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date: 17 June 2019

(p. xxiii) List of Figures

(p. xxiii) List of Figures

  1. 1.1 ‘A View of the Abbey Church at Llantony, from within the West Door’, 1780, by Samuel Grimm 4

  2. 1.2 A trench dug at Bamburgh Castle in 2004 exposed a sand-filled post-medieval trench which paralleled the medieval foundations 6

  3. 1.3 Excavations at the medieval village of Faxton in 1967 by Lawrence Butler 9

  4. 1.4 Mick Aston (1946–2013), John Hurst (1927–2003), and Maurice Beresford (1920–2005) in 1989 at Wharram Percy 10

  5. 2.1 A hachured earthwork survey of Newhall Tower in Cheshire 26

  6. 2.2 28

  7. 2.3 Magnetometry survey in practice below Corfe Castle, Dorset 29

  8. 2.4 Teampall na Trionaid (‘Trinity church’), Carinish, North Uist in the Western Isles of Scotland 30

  9. 4.1 Conjectural reconstruction of the layout and principal features of Glastonbury Abbey’s manor house at Shapwick, Somerset, in the later medieval period 57

  10. 4.2 The barn at Manor Farm, Kingston Deverill, Wiltshire, built c.1408 59

  11. 6.1 The region of two- or three-field systems 88

  12. 6.2 The distribution of field system types in East Anglia 89

  13. 6.3 The approximate boundary between Midland open fields and irregular field systems in the West Country 90

  14. 6.4 The village of Elsdon in the Northumberland uplands, showing the minimal extent of the former open fields 92

  15. 7.1 Burial pit for cattle, excavated at Shapwick, Somerset, where bones have been dated to ad 980–1160 107

  16. 7.2 Goat horn cores found during excavations at Perth 110

  17. 8.1 Excavations in the monastic kitchen at Durham Cathedral in 2014 121

  18. 10.1 Wild animal bones as recovered in excavations 143

  19. (p. xxiv) 10.2 A misericord from St Mary’s, Enville, Staffordshire, representing bear baiting (fifteenth century) 149

  20. 11.1 The steps descending into St Nicholas’s Church, New Romney, Kent, made necessary by sediments brought in by a storm surge in 1287/8 157

  21. 11.2 Schematic diagram showing the estimated spread of the fire at Glasgow Cathedral 158

  22. 11.3 A folded silver coin from the reign of Edward I or Edward II (1272–1327) from Flintshire, Wales 160

  23. 11.4 A fourteenth- to sixteenth-century lead ampulla from the Vale of Glamorgan, Wales 162

  24. 12.1 Test-pitting in the burh at Lyng, Somerset, as part of the community project Lost Islands of Somerset 173

  25. 12.2 The Priest’s House, Muchelney, Somerset, a priest’s lodging of the fourteenth century and later 174

  26. 12.3 A medieval turf building at Kiltyrie, on the slopes of Ben Lawers, Scotland 176

  27. 12.4 Example of a Welsh girdle settlement: Ty-uchaf in Llanwddyn 179

  28. 12.5 Medieval reclamation of land on the Gwent Levels 183

  29. 13.1 Croft F at Great Linford (Buckinghamshire) 194

  30. 13.2 Multi-phase peasant building at West Cotton (Northamptonshire) 195

  31. 13.3 Copper-alloy buckles and buckle plates from Tattenhoe and Westbury (Buckinghamshire) 203

  32. 13.4 House at Quoygrew, Orkney, c.1200 206

  33. 14.1 Scolland’s Hall, Richmond Castle (North Yorkshire) 214

  34. 14.2 Tofts at Great Linford (Buckinghamshire), showing the brewhouses also used for the sale of ale set towards the street 217

  35. 15.1 Map showing the distribution of houses with crucks in England and Wales 227

  36. 15.2 An excavated stone-walled two-unit dwelling on St Tudwal’s Island, Caernarvonshire, which retained unusually clearly the principal features of the hall 231

  37. 15.3 Recreation of the furnished home of Robert Dene of Stoneleigh, Warwickshire, based on his probate inventory (1552) and surviving three-bayed, cruck-framed house 233

  38. 15.4 Tyddyn Llwydion (Pennant Melangell, Montgomeryshire): cut-away of a cruck-framed upland hall-house/long-house 233

