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date: 29 February 2020

(p. 913) Index

(p. 913) Index

Tables are indicated by an italic t following the page number.

Aakhus, M. 507
Abelson, J. 577
Aberbach, J. D. 282
Abers, R. 703
Aboriginal peoples and deliberation 158, 159
Aboriginal rights 165
abortion rights 428, 633
Abu-Nimer, M. 749
acampadas (protest camps) 399, 400–1
consensual methods 401–2
emotional expression 402
knowledge-sharing 402
politics of becoming 402–3
reclaiming public spaces 400
social movement assemblies 400–1
accountability
as deliberative ideal 4t, 232
revision 8
as voting ideal 232
Achen, C. 1–2
Ackerman, B. 35, 38, 40, 41, 45–6, 49, 205, 318, 474, 627, 893
ACT-UP 649
Addams, J. 573
Adler, P. 603
administrative agencies 10
administrative law-making, US 613–15
deliberative plebiscites 618–21
districting commissions 616–18
interest representation model 613–14
notice-and comment-provisions 613, 615
presidential control model 613, 614
Administrative Procedure Act (APA), US 276, 613–14, 615
Adorno, T. W. 881
Afghanistan 283
Africa 819–28
Akan taboo on verbal aggression 825–6
arguing vs. bargaining 825
Ashanti people 821
background 819–21
colonialism 820, 821
consensual democracy proposal 821–4
customary law 166–7
majoritarian/aggregative democracy failures 820, 821, 822
need for empirical research 824–7
non-party proposal 822–3
primordial vs. civic publics 819–20, 825
research findings, educational value 862–3
research findings, and policy and constitutional review 827
research findings, and theorization 862
traditional notions of consensus 93
African-Americans, and everyday political talk 383
Afrobarometer 824
aggregate ideological consistency 474
aggregation 463
Miracle of 121, 540
models of, in relation to deliberation 469, 469f
aggregation-deliberation model 477–8, 480
persuasion cost 477–8
and truth revelation 477
aggregative democracy 219, 223–4
in Africa 820, 821
contrasted with deliberative democracy 2–3
impossibility of ideals 2–3
and public decision-making 712–13
aggregative model of decision-making 464f, 469, 478
aggregative/transformative procedures 37
agonistic deliberation 158, 159–60, 161, 164, 205–6, 212, 240, 875–6
(p. 914) agreement 79
communication studies 509
and impact of deliberation 79
air quality management 759
Akan people 825–6
Akbar, emperor 807
Allan, T. 632
Allport, G. 748, 749
Almond, G. 87
alternative dispute resolution (ADR) 710
Ambedkar, B. R. 806, 809, 814, 815n3
American Constitution see US Constitution
American Forum Movement 504
American National Election Study questions 384
Americans Discuss Social Security forum 246
AmericaSpeaks 264, 666, 670, 701
Our Budget, Our Economy meetings 544
Amsterdam Intergovernmental Conference (1997), EU 849
analytic deliberation 771–3, 780
challenges in addressing catastrophic risks 476–8
competence in facts and values 773
in global governance 773–6
procedural and substantive fairness 772–3
ancient Greece
Athenian democracy 23, 56, 300, 302
Council of 500, Athens 318–19, 320
rhetoric 502, 504
Anderson, E. 641
Angrist, J. D. 669
Ani, E. I. 93
Ansari, N. 659
Ansell, C. K. 578
Anthropocene concept 755, 763, 764
anthropology, and political theory 90–1
anti-austerity protests 397, 401, 403
anti-globalization groups 698
apadharma, India 807
Arab/Jewish campus studies, US 749
Arab public sphere 522
Arab Spring 499
Arendt, H. 175, 212, 240, 260, 261, 452
Areopagus deliberations 643, 651n5
Aristotle 23, 42, 56–7, 58, 60, 62, 71, 120, 240, 425, 429n6, 429n7, 429n8
Arizona State Legislature v. Arizona Independent Redistricting Commission 616, 617, 618
Arnstein, S. 189
Arrow, K. J. 117, 222, 423, 424, 429n2, 466–7, 471–2, 484n2
Asen, R. 504
Ashanti people, Africa 821
Ashoka, emperor 807
Ashram movement, India 92
aspirational ideals 2
Assemblé Nationale, France 735
Assembly of First Nations of Canada 105
asteroid strikes 768, 777
Åström, J. 366, 370, 372
Athenian democracy 23, 56, 300, 302, 318–19, 320
attitude convergence 549n6
attitude polarization 544
attribution bias 246
Audi, R. 205
Austen-Smith, D. 733
Austin, J. 238, 595
Australia
aboriginal/settler reconciliation 161
Citizen’s Parliament (ACP, 2009) 508, 701, 906
Citizens Parliament, ensuring Indigenous representation 150
Deliberative Poll before national referendum 320
difficulties of deliberative democracy institutionalization in Western Australia 702
newDemocracy Foundation (nDF) 701
participatory budgeting 704–5
authenticity 8
Baber, W. E. 775, 861
Baccaro, L. 658, 665
Bächtiger, A. 159, 161, 162, 164, 239, 279, 287, 353, 432, 658, 665, 667, 683, 861, 894n6, 895n23
Baiocchi, G. 576, 577, 685–8
Ban, R. 813
Band Council System, Canada 101
(p. 915) Barabas, J. 7, 245, 246, 544–5
Barber, B. 44, 193–4, 200n12
Barnes, M. 77
Barnett, E. 80
Barnett, M. 498
Barry, B. 127n2
Bartels, L. M. 1–2, 539
Barthe, Y. 642
Bartlett, R. V. 775, 861
Baumgartner, F. R. 563–4
Bayesian conditioning 480, 481
Bayesian updating 520
Beatty, J. 644
Becker, G. S. 429n5
Belgiorno-Nettis, Luca 701
Belgium
G1000 302–3, 705
general election (2010) 744
mini-publics 747–8, 749
proposed federal electoral districts 750
Bell, D. 222
Bendix, W. 276, 279
Bendor, J. 564
Benhabib, S. 159, 219
Benin 12
Bennett, A. 679, 693n3
Berry, M. E. 93
Besley, T. 811, 812
Bessette, J. M. 6, 38–40, 46, 238, 281
Bevir, M. 659
Bhakti movement, India 807
Bickford, S. 239–40, 241
Biesenbender, J. 849
Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, UK 646
Bisgaard, M. 563
Black, D. 471
Black, L. W. 79
Blue, G. 775
Blumler, J. G. 349
Boettcher, J. W. 204
Bogner, A. 647
Bohman, J. 47, 183n2, 219, 238, 310, 351, 442n1, 649–50, 845–6, 847, 858, 861
Böker, M. 307, 308, 339
Bolivia
constitutional process (2006–7) 832
Indigenous communities 838
Indigenous government, Charagua 105, 106
National Dialogues 835–6
protest movements 395, 397
Botswana, deliberative ideals in postcolonial transition 87–9, 90
Bourdieu, P. 574, 575, 579
Bouton, M. M. 278, 291n11
Bowers, J. 380
Boydstun, A. E. 563–4
Brashers, D. E. 74–5
