(p. xxxiii) List of Contributors
(p. xxxiii) List of Contributors
Abby Antrobus, Suffolk County Council Archaeological Service, is a senior local government archaeologist. Her PhD thesis, Urbanisation and the urban landscape: building medieval Bury St Edmunds (University of Durham, 2009), combined archaeological, historical, landscape, and architectural evidence to explore how, why, and by whose agency one pilgrimage centre developed, within the context of the phenomenon of rapid urban growth in twelfth-century Europe. She particularly specializes in the management of the archaeological resource of Suffolk’s towns—from the major port of Ipswich to small market centres—advising on the impacts of development, approaches in the field, research frameworks, and approaches to development management and heritage promotion.
Grenville Astill is professor in the Department of Archaeology at Reading University. He is a specialist in the archaeology of the medieval countryside and landscape, monasticism, and industry. He is a director of the Bordesley Abbey Project.
James H. Barrett is a medieval archaeologist with a background in the analysis of fish bones from archaeological sites and an interest in the intersection of economic and environmental history. He studied at the Universities of Toronto, Sheffield, and Glasgow. He taught at the University of York before moving to the University of Cambridge, where he is now a Reader in Medieval Archaeology. James has worked in both the field and the laboratory, publishing widely across the spectrum of the humanities and sciences. He has directed a variety of interdisciplinary research projects, including The Medieval Origins of Commercial Sea Fishing, funded by the Leverhulme Trust.
Terry B. Barry is Emeritus Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, where he specialized in teaching medieval archaeology. His research interests centre on the settlement archaeology of Ireland, Britain, and Western Europe in the Middle Ages, particularly its castles and defensive earthworks. He is the author of many articles and books, including The Archaeology of medieval Ireland (2004), and in 2000 he edited A history of settlement in Ireland, also for Routledge.
Jelena Bekvalac is Curator of Human Osteology, Centre for Human Bioarchaeology, Museum of London. Her main research interests are: bioarchaeological studies; health and disease patterns in the medieval and post-medieval periods, particular focus on London collections; biographical and documentary source research with post-medieval collections, with particular reference to St Bride’s, London; application of digital (p. xxxiv) radiography investigating patterns of disease and impact of industrialization on health. She is currently Acting Chair of the Subject Specialist Network Human Remains group.
James Bond is a freelance landscape archaeologist dedicated to the study of the historic landscape, with special interest on monasteries. He has written extensively on the subject, including the book Monastic landscapes (2004).
Niall Brady has a specialist interest in medieval agrarian technology and has studied medieval ploughing in Ireland and medieval barns across southern England. He has been project director for the Discovery Programme’s (Ireland), Medieval Rural Settlement Project (2002–10) and is working on the publication of two monographs arising from excavation and fieldwork on that project. Niall is founding director of The Archaeological Diving Company Ltd, Ireland’s leading maritime archaeological consultancy.
Peter J. Brown is currently studying for a PhD at Durham University, UK. His research considers the archaeological and historical evidence for natural disasters during the later medieval period, primarily in the British Isles. He is particularly interested in how society was impacted by catastrophic events, what measures were taken to mitigate damage and provide protection from future recurrence as well as the different ways in which these events were perceived and commemorated. He has published and contributed to conferences on a number of related topics and themes.
Jill Campbell is a post-doctoral researcher at Queen’s University Belfast. A buildings archaeologist, she is interested in houses from the late and post-medieval periods across the United Kingdom.
Matthew Champion is a freelance archaeological consultant, specializing in early graffiti inscriptions and aspects of medieval faith and belief. As well as being Project Director of the Norfolk and Suffolk Medieval Graffiti Surveys, he acts as an advisor and consultant to a number of national organizations including the National Trust and Churches Conservation Trust. His other research interests include medieval church wall paintings and medieval architectural construction techniques. He is also a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of London.
Sally Crawford is based at the University of Oxford. She writes and researches on archaeology, including childhood in the early medieval period. She is a founder member of the Society for the Study of Childhood in the Past, and is general editor of its Monograph Series, as well as being its current President. Author of many articles on early medieval childhood, burial ritual, disease, and disability, she is a regular contributor to the international journal Childhood in the Past. Books on the early medieval period include Childhood in Anglo-Saxon England (Sutton Press), Daily life in Anglo-Saxon England (Greenwood Press), and Early medieval England (Shire). She is co-editor of Children, childhood and society (Archaeopress), Oxford University Press handbook of Anglo-Saxon archaeology (OUP), and Oxford University Press handbook of the archaeology of childhood (OUP).