  39. 15.5 Tyddyn Llwydion: the building sequence of a late medieval hall-house on a new site 234

  40. 15.6 A peasant hall with dais canopy: Upper Hem, Forden, Montgomeryshire 236

  41. (p. xxv) 16.1 Oakham Castle, showing aisled hall and the two blocked up service doors 245

  42. 16.2 An idealized tripartite plan 246

  43. 16.3 Athelhampton, showing the oriel window at the high end of the hall 247

  44. 17.1 A large structure excavated by Worcestershire Archaeology north of St James’ Church in Southam, Worcestershire, comparable with the major medieval barns of the Cotswold region 260

  45. 17.2 Swalcliffe Tithe Barn in Oxfordshire 264

  46. 17.3 Sandonbury, Hertfordshire, ground plan 267

  47. 17.4 General plan of Barton Farm, Bradford-on-Avon, Wiltshire 269

  48. 18.1 A plan-analysis of Coventry (Warwickshire) showing ‘plan-units’ that each represent, potentially, discrete stages of accretion in the medieval urban landscape 277

  49. 18.2 The layout of New Winchelsea (Sussex) at the time of its foundation (c.1283) 278

  50. 18.3 Using a Geographical Information System (GIS) to combine archaeological site plans and data with historic 1:2500-scale Ordnance Survey maps 282

  51. 18.4 The layout of later medieval Chester 286

  52. 18.5 The Gough Map of Great Britain (dated c.1360–1400) 287

  53. 18.6 The positions of settlements and places that are represented by the Gough Map 287

  54. 18.7 The hinterland of medieval Coventry, c.1450 292

  55. 19.1 A twelfth-century lane in the City of London 299

  56. 19.2 39 Strand Street, Sandwich, of the 1330s, partly reconstructed 303

  57. 19.3 Brook Street, Winchester, in the fourteenth century 304

  58. 19.4 Swan Lane, London: lead cames forming a pane or quarry from a window, with a fragment of blue glass, from a waterfront dump of 1270–1350 305

  59. 20.1 The restored early sixteenth-century shop adjacent to St Mary’s Guildhall in Lavenham Market Place 313

  60. 20.2 A customer in a perfumer’s shop, after a fifteenth-century illumination adorning John Lydgate’s The pilgrimage of the life of man 314

  61. 21.1 A town plan: Bewdley in Worcestershire 327

  62. 21.2 A town house: a three-storey corner shop at Ludlow 328

  63. 21.3 A hinterland: Stratford-upon-Avon 330

  64. 21.4 Stone mortars from King’s Lynn 333

  65. 22.1 Old Ouse Bridge in York packed with buildings, including St William’s chapel 347

  66. (p. xxvi) 23.1 Hen Domen: excavations within the bailey 359

  67. 23.2 Norwich Castle, showing the positioning of the Norman castle within the Anglo-Saxon townscape 360

  68. 23.3 Wallingford: castle kitchens under excavation in 1972 362

  69. 23.4 Chepstow Castle: the Great Tower 364

  70. 23.5 The King’s Knot, Stirling 367

  71. 24.1 Lyddington Bede House in Leicestershire, part of a medieval bishop’s palace 372

  72. 24.2 A map of royal palaces during the Middle Ages 374

  73. 24.3 Westminster palace and abbey, as depicted by Wenceslaus Hollar in 1647 379

  74. 24.4 A reconstruction of the thirteenth-century palace floor from the king’s apartments at Clarendon Palace, Wiltshire 381

  75. 25.1 The great royal park of Clarendon (Wiltshire) with its palace, inner park, multiple compartments, and several gates 389

  76. 25.2 The distribution of woodland and parks in medieval England 390

  77. 25.3 The park at Willey (Shropshire), first documented in the late thirteenth century 392

  78. 25.4 Kennington Palace in Surrey 395

  79. 26.1 Map of all medieval battles 403

  80. 26.2 Graph of battles in Britain by half century 404

  81. 26.3 The distribution of artefacts and mass graves on Towton battlefield, set against the historic terrain 407

  82. 26.4 Distribution of battle archaeology on Bosworth battlefield 409

  83. 26.5 A lead-iron composite round shot of c.39 mm diameter with an area of lead lost 412