Bräuniger, T. 277
Brazil
Constitutional Assembly (1987–8) 832
minority rights 838
national public policy conferences 702, 834
participatory budgeting 829, 834
police’s abusive use of force 353
Workers Party (PT) 837
see also Porto Alegre
Brennan, J. 127n4
Brexit referendum (2016), UK 287, 904
British Columbia Citizens’ Assembly (BCAA), Canada 13, 21, 264, 302, 309, 320, 620, 622n6, 702, 707n4, 901, 905, 908
Brown, M. B. 642, 651n2
Brown, P. 649
Bryce, J. 385
Buchanan, A. 857–8
Buchstein, H. 331
Buddhism, India 806, 807
Bullock, J. G. 564
Burgess, M. M. 647
Burke, E. 173, 260, 278
Burkhalter, S. 505
Burleson, B. R. 505
Bush, George H. W. 283
Bush, George W. 226, 275, 281, 283, 865
Busia, K. A. 821
Button, M. 212
By the People, Deliberative Poll project 666
Calhoun, J. 233n3
California and electoral boundaries 617
Callon, M. 642, 648
Caluwaerts, D. 747, 748, 749
(p. 916) campaign spending limits 631
Canada
Assembly of First Nations of 105
Band Council System 101
British Columbia Citizens’ Assembly (BCAA) 13, 21, 264, 302, 309, 320, 620, 622n6, 702, 707n4, 901, 905, 908
encouraging participation by disempowered groups 148
ensuring Indigenous representation in citizens’ assemblies 150
Ontario citizens’ assembly 264, 288, 289, 302, 320, 702
Truth and Reconciliation Commission 165
Canter, A. 246, 247
capability theory, and deliberative democracy 139
Capella, J. N. 372, 541, 543, 667
capital punishment, US 563–4
Caracas Radical Cause participatory reforms, Venezuela 689–90, 691, 692
Caracas rioting, Venezuela (1989) 497
carbon pricing 776
Carcasson, M. 506, 510
Cardozo Law School 51n2, 51n5
Carson, L. 199n1, 701, 707n5
Castle, The (film) 440
catastrophic risks, and deliberation 768–88
and analytic deliberation 771–3, 780
analytic processes in global governance 773–6
challenges to using analytic deliberation to address 776–8
climate change 768–9, 770, 775, 777
competence in facts and values 781n2
complexity and deep uncertainty 777–8
criteria for participant selection 775
diversity in impacts 778
eco-authoritarianism 769
experimentation with different approaches 779
geoengineering 779
global causes and effects 778
global commons and global governance 770–1
how and when should the global public deliberate? 776
human actions 768
institutional feasibility and formation 774–5
meta-uncertainty 768
polycentric approaches 779–80
social and economic barriers to global democratization 773–4
variation in generation, effects and mitigating mechanisms 779
ways forward 778–80
caudillismo 829
Chadwick, A. 365
Chambers, S. 211, 219, 238, 246, 265–6n1, 307, 308, 437, 536, 628, 867n3, 894n9
Chapman, R. 412
Charles F. Kettering Foundation 701
Chaudhuri, S. 811
Chavez regime, Venezuela 495, 496–7, 498, 837
Checkel, J. T. 522, 524
Chen, K. K. 579
Chen, P. C. B. 76
Chile
Law 20.500 832
Mesa del Diálogo (round-table discussions, 1999–2000) 491–2
China 698, 791–804
authoritarian deliberation 229
deliberative authoritarianism 793
deliberative culture 796–7
Deliberative Polls as decision-making bodies 310
driving forces, characteristics and patterns 794–5
local governance deliberative processes 794–5
Maoist Mass Line - from the people to the people 796
near-binding Deliberative Polls 320
New Health Care Reform program 496
overview of practices 793
performance legitimacy 797
potentials and constraints of capacity building: systemic approach 797–800
prospects of deliberative democracy in 800–801
social protests 794
Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 93, 436, 791, 793
and deliberative democracy 794, 796–7
(p. 917) Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) 793
Choosing Healthplans All Together decision tool 910
Christiano, T. 134, 642
Churchill, Winston 640
Cifuentes, M. 77
Ciplet, D. 781n3
Citizen Deliberation Meetings, Japan 792
citizen flexibility 452
citizen interests, and deliberation 420–31
and citizen sovereignty 423–5
democracy and deliberation 425–6
equal concern 420, 425, 426, 428
equal concern/equal respect conflict in the right to vote 426
equal respect 420, 424, 425, 427, 428
folk democracy, US 420–2, 426
institutions: distributed deliberation 426–8
citizen sovereignty 423–5, 429n2
consumer sovereignty compared 423–4
citizens
awareness 452
flexibility 454
receptivity 452
translatability 452
citizens’ assemblies 13, 60, 150, 301t, 341n5, 905
British Columbia 13, 21, 264, 302, 308, 309, 320, 620, 622n6, 702, 707n4, 901, 905, 908
Ireland 302
Ontario 264, 288, 289, 302, 308, 320, 702
citizens’ assessment 646
Citizens’ Initiative Review (CIR) 242, 243, 247–8, 320, 336, 620, 621, 700
Oregon 13, 75, 176–7, 289, 308–9, 324, 508, 700
citizens’ juries 13, 16, 300, 301t, 308–9, 700, 701
tendency towards meta-consensus 304
transnational 861
Citizens’ Parliament (2009), Australia 508, 701, 906
civic republicanism 38
civic virtue 57
civil rights movement, US 218, 353
civil society 10–11
global 12
Claassen, R. 139
class, neglect in deliberation 576
clientelism, Latin America 829, 837
climate change 768–9
global governance 770
meta-uncertainty 777
and mini-publics 775
Clinton, Bill 283
coalition governments 10, 732–3
in deeply-divided societies 744–5
Coelho, V. S. P. 77
coercion
deliberation and voting compared 229–30
severity/irretrievability spectrum 210
cognitive and rational capacity of the general public 20–1, 62, 72, 222–3
cognitive biases 254–5, 542
cognitive complexity index 123
cognitive diversity 121, 122, 149
cognitive elaboration 382, 383
cognitive science 304
Cohen, J. 3, 7, 8, 6, 36, 43, 47, 48, 49, 51n7, 57–8, 63, 114, 115, 118, 126, 188, 195, 205, 238, 303, 845–6, 857, 860, 884–5, 893n2, 893n4
Coleman, J. 114
Coleman, S. 349
collective intelligence systems 607–9
Colombia
centripetal electoral rules and deliberation 220, 225, 227–8
deliberative experiments 682, 684, 685, 748, 887
Law 134 (1994) 832
peace process 493
Colombo, C. 563
colonialism 101–2, 108, 147
Africa 820, 821
India 807, 808
common good/public interest 3, 8, 38, 40, 46, 47, 224
and closed-door deliberation 887, 894n13