(p. xxxv) Professor Oliver H. Creighton’s research interests focus on medieval buildings, landscapes and townscapes in Britain and Europe. His work has a strong interdisciplinary dimension and he has particular interests in the study of medieval castles in their wider settings; in elite landscapes; in urban archaeology and town defences; and in archaeological heritage management. His books include Castles and landscapes: power, community and fortification in medieval England (2002 and 2005), Designs upon the land: elite landscapes of the Middle Ages (2009), Early European castles: aristocracy and authority,ad 800–1200 (2012), (with Robert Higham) Medieval town walls: an archaeology and social history of urban defence (2005), and (with Neil Christie et al.) Transforming townscapes. From burh to borough: the archaeology of Wallingford,ad 800–1400 (2013).
Christopher Daniell has written extensively about medieval death and burial practices, including Death and burial in the Middle Ages 1066–1550. He worked for many years for York Archaeological Trust as an archaeologist and historian and was a Visiting Research Fellow with the Centre for Medieval Studies in York. He now works for the Ministry of Defence as the Senior Historic Building Advisor. His primary research interests are in death and burial practices, and modern and historic graffiti.
Gareth Dean is an interdisciplinary scholar and researcher, drawing on approaches developed in archaeology, historical geography, and history. His research focuses on the integration of information from different sources, ranging from objects to tenements and their relationship to the wider urban landscape, and how this facilitates understanding of the development and character of medieval urban space. He has published on medieval York, GIS and the analysis of archaeological, historical, and cartographic data, the social uses of the street and the urban environment, and approaches to mapping medieval cities. He is a research fellow of the Universities of York and Nottingham.
Piers Dixon is an Operations Manager in Survey and Recording at Historic Environment Scotland, formerly RCAHMS. A committee member of Ruralia (an international association for the archaeology of medieval settlement and rural life) his interests include rural settlement, castles, monasteries, and landscape. His publications include Excavations in the fishing town of Eyemouth (1986), Excavations at Jedburgh Friary (2000), Puir labourers and busy husbandmen (2002), But the walls remain’d (2002), ‘The medieval landscape’ in RCAHMS, In the shadow of Bennachie (2007), editor of Buildings of the land (2008), and co-author of A history of Scotland’s landscapes (forthcoming 2017).
Simon A. Draper is Assistant Editor for the Victoria County History in Oxfordshire and Editor of Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society. He read archaeology at Durham University and completed a doctorate there published in 2006 as Landscape, settlement and society in Roman and early medieval Wiltshire (British Archaeological Reports British Series 419). He is particularly interested in the relationship between place-names and landscape archaeology and has published a number of articles on the subject. He is also a tutor at Cambridge University’s Institute of Continuing Education.
(p. xxxvi) Holly Dugan is an Associate Professor of English at the George Washington University, in Washington, DC. She is the author of The ephemeral history of perfume: scent and sense in Early Modern England, co-editor (with Lara Farina) of ‘Intimate senses’, a special issue of Postmedieval: a journal of medieval culture studies, and author of numerous articles on the history of olfaction.
Christopher Dyer is Emeritus Professor of History at the University of Leicester, and has recently held fellowships at the University of Birmingham and the Institute of Historical Research. He has served as President of the Society for Medieval Archaeology. His best-known work has been on living standards, but he has researched the history and archaeology of villages and towns, and has pursued studies in landscape history and material culture.
Richard Fawcett who is an Emeritus Professor of the School of Art History at the University of St Andrews, spent much of his previous career in the Ancient Monuments Inspectorate of Historic Scotland. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh and of the Societies of Antiquaries of London and Scotland, and was appointed OBE in 2008. His main research interests are in the field of medieval architecture, on which he has published extensively, including an award-winning survey of Scottish church architecture.