  84. 27.1 Harold’s coronation depicted on the Bayeux Tapestry 420

  85. 27.2 Gilt copper-alloy badge from London, fourteenth–fifteenth centuries, depicting a standing boar on a twisted rope 422

  86. 27.3 The Pusey horn as recorded in the eighteenth century for Archaeologia 424

  87. 27.4 Effigy of Brian Fitzalan, Lord of Bedale, in St Gregory’s church, Bedale, North Yorkshire, early fourteenth century 426

  88. 28.1 The leat tunnel in Shillamill Wood, near Tavistock, Devon 437

  89. 28.2 Quarry for steatite, or soapstone, at Catpund near Cunningsburgh in Shetland, Scotland 440

  90. 28.3 Silver matrix seal of the city of Exeter with the craftman’s signature LUCAS ME FECIT, c.1200–1208 442

  91. (p. xxvii) 28.4 Bulkington, Wiltshire, tiny hamlet drawing on pottery from a variety of production centres in the medieval period 445

  92. 28.5 Dragon Hall, Norwich, a warehouse built by Robert Toppe, a mercer and sheriff of Norwich 1430 447

  93. 29.1 Selected English sites using Caen stone 459

  94. 29.2 Metal-working sites on Exmoor 461

  95. 29.3 The Bere Ferrers silver/lead extraction sites 462

  96. 29.4 Leicestershire coalfield: aerial photograph showing landscape features 466

  97. 29.5 Leicestershire coalfield: reconstruction diagram of mineshaft and pillar-and-stall workings 467

  98. 30.1 Excavations at 17, Redcliff Street, Bristol, revealed the remains of a hearth of fourteenth century date with a pitched stone base and a stoking chamber 480

  99. 30.2 Recent finds of twelfth-century antler carving found during excavation in Northampton 483

  100. 31.1 Reconstruction of horizontal-wheeled watermill at Cloontycarthy, Co. Cork, Ireland 492

  101. 31.2 Reconstruction of fourteenth-century undershot watermill at Patrick Street, Dublin, Ireland 494

  102. 31.3 Undershot waterwheel paddle floats 495

  103. 31.4 Ground plans of later medieval watermills 498

  104. 31.5 Mill-pond drain at Bordesley Abbey, dendro-dated to ad 1227 499

  105. 31.6 Machinery from later medieval watermills 500

  106. 31.7 Reconstruction of the later medieval post windmill at Great Linford, Buckinghamshire 504

  107. 31.8 A suggested evolution of English windmill foundations 505

  108. 32.1 A range of medieval coins found in Britain 514

  109. 32.2 Periodization scheme for analysing medieval coins 1066–1544 516

  110. 32.3 Finds of medieval coin hoards (1066–1544) made in England and Wales per decade 518

  111. 32.4 PAS single find evidence from England and Wales to 2008 521

  112. 32.5 Map illustrating the sources of non-English coins found in England and Wales 522

  113. 33.1 One of the Nine Men’s Morris boards, with playing piece, from Nevern Castle, Wales 532

  114. 33.2 A selection of medieval dice from the Perth High Street excavations, Perth, Scotland 534

  115. (p. xxviii) 33.3 The tomb of St Osmund, Salisbury Cathedral, Wiltshire, with detail of one of the gaming boards (for alquerque) 536

  116. 35.1 The gatehouse of Cleeve Abbey, Somerset: elevation drawing with building phases interpreted 566

  117. 35.2 The water-powered iron mill within the precinct of the Cistercian abbey of Bordesley, Worcestershire 568

  118. 36.1 Some English cathedral plans 583

  119. 36.2 Durham Cathedral, nave interior built between 1093 and 1133 587

  120. 36.3 Nave of Salisbury Cathedral 588

  121. 36.4 Glasgow Cathedral during excavation 592

  122. 37.1 Parish church plans 599

  123. 37.2 Moulding profiles attributable to a single master mason 601

  124. 37.3 Examples of window designs found in parish churches 603

  125. 37.4 Fotheringhay Church, Northamptonshire, an example of the ‘Perpendicular’ style 604

  126. 37.5 St Mary, Happisburgh, Norfolk. Octagonal baptismal font of the fifteenth century 609