common ground emphasized over 79
defining deliberation 729
and economic theories of democracy 219, 221
as performative 104
and stakeholder groups 717
and voting 222
(p. 918) common good orientation
as deliberative ideal 4t, 8, 160, 885
philosophic origins 57, 59, 64
revisions to 8
as voting ideal 232
communication studies, deliberation in 502–17
agreement/disagreement studies 509
classrooms as proto-public spaces 510
commitment to the practical 502–3, 510, 512
complementary character of dialogue vs. deliberation 505
conceptualization of democratic deliberation 503
conceptualization of dialogue 505
deliberation/dialogue relationship 512
deliberative and dialogic design 507–8
distinction from deliberative research 503
facilitation studies 509–10
future directions 511–12
group interaction dynamics 508–10
historical and rhetorical perspectives 504
information use studies 509
narrative and storytelling 511
outcome studies 508–9
and public dialogue 510–11
reconceptualizing deliberation in concrete terms 504–6
theorizing and measuring deliberation’ impact 506–7
communicative action theory 42, 49, 65, 161, 219, 240, 518, 574–5
and international relations 518, 519–21
communicative rationality 22, 523, 528, 719
community discourse 573–4
comparative democratization studies, and deliberative democracy 490–501
conceptual approaches 490–1, 495–9
cycles of contention/cycles of deliberation 497–8
the deliberative gap 490, 493–5
and deliberative systems 495–7
democratic transitions and consolidation studies 491
participatory dimension 494
sequential approaches 497–9
why does deliberation matter? 490, 491–3
workable agreements 491
competitive-elitist democracy 46–7
computer-assisted coding 660
Condorcet, N. de 466
Condorcet’s jury theorem 117, 121, 127n2, 127n7, 223, 425, 465, 471, 492n3
Condorcet’s paradox 466, 467
confirmation bias 304
conflict, partisan 20
conflict clarification, as deliberative ideal 2, 4t, 7–8, 12, 887
Confucian legacies and traditions in China and Japan 23, 93, 791, 792, 795, 796, 797, 800
Congressional Budget Office, US 276
Connelly, S. 498–9
Connovan, P. 827
consensual democracies 732–3, 737
proposal for Africa 821–4
consensus
vs. clarification of preferences 873–5
consensual method in social movements 401–2
consensus-building, and Indigenous deliberation 102–5, 108
consensus hypothesis 470
constructivist/Rawlsian approaches to overlapping 140–1
and critics of deliberative democracy 19–20
deference to scientific 633, 642–3
as deliberative ideal 2, 4t, 2, 3, 7, 12, 19–20, 723n3, 730
effects on opinion change 544–5
in the global context 107
meta-consensus hypothesis 471–3, 472
and reason-giving 72
reformulations 19–20
revisions (stretches) to 7–8, 19–20, 884–5, 887
traditional African notions 93
vs. unanimity 123–5
underlying 479
as voting ideal 231–2
consensus agreement (public dispute resolution) 712, 718, 723n3
Consensus Conferences (CCs) 13, 301t, 302, 306, 646, 699–700
consent theories 428–9n1
constitution drafting 491
(p. 919) constitutional moments 318
constitutional theory, and legitimacy 625
constitutionalism, deliberative 625–39
deliberation to law 627–8
deliberative filtering 629
deliberative telescoping 629
disputes about jurisdiction 635–6
entrenchment 632
federalism 635–6
first-order deliberation 630, 632, 635
and international law 633
law to deliberation 628–31
and legitimacy 625–6
matters within jurisdiction 635
means by which constitutions come into being 627–8
proceduralist approaches to rights 632, 636
proportionality test in judicial review 630–1, 632
rights as deliberative 631–4
second-order deliberations 630, 632, 635–6
significance of political commitments in constitutional texts 628
social and economic rights 632
structural implications 634–6
constitutions see individual countries
consultation 10–11
consumer sovereignty 423
Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) 771
Converse, P. E. 539, 540
Cook, F. L. 17, 196, 535
Cooke, M. 492
Coppedge, M. 494
Correll, S. J. 546–7
Coulthard, G. 159
Council of 500, Ancient Athens 318–19, 320
counter-terrorism 409
courts 9–10, 285–7, 440
and actor motivations 523
constitutional 9–10
judgement-aggregation 482–3
and judiciary awareness 456
and judiciary flexibility 457
and judiciary receptivity 457
and judiciary translatability 456
need to foster deliberation 428
and reason-giving 421
Crawford, N. C. 520, 521
Crewe, I. 827
Crisp, B. 496
Crook, R. C. 811
Crosby, N. 45, 51n6, 300, 337, 700
crowd-sourced constitution, Iceland 705
Cruikshank, J. 723n1, 724n7
Cuban missile crisis (1962) 579
Curato, N. 339, 494, 496
Customary Senate, New Caledonia 105
Dahl, R. A. 38, 45, 49–50, 134, 300, 315, 330, 334, 556, 564, 640, 651n7, 853n2, 890
Dahlberg, L. 365
dance, deliberative potential 93–4
Danish Board of Technology (DBT) 288, 699–700
Danish Board of Technology Foundation 700
Davies, C. 80
Dawkins, R. 440
De Boef, S. 563–4
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789), France 843–4
deeply-divided societies, deliberation in 742–54
Belgium example 747–8, 749
citizen/elite gaps 750–1
citizens and leaders 750–1
Colombian example 748
deliberation among diametrically opposed citizens 747–9
deliberative consociation 743–7, 751n3
elite bargaining 747
grand governing coalitions 744–5
identity, education and culture 746
inter-dash group trust 748
Israeli example of status in deliberation 749
mutual vetoes 743, 745–6
Northern Ireland example 748–9
outbidding 742–3, 744, 745, 746, 747, 751n1
polarization 749
PR electoral systems 745
proportionality 743
segmental autonomy 743, 746–7
US campus studies 749
Deitelhoff, N. 521, 526
Delgamuukw v. British Columbia case 162
(p. 920) deliberation
constrasted with aggregation 2–3
definitions 2, 468–9, 536
enclave 15
minimal 93–4
Deliberation Days 12, 45, 318, 337, 474, 893
deliberation-induced opinion change mechanisms 480–2
deliberative communication, forms of 70–85
agreement and disagreement 78–9
the case for 71–3
character of 71–2
empirical research on 73–81