Glenn Foard is Reader in Battlefield Archaeology at the University of Huddersfield. He has researched and written extensively on battles and sieges in Britain and Flanders. Particular interests include reconstruction of historic landscape to explore the interaction of terrain and action, the use of metal detectors to recover artefact scatters, and the analysis of lead projectiles from early gunpowder weapons. Major projects completed include studies of Naseby, Edgehill, Bosworth, and Oudenaarde, and a resource assessment of battlefields in England. His current research is on the battles of the Wars of the Roses and a survey of Barnet battlefield.
Michael Fradley is a Research Assistant on the Endangered Archaeology in the Middle East and North Africa (EAMENA) Project at the University of Oxford, exploring the heritage of the region through the use of satellite imagery. He has worked in commercial archaeology in the UK and as a landscape surveyor for English Heritage (now Historic England), and has worked on research projects in Europe, Africa, South America, and the Middle East. As a landscape archaeologist, Michael’s interests include medieval landscapes, survey methods, applied archaeology, and the history of water management.
Mark Gardiner is a Senior Lecturer at Queen’s University Belfast and has worked widely on the medieval landscapes of Britain and Ireland, examining marshlands, woodlands and uplands, and more generally on aspects of society and settlement. His more recent studies have considered the role of transhumance as a means of transforming the countryside. In other work, he has examined the way in which the interior space was organized and imagined in the late medieval house, the subject of a book in progress.
Christopher M. Gerrard is Professor of Medieval Archaeology at Durham University. His eight books include Medieval Archaeology: understanding traditions and (p. xxxvii) contemporary approaches (2003) and Interpreting the English village: landscape and community at Shapwick, Somerset which won the Best Archaeological Book of the Year award in 2014. His fieldwork includes excavations in Spain and the Azores and projects on qanats, natural disasters in the Middle Ages, and, most recently, the discovery of mass graves of seventeenth-century Scottish soldiers under one of Durham University’s libraries.
Louisa Gidney is a freelance faunal remains specialist. Her research interests are practical livestock husbandry in relation to the interpretation of archaeological data; dwarfism in cattle and sheep, especially chondrodysplasia in Dexter cattle and the Ancon sheep mutation; polycerate sheep, particularly Manx Loaghtan and Hebridean; skeletal anatomy of modern primitive cattle and sheep breeds.
Kate Giles is a Senior Lecturer in Buildings Archaeology at the University of York. She specializes in the study of pre-modern ‘public buildings’ including guildhalls and churches and has undertaken major projects on guildhalls in York, Boston (Lincolnshire), and Stratford-upon-Avon (Warwickshire). Her wider research interests include transition and periodization, antiquarianism and the historiography of recording, documenting and interpreting late medieval wall paintings. She is Deputy Director of the Humanities Research Centre at the University of York.
Rebecca L. Gowland (Department of Archaeology, Durham University) is a senior lecturer in human bioarchaeology, whose research focuses on the analysis of evidence for social identity and body/society interactions from the human skeleton, with a particular emphasis on the life course and health. She has co-authored Human identity and Identification (CUP) and co-edited the Social Archaeology of Funerary Remains (Oxbow).
C. P. Graves is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Archaeology, Durham University. Her research interests are urban archaeology and the development of a mercantile culture in Northern Europe, religious practice and architecture in both the medieval and post-medieval periods; medieval window glass; and archaeological theory, especially the analysis of ritual.
Alejandra Gutiérrez is a Research Fellow at Durham University. Her interests lie in the study of medieval and later material culture, particularly the movement of goods, trade, and exchange, and European contact with Britain in the Middle Ages. She writes about ceramics and other archaeological finds and has authored numerous articles on the subject, including a book, Mediterranean pottery in Wessex households, and an accompanying web-guide for the identification of medieval and later Spanish pottery (www.dur.ac.uk/spanish.pottery).
J. Avelino Gutiérrez-González is Professor of Medieval Archaeology at Oviedo University. He is a specialist on medieval settlement, landscape, and material culture from northern Spain. He has published extensively on these subjects and is currently the director of the Research Group ‘ARQUEOS: Ancient and Medieval Archaeology: Territory, Society and Material Culture’.
