U
Unaccented anaphoric focus clefts 480
unarticulated constituents 549
unbounded dependencies 204–5, 216, 317–22
undergoer and actor 527
Universal Grammar 18
universal statements, truth of 22
universals 607–9
‘Unprofessionals, The’ (Fanthorpe) 688
usage-based approach 181
vs. corpus-based approach 185–7
to language change 583
phonology 520
theories 497–501, 503
(p. 823) usage events 89
utterance-type meanings 385
V
vagueness 524n
valency alternations 230