facilitated talk 80–1
and impacts of deliberative forums 76–7
and inclusion/marginalization 76
reason-giving, storytelling and emotional expression 74–8
deliberative deficit 422
deliberative democracy 1–31
aggregative democracy contrasted 2
concepts 2–8
critics 17–23, 72–3, 576
definition 2
demand for 20
first-generation 3, 4t, 57, 612, 723
second-generation (second wave) 3–4, 4t, 22, 612–13, 616, 618, 619–21, 723
sites of 9–14
deliberative democracy, origins (1980–1993) 35–52
consolidation of philosophical foundations 36
constituent phase 36
constituent phase and critical frontiers 41–3
counterfactual conceptual model (Bessette) 39
critical-radical approaches 44–5
deliberative field articulation 36
early formulations 38–41
Fishkin 45–6
five critical borders 46–7
formulations and insights 35
Habermas’s role 47–8, 49–50
historical roots 218–20
interactions with other fields and disciplines 44–5
from participatory democracy to 36–7
Rawls’s role 47–8, 50
systemic thinking about 14–17
transition and theoretical innovation phase 35
transitional phase 37
deliberative democracy, and participatory democracy 187–202
aggregative participatory democracy 188, 191, 191t, 194
benefits of deliberation to participatory democracy 193–4
benefits of participation to deliberative democracy 191–3
combining participation and deliberation 194–8
compatibilities and synergies 190–4, 191t
empirical evidence on mass deliberation 196–8
participatory deliberative democracy 188, 191, 191t, 192, 194, 196, 198–9
theoretical debates on complexity, participations and deliberation 195–6
deliberative democracy as a reform movement 697–709
a deliberative democracy movement? 697–9
institutionalizing democracy 701–4, 706
reasons for optimism 704–5
track record 699–701
deliberative democracy, stretching 883–99
conceptual stretches 883, 886–8
deliberative systems to the rescue? 890–3
democratic/deliberative/realistic desiderata 888–90, 891–3
original visions 884–6
reasons for stretches, and why some are better than others 888–90
deliberative democracy, when theory meets practice 900–12
what does deliberation need from democracy? 904–7
what should democracy expect from deliberation? 907–11
where does democracy need deliberation? 901–4
deliberative global citizens’ assembly (DGCA) 861–2
(p. 921) deliberative ideals 2–8, 4t
absence of coercive power 4t, 5, 231, 885, 886, 889
accountability 4t, 8, 232
common good orientation 4t, 8, 160, 885
consensus 4t, 7–8, 19–20, 884–5, 887
entwined with voting ideals 230–3
equality 4t, 5–6, 884, 886
first-generation (original Rawlsian/Habermasian) 3, 4t, 18, 884–6
publicity (openness, transparency) 4t, 8, 232, 887, 891
reason-giving 4t, 6–7, 55, 56, 58–9, 61, 66, 72–3, 231, 536, 884, 885, 886, 888, 894
respect (mutual respect) 4t, 4–5, 231, 885, 888
second-generation revisions (stretches) 3–4, 4t, 5–8, 18–20, 886–8
sincerity 4t, 8
deliberative ideals across diverse cultures 86–99
Botswana’s postcolonial transition 87–9, 90
defining deliberation 93–4
deliberative ideals in context 89–90
ideal explanations 90–3
normative justifications 94–5
deliberative ideals, philosophic origins of 53–69
democracy as inquiry 61–3
general will 57–8
government by discussion 59–60
ideal speech situation 65–7
public justification 63
public reason 64
public sphere 65, 67
public use of reason 58–9
unforced force of the better argument 66
wisdom of the multitude 56–7, 62
deliberative inquiry theory 506
deliberative movements 891
deliberative negotiation 10, 18, 258, 523, 524–5, 657, 719, 728–41
achieving 732–6
arguing-bargaining/market-forum distinction 728, 729
concept of 729–31
contribution to deliberative democracy theory 730
contribution to negotiation theory 730
and cultural minorities 161, 163–4, 167
different issues and different risks 735–6
different problem-structures and different opportunities 736
distinction from pure bargaining 730
distinction from pure deliberation 730–1
efficiency of agreements 736–7
enforceability of outcomes 736
fair compromise 731
in formal institutions 732–4
fully integrative solutions 731
grey zone between deliberation and bargaining 728, 731
integrative/ distributive bargaining 729–30
intense, highly institutionalized interaction 734
issue characteristics 735–6
kratos (rule) emphasis 728
legitimacy of agreements 737–8
majoritarian vs. consensual democracies 732–3
majority vs. unanimity rules 733–4
mutual respect and justification 731
open public vs closed private settings 735
partially integrative solutions 731
repeated and long-term interaction 734
roles in democratic politics 736–8
social conditions 734–5
stability of agreements 737
deliberative planning practices 595–611
deliberative design processes as collective intelligence systems 607–9
identity shaping 606–7
incinerator public discussion example 596–9
metaphor, aesthetics and shaping expectations 596–9
Milan bridge-planning example 607–9
multi-modal deliberative learning 600–7
picturing new forms of deliberative life 602–7
problem formulation before problem solution 604–6
street-level democracy example 600–7
(p. 922) Deliberative Polls (DP) 13–14, 21–2, 45–6, 60, 192, 238, 242, 243, 246, 247, 301t, 302, 315–28, 341n5, 470, 675n8, 707n11, 713, 724n12, 775
Africa 824
alleviation of group composition effects 304–5
attitudinal representativeness 323
avoiding distortions 325–6
By the People project 666
criteria for evaluation 322–6
as decision-making bodies, China 310
demographic representativeness 322–3
and framing 563
and good conditions 316
and group polarization 543, 544
impact studies 76–7
Irish constitutional reform 705
Japan 792
and knowledge gain 324–5
media coverage 353
and national referendums, Australia and Denmark 320–1
near-binding, China and Macau 320
and opinion change 273, 540
opinion change and non-deliberative persuasion 305
outputs 303
and preference change 304
sample size 323–4
and statistical representation 177–8
support for meta-consensus hypothesis 473
Texas Public Utility Commission 319–20, 321–2