(p. xxxviii) Mark A. Hall is an archaeologist, medievalist, and museum curator based at Perth Museum and Art Gallery, Perth and Kinross, Scotland, and currently on secondment in the Outer Hebrides working on the Udal Project for Comhairle nan Eilean Siar. He has long-standing research interests in the archaeology of board games and play, the cult of saints, Pictish sculpture, cultural biography, and cinematic re-imaginings of the past, of archaeology, and of museums.
Claire Hanusse is Maître de conférences en histoire et archéologie du Moyen Âge, Centre de recherches archéologiques et historiques anciennes et médiévales, Université de Caen Normandie, France. Her research is based on the study of villages and pattern of habitats, together with material culture and medieval Normandy, where she is currently excavating with students.
David A. Hinton is an Emeritus Professor of Archaeology at the University of Southampton. He was co-editor of the companion volume in this series, The Oxford handbook of Anglo-Saxon archaeology (2011).
Martin Huggon is currently completing his PhD at the University of Sheffield, and is Associate Tutor in Archaeology and Heritage at Bishop Grosseteste University, Lincoln. His thesis examines the archaeology of medieval hospitals in England and Wales between the years 1066 and 1546. This work is mainly focusing on architecture and material culture from a range of sites, but is also attempting to include a wide range of evidence that includes zooarchaeological remains, cemetery studies, and geographical distribution. His research interests include medieval hospitals and almshouses, medieval medicine, and the interconnection of spirituality, diet, and physical activity to health, and the archaeology of the Military Orders, especially in regard to the provision of hospitality to pilgrims.
Michael J. Huxtable is Lecturer in Medieval Literature in the Department of English Studies at Durham University. He is a member of Durham’s Institute of Medieval and Early Modern Studies and Ordered Universe Research Project. He has written on medieval natural philosophy, theology, and the history of ideas concerning visual culture. He is currently researching medieval heraldic writing and its influences and influence upon other genres and types of discourse from the thirteenth to mid-fifteenth century.
Tom Beaumont James is Professor Emeritus in Archaeology and History at Winchester University. His main areas of interest are medieval buildings, especially medieval palaces, and also the Black Death of 1348–50, having written books on Clarendon Park, Wiltshire, and Winchester, among others.
Richard Kelleher is Assistant Keeper in the Department of Coins and Medals at the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. He specializes in the coinage of medieval and early modern Europe, particularly that of Britain and the Latin East. His research interests include the role of coins in archaeology, the use of metal-detector finds for mapping monetization and coin use, the secondary use of coins, and the coinage of the Crusader (p. xxxix) States of Edessa and Antioch. He is the author of A history of coinage in medieval England, winner of the Royal Numismatic Society’s Lhotka Prize.
Susan Kilby is a Research Associate at the Centre for English Local History, University of Leicester, and is currently involved in the Leverhulme Trust funded project, ‘Flood and Flow: Place-Names and the Changing Hydrology of River-Systems’. Her main interests lie in the complexities of medieval relationships with local landscape, with a particular focus on the lower orders. This ranges from economic interests through to more culturally informed ideas, including conceptual notions of the landscape, the survival of cultural memory, and the landscape as a repository for local cultural capital.
Keith D. Lilley is Professor of Historical Geography at Queen’s University Belfast. He specializes in the mapping and analysis of medieval urban landscapes, with interests in town-planning and urban morphology. His books include Urban life in the Middle Ages (Palgrave, 2002), City and cosmos: the medieval world in urban form (Reaktion, 2009), and Mapping medieval geographies (Cambridge, 2013). He has pioneered the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in the study of medieval urban landscapes and led the creation of online resources to map medieval towns and cities, such as Chester and Swansea. He is currently Chair of the Historic Towns Trust.
Aleksandra McClain is a Senior Lecturer in Medieval Archaeology at the University of York. She specializes in the study of churches, commemoration, and the Anglo-Norman period in England and northern Europe. Her wider research interests include transition periods and cultural contact, social, cultural, and spatial identities, the material expression of religious and secular authority, and the patronage of ecclesiastical material culture. She sits on the committees of the Society for Church Archaeology and the Society for Medieval Archaeology, and is currently deputy editor of Medieval Archaeology.
