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date: 18 January 2021

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter describes the methodological considerations necessary for making a causal inference regarding the effect of institutions and group contexts on deliberation. This chapter focuses on the elements of the research design of a study and the assumptions that are necessary to state a causal inference given a particular design; these considerations are applicable to randomized experimental designs, both in the lab and in the field, as well as to quasi-experimental or natural experimental designs using observational data. The chapter shows how to assess the internal validity of a study for identifying a causal effect for a given study and briefly discusses external and epistemic validity considerations that are of particular urgency for empirical deliberation.

Keywords: causal inference, potential outcomes framework, randomization, SUTVA, exclusion restriction, noncompliance, internal validity, external validity, epistemic validity

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