weighing competing arguments 324
what is the policy context? 319–21
What’s Next California 320
who deliberates? 318–19
why should others pay attention? 321–2
deliberative polyarchy 300, 846, 859
deliberative systems (systems approach) 14–17, 120, 224, 229, 239, 308, 432–46, 505
additive/summative views 440
binding collective agreements 436
and the boundary between science and politics 650
challenges to indexing deliberative quality 660–1
communication between key sites 447–60
connectivity 434
decisiveness 436, 437–8
and global environmental governance 774–5
help with the problems of concept-stretching 890–3
and interconnected media 356–9
and law 612
and listening 434, 436
mind-changing mechanisms 435
network maps 438
network models 438–9
and post-authoritarian democratization 495–7
problem-based approach 660
sequenced models 439
transnational 865–6
visibility 434
visualizing 438–9
what is deliberation? 432, 433–6
what makes a deliberative system democratic? 436–8
what produces deliberative quality? 440–1
Della Porta, D. 190–1, 393, 697–8
Delli Carpini, M. X. 17, 196, 535
democracy as inquiry 61–3
democratic deepening 458
democratic deficit 287, 422, 527
democratic destabilization 860
Denmark
consensus conferences 302, 306
Deliberative Poll before national referendum 320
rural development in 409, 413
Desaparacidos (enforced disappearances) 491–2
Deveaux, M. 160
Deville, M. 658, 665
Dewey, J. 23, 61, 62–3, 119, 578, 642, 648, 678, 781n1
Dey, S. K. 810
dialogic democracy 240–1
Diamond, L. J. 494, 495–6
dictatorship of one individual 465
Dienel, P. 45, 51n6, 300, 646
Diers, J. 603
Dietrich, F. 471
(p. 923) digital divides 354–5, 366–7
Dillard, J. P. 541
direct democracy 45
and deliberative law 618–21
institutional deliberation 287
integrating mini-publics with 308–9
in social and protest movements 171, 395, 401, 403
disagreement 78–9
and argument repertoire 541
civil 509
and communication studies 509
economizing on 19
and everyday political talk 380
and minimal/maximal justice 141
not experienced as such 78
online 355–6
overlapping consensus and reasonable 140–1
and the politeness norm 78, 79
use of stories to disguise 78–9
Disch, L. 174, 179, 180, 181, 183n1
discourse ethics 49, 65, 159, 162, 659, 772
rules of 885
social elements 274
Discourse Quality Index (DQI) 123, 243–4, 245, 247, 274, 275, 279, 290n7, 658–9, 660–1, 673, 885
interpretive aspects 659
use in Africa 826
discourse theory 132–3, 135, 140, 141, 847
discourses, manipulatory 334–5, 337
Diversity Trumps Ability Theorem 121, 128n15
division of epistemic labour 641–2
Dobson, A. 240
doctrinal/discursive paradox 482–3
domination 5, 7, 18
Dogan, M. 680
Downey, L. 774
Downs, A. 316, 564
Drake, A. 745
Druckman, J. N. 541, 542, 546, 549n7, 560–1, 563, 567–8n3, 667
Durkheim, E. 385
Dutch energy reforms 408, 412
Dutwin, D. 22
Ebaugh, H. 761
Eberle, C. 211, 213
Ebola epidemic (2014–2016) 902, 906
economic theories of democratic voting 218–19
fallibility 220, 221–3
Ecuador
Constitutional Council for Citizen Participation and Social Control (2008) 832
Indigenous communities 838
minority rights 838
Organic Law of Citizen Participation (2010) 832
Edelman, M. J. 334
Edgell, P. 579
Edwards, A. R. 242–3
efficient-markets hypothesis 223
Egypt
settlement development program 498–9
Tahrir Square demonstrations 399, 400, 402
Eilders, C. 368, 369
Eisenstadt, T. A. 491, 628
Ekeh, P. 819–20, 825
El Salvador reform of municipal legislation (2005) 832
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) 562–3
elections
American plurality-rule 225–6
centrifugal vs. centripetal incentives 227–8
Colombia 227–8
Deliberation Day before US presidential advocated 12
epistemic inefficiency 425–6
and folk democracy 421, 426
Indigenous models 106
insufficient for political participation 189
Papua New Guinea 226–7
presidential primaries, US 264
representative democracy as merely competitive 221
and town hall meetings 11–12
(p. 924) electoral district boundary commissions, US 616–18
nonpartisan redistricting commissions 616–17
partisan gerrymandering 616, 618
electoral fetish, in deliberative democratic theory 310
Eliasoph, N. 93, 383–4, 827
Elster, J. 7, 36, 42–3, 47, 51n4, 219, 470, 492, 524, 627, 636, 745
Elstub, S. 196, 239
Ely, J. H. 632
Emirbayer, M. 575, 578
emotions and emotional expression 6–7, 75–6, 877–8
acampadas 402
alienation of forum officials 77
facilitators’ characterization 510
in gram sabhas, India 813
in the mass media 353
and more democratic/less deliberative exchanges 889
in protest movements 393–4
and realistic/democratic/deliberative democracy 890
subconscious effects 539–40
empathy 7, 246, 333
empirical democratic theory 89, 187, 188
empirical study of deliberation, preface 657–62
empirical inquiry and normative theory 657–8
input-output approach 658
process-based approaches 658–9
empowered participatory governance (EPG) model 577
empowerment of the weak 528
enclave deliberation 15, 150, 153n1, 547
in environmental democracy 762
impact of facilitation 369
online 355, 369, 373–4
Endangered Species Act, US 757
Enlightenment, the 57, 843
environment, and deliberative democracy 755–67
better environmental decisions 757
consensus and legitimacy 758, 762
consensus shortcomings 761
co-optation by elites 760–1, 763
deliberative partnerships 756
elite environmental decision-making 75
enclave deliberation 762
equality and fairness 760
inclusiveness 756, 758–9, 762
individual empowerment 762
justice 756–7, 760, 762–3
local knowledge 756, 759–60, 762
perils 758–61
political decay concept 763–4
progress 762–4
promise of 755–8
risk governance 757
storylines 757, 763
Environmental Policy and Conflict Resolution Act (1998), US 715
epistemic abstinence 113
epistemic democratic deliberation 8, 56, 113–31
cognitive diversity 121, 122
consensus critiques 124
consensus meanings 124
and consensus/unanimity 123–5
critiques and defences of normative theories 119
deliberation and majority rule 125
deliberative and non-deliberative approaches 117