Maureen Mellor is an archaeologist with a special interest in the material culture of interiors and in medieval diet. She has over thirty years professional experience working with the products of English and European clay industries in field archaeology and in museums. She teaches and lectures at the University of Oxford’s Department for Continuing Education and is currently researching an image-conscious medieval queen and medieval food and foodways, the latter in collaboration with the Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Bristol. She acts as Reader for Historic England on relevant medieval projects. She is also a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, London.
Stephen Mileson is a social historian specializing in the interdisciplinary study of the medieval landscape. He is author of Parks in medieval England (OUP, 2009) and, with Stuart Brookes, of a forthcoming book about peasant perceptions of the material environment, based on research funded by the Leverhulme Trust. He works for the Oxfordshire Victoria County History and is a Research Fellow in the Centre for Medieval History at the University of Oxford.
(p. xl) Lisa Moffett is Regional Advisor for Archaeological Science, Historic England. She is a specialist on botanical remains from the medieval period, and has written extensively on the subject, especially on the archaeology of food.
Richard Morris is Professor at Huddesfield University. He has written extensively on the archaeological study of churches and buildings, and on the historical geography of parish churches. In recent years he is investigating approaches to the archaeology of medieval and early modern battles. He has also has worked as an historical biographer, and on themes relating to aviation and warfare.
Ronan P. O’Donnell is an archaeologist specializing in theoretical approaches, notably Non-Representational and Actor-Network Theories, to the medieval and post-medieval periods, particularly to landscapes. His recent work has included investigations of enclosure in North-East England, and the development of open-field agriculture in Midland England.
David Parsons is Emeritus Reader in Church Archaeology in the University of Leicester. His principal research site is All Saints’ Church, Brixworth, Northamptonshire, where the survey of the standing fabric revealed some forty different building stone types. The analysis of these by geologist Dr Diana Sutherland coupled with enquiries into the stone sources has led to a general reappraisal of the building stone industry in the Anglo-Saxon—and by extension the later medieval periods. He now lives in Sussex, where the historic extraction of both iron and salt has intensified his interest in medieval industries.
Bennjamin J. Penny-Mason (Department of Archaeology, Durham University) is currently a PhD student, researching non-adult bioarchaeology, the history of paediatric medicine and medieval childhood.
Aleks Pluskowski is Associate Professor in Medieval Archaeology at the University of Reading. He completed his PhD at the Department of Archaeology in the University of Cambridge on a comparison of diachronic responses to the wolf in medieval Britain and Scandinavia, subsequently published as Wolves and the wilderness in the Middle Ages (Boydell, 2006). In 2010–14 he directed the Ecology of Crusading Project, which investigated the environmental impact of crusading, colonization and religious transformation in the medieval eastern Baltic. He continues to work on the relationship between ecological and cultural dynamics in medieval frontier societies, particularly associated with crusading and multiculturalism.
Rebecca Redfern is Curator of Human Osteology, Centre for Human Bioarchaeology, Museum of London, and Honorary Research Fellow at Durham University. Her research interests are: bioarchaeology, history of medicine, biomolecular analyses of population mobility and diet.
Amanda Richardson is senior lecturer in late medieval history at the University of Chichester and a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. She has worked on social space and gender in late medieval England and has written extensively on medieval forests and deer parks, which she has explored as gendered spaces. Her most recent research includes (p. xli) the ‘post-history’ of deer parks, especially their role as signifiers of early modern English national identity. She plans in the future to combine her main research interests by researching the estates of thirteenth- and fourteenth-century queens consort of England.
Stephen Rippon is Professor of Landscape Archaeology at the University of Exeter (UK), and a past President of the Medieval Settlement Research Group. His interests include wetland landscapes, regional variation in landscape character, and the Roman-medieval transition. His books include The Gwent levels (1996), The transformation of coastal wetlands (2000), Historic landscape analysis (2004; 2012), Beyond the medieval village (2008; 2014), Making sense of an historic landscape (2012), and The fields of Britannia (2015).
Professor Charlotte A. Roberts Department of Archaeology, Durham University, is a Fellow of the Wolfson Research Institute for Health and Wellbeing. Her research interests are: Bioarchaeological approaches to the history of disease and medicine worldwide and any period, especially infectious disease; the application of biomolecular techniques to answer archaeological questions; application of evolutionary medicine, medical geography and anthropology to palaeopathology. She is President of the British Association of Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology.