descriptive/explicative frameworks 114–15
empirical objections to deliberation 125–6
environmental democracy 758
epistemic mechanisms 120–6
epistemic proceduralism 114
epistemic value and legitimacy 116
evidence constraint 119
interpretations of voting 114
intersubjective deliberation 113, 122, 125
measuring the quality of deliberation 123
moral and cognitive limitations 121
moral rights and equal status 116
morally construed approaches 118–19
non-convergence constraint 119
normative frameworks 114, 115–19
polarization and consensus 124
(p. 925)
positive dissensus 125
procedural fairness 116
properties of deliberation 120–2
properties of democratic deliberation 122
strategic conformism 124, 128n18
epistemic dimension of bureaucratic decisions 284–5
epistemic elitism 60
epistemic performance
indirect approaches 275
synoptic-direct approach 275
epistemic value 117–18, 119
as deliberative ideal 233
as voting ideal 233
epistemological egalitarianism 163
epistocracies 114
Epstein, S. 649
equality, and deliberation 2, 4–5, 144–55
achieving equality and inclusion in deliberative practices 146–9
as deliberative ideal 5–6, 884
enabling rights and practices 147–8
engineering micro-institutional deliberation 149–51
environmental democracy 760
equality and inclusion in democratic systems 145–6
equity 144, 145, 147, 152
inequalities and internal exclusions 146
inequality and exclusion from political participation 145, 146
inequality and oppression 146
legal framework guaranteeing liberties and participation rights 144, 146, 152
media independence and self-regulation 147
micro-institutional forums 144, 152–3
revisions (stretches) 5–6, 886
structural equality 145
universal moral equality 144, 145, 146, 152
as voting ideal 232
Ercan, S. A. 196, 241
Esterling, K. M. 275, 541, 544, 549n8, 659, 666, 670, 672, 674
Estlund, D. 114, 118, 133
ethnic minorities 505
and majoritarian democracy 820, 822
role in Latin America 838–9
ethnography 685–8
European Parliament 845, 851, 853n4
European public sphere 522
European Social Forum 397–8, 400
European Union (EU) 16, 395, 842–55
austerity and fiscal prudence 852
as consent-based system 842, 853n1
as context 843–5
crisis implications 850–1
and deliberative negotiation 728, 734, 735–6, 738
Deliberative Polls 862–3
democracy as justification principle 844
democracy as an organizational form 844
democratic/legitimacy deficit 527
expertocratic (technocratic) forms of discourse 852–3
foreign and defence policy 852
foreign and security policy 845
the ideal standard 847–8
institutional diversity 845
the institutional variant 848–50
internal market system 845
international relations (IR) studies 520, 522, 525, 526
multiple speed development 851
neo-liberalism 852
Open Method of Coordination (OMC) 859–60
the parliamentary principle 849–50
post-crisis 850–3
refugee crisis 852
and rhetorical action theory 520
segmented political order 851–3
transnational experimentalism 859–60
as transnational and supranational decision-making system 846
the transnational variant 845–6
EuroPolis poll 22, 242, 244, 245, 247, 862, 863
Eurozone crisis 843, 850–1, 853
Eveland, W. P. 380
everyday political talk 378–91
encompassing disagreement 380
incidental model 379
individual-level factors influencing 381
(p. 926)
psychology of 382–4
purposeful model 379
role of the media 385–7
social/political talk 379
and voting 380
what counts as 384–5
executive and administrative bodies
awareness 457
flexibility 458
receptivity 457–8
as site of deliberation 10
translatability 457
experimental design, and deliberation 663–77
associational approach 664
average treatment effect (ATE) 669
blinding 670–1
complier average causal effect (CICE) 671–2
epistemic validity 673
examples 665–7
exclusion restriction 670–1
experimental approach 664, 665
identification assumptions and strategies 669–72
instrumental variables (IV) method 671, 674–5n5
intention-to-treat (ITT) estimand 671, 672, 674n4
monotonicity 671, 675n6
non-compliance 671, 671n3
population average treatment effect (PATE) 673
potential outcomes framework 663–4, 665, 667–9
procedural rules 665–6
randomization of participants 669–70
randomized experimental designs 665
sample average treatment effect (SATE) 673
stable unit treatment value assumption (SUTVA) 670
two-cell/two-arm experiments 668, 669
validity and generalizability 672–4
why experiments? 664–5
Facebook 354, 355
facilitative trust 309
facilitators 80–1
and communication studies 509–10
emphasis of common ground over common good 79
fostering a conducive group atmosphere 74
hands-off/hands-on 80
and listening 242–3
neutrality 80–1
and online deliberation 369, 374
praise for emotional engagement 76
promoting equality and inclusion 150–1
valuing diverse perspectives 78
Farrar, C. 77, 304, 543, 549n5, 666, 672
fascism 91
Fearon, J. D. 736
Feddersen, T. J. 733
federalism and deliberative constitutionalism 635–6
Fein, J. 560–1
Femia, J. 200n13
feminism 5
Ferejohn, J. 114
15-M movement, Spain 400, 402
Finnish online experiments 367
first generation of deliberative democracy theory 3–4, 18
Fischer, F. 588, 642
Fish, S. 212, 888
Fishkin, J. S. 21, 36, 40, 45–6, 50, 51n1, 123, 192, 198, 238, 242, 245, 302, 304, 306, 337, 372, 470, 474, 543, 558, 707n11, 713, 724n12, 862, 893
Floridia, A. 193
folk democracy, US 420–2, 426
and deliberative inequality 422
and externally-directed deliberation 422
and official reason-giving 421–2, 427–8
Follett, M. P. 731
Fontana, D. 615
Food and Drug Administration, US 644
forceless (unforced) force of the better argument 59, 66, 120, 326, 525, 540, 546
Ford Foundation 809
Forester, J. 44
Forst, R. 132, 135–6, 137, 138, 139, 140, 846
Foucault, M. 5, 525–6, 719
Founding Fathers, US 38, 40, 319
(p. 927) Fraile, M. 541
Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) 526, 771
Conference of Parties 776
framing, and deliberation 352, 386, 556–72
competitive framing 562
effects 539, 541–2, 667
effects ameliorated by deliberation 541–2
elite competition and citizen preference formation 558–64
elite framing as threat to deliberation 559–61
frames in communication/frames in thought 566
framing defined 559, 560
improving opinions with framing and deliberation 564–5
normative ideals 557–8
virtues of framing for preference formation 561–4
Frankfurt critical theory 219
Fraser, N. 6, 11, 138, 148, 393, 648, 864–5
Freedom House 493
freedom of speech and assembly 16, 174
Freeman, S. 220
Freund, T. 542
Friess, D. 368, 369
Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster (2011), Japan 793
fundamental interests 430n12
and marginalized groups 159
Fung, A. 454, 494, 544, 549n8, 577, 666, 670, 672, 711
G1000s 301t
Belgium 302–3, 705
Netherlands 303, 306
Gadamer, H-G. 604
Gallie, W. B. 8
game-theoretic model of deliberation and information sharing 478–80
Gamson, W. A. 386
Gandhi, Mohandas 806, 808–9, 815
Ganghof, S. 277
Ganuza, E. 576, 577
Garfinkel, H. 579
Garry, J. 750
Gastil, J. 177, 247, 286–7, 309, 337, 505, 541, 620, 621
Gautschi, T. 667
Gaventa, J. 437
Geertz, C. 96n4
gender
and communication format 151
and kind of deliberative talk 75
neglect in deliberation 576
and self-other competence expectation 546–7
gender equality 166
gender gap in political knowledge 541
gender inequality and discrimination 157, 547
and environmental democracy 759
in gram sabhas, India 813, 814
general elections
Belgium(2010) 744
as weak deliberative process 892–3
general will 57–8
genetically modified food, media debates 352
geoengineering 769, 770, 779
George, A. 679, 693n3
Georgia 499
Gerber, M. 244, 245, 247, 305, 563
Gerring, J. 494, 657
Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem 467, 472
Gibbs, Lois 649
Gibson, C. 811
Gibson, D. R. 579
Giezeman, Willem 600–7
Gilens, M. 540
Gilligan, J. M. 781n3
Ginsburg, Justice 617
global climate governance 866
global financial crisis (2008) 843, 850
global inequality 774
global justice movement 397, 403
consensual methods 401
deliberation and political translation in 397–8
move to 2011 movements 399–403
social forums 399–400
global politics, increased participation of Indigenous peoples 106–7
global public 860
proxy 775, 776
(p. 928) global public reason 857
Global South 397, 593
globalization 396, 864
Gold, V. 660
Goodin, R. E. 125, 175–6, 335, 337, 341n4, 437, 861, 876, 894n17
Gorbachev, Mikhail 521
Gottweis, H. 588
Gould, C. C. 774, 779–84
governance-driven democratization 10
government by discussion 59–60
gram sabhas India 703, 806, 810–15
grand coalitions 744–5, 823, 825
graphe paranomon, Ancient Athens 319
grassroots democracy 395
Green, G. 626
Greenawalt, K. 205
greenhouse gases 769, 776
Grice, H. P. 894n20
Grönlund, K. 305, 342n7
group polarization 20, 304, 326, 373–4, 543–4
alleviated by facilitation in online deliberation 369, 374
ameliorated by public dispute resolution (PDR) 718
law of 325
and single-peakedness 474
groupthink 549n7
Gunderson, R. 773
Guston, D. H. 644
Gutmann, A. 8, 19, 59–60, 64, 124, 238, 319, 350, 643, 735, 893n4
Hague, The, street level democracy 600–7
Hahn, K. S. 543
Hajer, M. 415, 439, 584, 585, 592
Hamburg strategy for the future 371
Hamilton, A. 173
Hampshire, S. 711
Hansard, invention of 65
Hanson, Pauline 895n32
Harilal, K. N. 811
harmony ideology 104–5, 107
Harris-Lacewell, M. 383
Hartz-Karp, J. 371–2, 373, 702
Hastie, R. 543
Hauptmann, E. 195–6
He, B. 93
Heath, J. 254
Heaton, S. 773
hedonic consumption 429n5
hegemonic quality of discourse 576–7
Heller, P. 811
Hendriks, C. 241
Herne, K. 342n7
Herriman, J. 775
Herzberg, V. 703
Hibbing, J. R. 20, 196, 698
Hickerson, A. 505
Hinduism, India 806, 807
historical sociology and political theory 91
HIV-AIDS 649–50
Hjort, J. 96n2
Hobsbawm, E. 881
Hodson, G. 749
Holzinger, K. 849
Holzscheiter, A. 521–2, 526
Hong, L. 121–2
Honneth, A. 138
Hooghe, M. 22
Horkheimer, M. 881
horse-race journalism 225–6
Hug, S. 621–2n5
Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA), UK 902–3
human rights activists 491–2
human rights association, Latin America 830
Huntington, S. 763–4
Hurricane Katrina 701
Huspek, M. 505
Hutchens, M. J. 380
Hylland, A. 51n4
(p. 929) Iceland, crowd-sourced constitution 705
ideal conscious engagement 213
ideal speech situation 42, 44, 49, 65–7, 204, 219, 368, 371, 468, 524, 528–9n9, 719, 871–3
conditions of 66
public reason compared 65–6
identification cards (2005 bill), US 280
Ikegama, E. 91
Imbens, G. W. 669
immigration
EuroPolis poll 244, 305, 863
from Islamic countries 880
impartial culture 474–5
impossibility theorem 117, 222, 466–7, 477
inclusion 5
India 805–18
Ashram movement 92
Below Poverty Line (BPL) cards 812
Buddhist deliberative tradition 807
colonialism 807, 808
Constituent Assembly Debates 809
deliberation under Panchayati Raj 810–13
in dialogue with the West 808–10
elite domination 813, 814
equality and inclusion 806, 807–8, 809, 812, 813, 815
gender biases 813, 814
gram sabhas 703, 806, 810–15
Hindu deliberative tradition 807
historical roots of deliberation 806–8
illiteracy 805, 812, 813, 814, 815n3
Muslim deliberative tradition 807
sabha tradition 807
satyagraha protests 92–3
village democracy 808–9
see also Kerala
Indian Constitution
Article 40 809, 810
73rd Amendment 810–11, 814, 815
Indigenous communities, and global environmental governance 775
indigenous conception of democracy 397
Indigenous Peoples’ Forestry Forum (IPFF), Quebec City, 2003 107
Indigenous protest movements, South America 395
Indigenous spheres of deliberation 100–9
ambiguity of Indigenous peoples concept 100
consensus-building 102–5, 108
consensus in the global context 107
dual processes of deliberation 101–2
external actors’ strategies to circumvent 108
and global politics 106–7
the Indigenous situation 100–2, 104, 105, 106
multi-scalar deliberation 105–7
Indignados movement 395, 400, 401, 402
inequality
and deliberative exclusion 145, 146, 150, 422
global 774
India 809, 814
wealth disparity 699
Ingham, S. 128n17
Institute for Environmental Conflict Resolution, US 715
institutional deliberation 273–99
bureaucracies 283–5
courts 285–7
direct democracy 287