Else Roesdahl is Professor (emerita) of Medieval Archaeology at Aarhus University, Denmark. She is also Honorary doctor at Trinity College Dublin and the University of York. Her research interests include Viking-Age Trelleborg-type fortresses and their context; conversion and cultural change; Scandinavia’s international relations; artefact studies; housing culture; and the economic importance of walrus ivory. She has also written, edited, and organized synthetic books, including handbooks, and has been involved in major international exhibitions and their catalogues.
Simon Roffey is Reader in Medieval Archaeology at the University of Winchester. His research interests include the archaeology of the medieval church, religion and ritual, and medieval leprosy hospitals. He has conducted archaeological research on a number of ecclesiastical sites, more recently being the Co-Director of excavations at the medieval hospital of St Mary Magdalen, Winchester. He has written numerous articles, as well as two books, on the subject of the archaeology of the medieval afterlife and chantry chapels. Dr Roffey is a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, London, and the Royal Historical Society.
Colin Rynne is a senior lecturer in the Department of Archaeology, University College Cork, Ireland. He is the author of several books on the industrial archaeology of Ireland and has published widely on the archaeology of water power in early medieval Ireland and Europe.
John Schofield was an archaeologist at the Museum of London from 1974 to 2008. He has written several books about medieval buildings and urban archaeology, including The building of London from the Conquest to the Great Fire (3rd ed, 1999), Medieval London houses (rev. edn, 2003), St Paul’s Cathedral before Wren (2011), London 1100–1600: the archaeology of a capital city (2011) and with Alan Vince, Medieval towns (rev (p. xlii) edn, 2005). His interests include the form of London from 1100 to 1700, and St Paul’s Cathedral, where he is Cathedral Archaeologist.
Bob Silvester was until his recent retirement the Deputy Director of the Clwyd-Powys Archaeological Trust. He is the current President of the Medieval Settlement Research Group and his other interests include historic landscapes of the Welsh borderlands, church archaeology, and seventeenth- and eighteenth-century estate mapping. His publications include two volumes on the Fenland Project in Norfolk (1988 and 1991), the co-editorship of Life in medieval landscapes: people and places in the Middle Ages (2012), and of Reflections on the past (2012), and a long sequence of articles on a wide range of subjects that commenced in 1976.
Eleanor R. Standley is Associate Professor of later medieval archaeology in the School of Archaeology, and Assistant Keeper of the medieval archaeology collections in the Ashmolean Museum, at the University of Oxford. Having studied dress accessories for her doctoral thesis, her research continues to focus on non-ceramic small finds and aspects of dress of the later medieval and early post-medieval periods. Themes of daily life, including devotion, magic, sexuality, gift-giving, memory, and hoarding, feature in her work.
Richard Suggett is Senior Investigator at the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales (RCAHMW) specializing in historic buildings. He is the author of several studies of medieval and post-medieval housing culture, including Houses and history in the March of Wales (2005) and (with Margaret Dunn) Discovering the historic houses of Snowdonia (2014). His History of magic and witchcraft in Wales (2008) is part of a broader study of crime and popular culture.
Emma J. Wells is Associate Lecturer and Programme Director in Parish Church Studies and English Building History at the University of York. Her research interests fall within the field of the religious and cultural history of late medieval and early modern Britain and focus on the art, architecture, and material culture of the period set within their broader Western European context. Her wider interests include pilgrimage, cult and commemoration, the changing nature of sacred space (particularly during the longue durée of the Reformation), sensory experience, and the application of interdisciplinary approaches. Her book, Pilgrim routes of the British Isles was published by Robert Hale in 2016. She is a former executive committee member and social media manager of the Ecclesiastical History Society and currently sits on the editorial board of Royal Studies Journal.
Hugh Willmott is a Senior Lecturer in European Historical Archaeology at the University of Sheffield, a post he has held since 2004. As well as being the co-editor of the volume Consuming passions: dining from Antiquity to the eighteenth century (2005), he has published widely on the archaeology of glass and drinking culture.
Peter Yeoman is now an independent archaeologist and heritage consultant, following a long career with Historic Scotland. His main research interests are the archaeology of Iona, medieval pilgrimage, along with the display and interpretation of early medieval sculpture.