foreign policy errors 282
institutional procedures 276–7, 290n9
insulation of policy-making from public opinion 277–8
judicial competence 286
legislatures 278–81
measurement challenges 275–6
party-controlled deliberation 280–1
presidential advisory processes 282–3
revenue and expenditure forecasts 276
support for deliberative democracy 288–9
theoretical considerations 276–8
timing and frequency of policy innovations 275–6
US president and 281–3
institutional design
countering anti-deliberative tendencies 21
encouraging mass participation 318
micro-institutions 149–51, 153n1
(p. 930) institutions
and citizen interests 426–8
conditions for international relations 523–6
and deliberative equality 148
and deliberative negotiation 732–4
as sites of deliberative democracy 9–10
and transnational/global deliberation 858–63
Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) 835
interest groups 279, 311, 449
awareness 453
China 795
flexibility 453–4
pluralism and 40, 46
receptivity 453
translatability 453
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 643, 770, 771, 776, 778, 779
International Association for Public Participation (IAP2) 698
international IDEA 493
International Law Commissions 861
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 395, 774, 831
International Organization 518
international relations (IR) 518–34
actor orientation 523
constructivist approach 867n2
counting speech acts 522–3
deliberative influence 12
does deliberation lead to better agreement? 526–7
empirical studies 521–6
EU studies 522
functionalist accounts 519–20
inclusivity/exclusivity of access 524
institutional scope conditions 523–6
legacy of realism 518
linguistic turn 519
negotiations and outcomes studies 521–2
normative implications 527–8
privileging honest brokers 525
rhetorical action theory 520
sequencing and the role of power asymmetries 525–6
transnational public sphere studies 522
transparency vs. secrecy 524–5
ZIB debate (rational choice vs. social constructivism) 519–21
international system 12
investigative journalism 335
Involve organization, UK and Europe 698
Iraq War (2003) 275, 282, 283
worldwide demonstrations against 865
Ireland Citizens’ Assembly 302
Irish Constitutional Convention (2013) 303, 705
Irving, H. 440
isegoria 149, 150
Isenria, P. 242
Islam, India 807
Israel, language status in mini-publics 749
Ivison, D. 214
Iyengar, S. 372
Jacobs, L. R. 17, 196, 535
Jacques, C. 822
Jacquet, V. 660
Jainism, India 806, 807
James, M. R. 238
James, W. 578
Japan
civility cultivated through the arts 91
concept of the public 93
deliberative culture 795–6, 797
and deliberative democracy 791–804
Deliberative Polls 792
driving forces, characteristics and patterns 793–4
jury system 795
Liberal Democratic Party 793
overview of practices 792–3
potentials and constraints of capacity building: systemic approach 797–800
privatism 796
prospects of deliberative democracy in 800–801
protest movements 793–4, 798
Jasanoff, S. 651n4
Jefferson Center, Minneapolis, US 700
Jeffrey conditioning 481
Jennings, M. K. 379–80
Jennstål, J. 333
Jha, S. 813
(p. 931) Joas, H. 578
Joerges, C. 522
Johnson, J. 6, 20, 651n1
Johnson, Lyndon 283
Jonsson, M. 366, 370, 372
journalistic intention, and deliberation 94
judgement-aggregation theory 482–4, 483t
premise-based vs. conclusion-based procedures 483–4
judicial review enhancing democratic deliberation 626
judicial systems 10
juries 10, 286
benefits of participation 506
common sense indexical reasoning 579
domination by the advantaged 325
and game theory 478, 479
Japan 795
juristic democracy model 775
justice, and deliberation 132–43, 908–9
beyond the traditional distinctions 136–8
democracy and equality 133–4
democracy presupposing justice 137–8
democratic deliberation as the construction of justice 132–3, 135–6
epistemic value of democracy 133
impartiality as context-sensitive 135, 136
instrumental value of democracy 133, 134, 136
intrinsic value of democracy 133–4, 137
justice presupposing democracy 136–7
mapping the debate 133–4
minimal/maximal accounts of justice 136, 138–40, 141
overlapping consensus 140–1
procedural conception of justice 134
reasonable disagreement 141
the roles of the philosopher 138–40
separation of democracy and justice 132
substantive conception of justice 134
justice theory 138, 139, 175, 207, 240, 908
Juzgado General de Indios, New Spain 101
Kahane, D. 305
Kahneman, D. 541, 567n2
Kant, I. 25n1, 47, 58–9, 60, 62, 67, 175
Kantner, C. 522
Karnataka Act (1985), India 810
Karpowitz, C. F. 79, 665, 666, 759
Katz, E. 385
Katzenstein, P. J. 518–19
Kaviraj, S. 805
Keck, O. 520
Kelsen, H. 134, 231–2
Kelshaw, T. 505
Kennedy, Justice 629
Keohane, R. O. 857–8
Kerala, India
gram sabhas 703, 811
People’s Campaign for Decentralised Planning 703, 811, 814
kgotlas (communal meetings), Botswana 88, 89
Khan, S. 77
Khon Kaen Think Tank (KKTT) 591–2
Khrushchev, Nikita 579
Kim, N. 75–6
Kinder, D. R. 559, 562
King, M. 659
Kitcher, P. 641–2
Kleroterion, Ancient Athens 318
Klofstad, C. A. 380
Kluver, Lars 700
Kant, I. 8
Knight, J. 6, 20, 651n1
Knobloch, K. R. 242, 246, 247
knowledge, elite hoarding 62
knowledge gain 541
in anticipation of deliberation 542
and Deliberative Polling 324–5
and nature of setting/features of group discussion 542
and online deliberation 372
opinion change dependent on group-and individual-level factors 544–5
Koller, A. 580
Korolev, A. 496
Kratochwil, F. V. 518
Krause, S. R. 6–7
Kruglanski, A. W. 542
Krupnikov, Y. 537
Kuhn, T. 44
Kuklinski, J. H. 549n3
Kurnik, A. 403
(p. 932) Laborde, C. 211
Laden, A. S. 139
Lafont, C. 16, 307, 331, 324n11, 334
Lakoff, G. 590
Landa, D. 485n4
Landemore, H. 122, 124, 133, 278, 291n11, 538, 628
Landes, D. 96n2
Landy, M. K. 279
Larmore, C. 4, 205
Lascoumes, P. 642
Lasswell, H. 586
Latin America 90, 829–41
associativism 830–1
constitutionalization: role of the state 831–3
decentralization: role of municipalities 833–4
democratization: role of civil society 830–1
development: role of international organizations <