  127. 37.6 The footings of the twelfth-century apse at Pennant Melangell, Montgomeryshire 611

  128. 37.7 St Mary, North Shoebury in Essex 611

  129. 38.1 The holy well or healing spring and chapel of St Gwenfrewi (Winefride) at Holywell, Flintshire, Wales 618

  130. 38.2 A Rogationtide procession in the conceptualized city of Constantinople as depicted in the Luttrell Psalter c. 1320–40 621

  131. 39.1 Lidgate, Suffolk. Latin inscription that translates as ‘John Lidgate made this, with licence, on the feast of Saints Simon and Jude’, dated on stylistics grounds to c.1400–c.1550 627

  132. 39.2 Inscriptions, including late medieval text, from the church of St Mary, Troston, Suffolk 631

  133. 39.3 Pelta design in the nave of St John’s church, Duxford, Cambridgeshire 633

  134. 39.4 Elaborate compass-drawn design in St Mary’s church, Lidgate, Suffolk 634

  135. 39.5 Incised late medieval North Sea cog at St Margaret’s church, Cley-next-the-Sea, Norfolk 636

  136. 40.1 Lincoln Cathedral carving of a pilgrim c.1400 642

  137. 40.2 Artist’s reconstruction of the church, hostel, and harbour for pilgrims en route to St Andrews across the Firth of Forth 644

  138. (p. xxix) 40.3 Reconstruction drawing of St Mary’s Hospital, Ospringe, Kent, in its developed form c.1250 645

  139. 40.4 Fragment of mould for casting Walsingham Annunciation badges and a mould-match badge from the Thames foreshore in London 650

  140. 40.5 Late twelfth-century burial of male leper pilgrim with scallop shell at his hip, St Mary Magdalen’s Hospital, Winchester 652

  141. 40.6 Burial of young man c.1300 from St Ethernan’s Priory, May Island, Fife, with a Compostela shell inserted into his wedged-open mouth soon after death 653

  142. 40.7 The Worcester Cathedral pilgrim, as excavated and reconstructed 654

  143. 41.1 Three-dimensional digital model of the guild chapel at Stratford-upon-Avon 661

  144. 41.2 The Corporal Works of Mercy window, All Saints North Street, York, early fifteenth century 662

  145. 41.3 The cadaver tomb of Archbishop Henry Chichele, Canterbury Cathedral, c.1425 666

  146. 41.4 The Middleham Jewel, fifteenth century, featuring an engraving of the Trinity, inset sapphire, and inscription 667

  147. 41.5 Christ enthroned and holding the Crucifixion, with patrons depicted praying below. Folio 33 recto from the Bolton Book of Hours, early fifteenth century 669

  148. 41.6 St Mary’s guild chapel, St Botolph’s, Boston, Lincolnshire 671

  149. 42.1 Star pattern made by the vault cross-ribs above the feretory in which St Cuthbert’s shrine was housed, Durham Cathedral 682

  150. 42.2 Prayer niches of the shrine of St Werburgh, Chester Cathedral 684

  151. 42.3 Part of a pilgrim sign, possibly a badge, made of pewter and showing a man swinging a censer for burning incense, fourteenth to fifteenth centuries 687

  152. 42.4 The rood screen at Binham Priory, Norfolk, showing sixteenth-century whitewash and text over the fifteenth-century figural depictions 688

  153. 43.1 Ceramic cooking jars from Deansway, Worcester; copper-alloy skillet and flesh hook from Pottergate, Norwich; skimmer from London 700

  154. 43.2 Wooden dishes from St Mary Spital, London; wooden bowl from High Street, Southampton; pewter saucers from Southampton and Leicester Austin Friars; pewter spoon from Barentin’s Manor, Oxfordshire 703

  155. (p. xxx) 43.3 Glass jug from Southampton; ceramic ‘face jug’ from Hallgate, Doncaster; leather ‘black jack’ from Watling Street, London; glass goblet from High Street, Southampton; glass beaker from Southampton; ceramic drinking jug from Woolwich; pewter tankard from Tonbridge Castle, Kent 706

  156. 44.1 A small copper-alloy bell of the kind used as a dress accessory, found in Lewknor (Oxfordshire) 716

  157. 44.2 The heavily restored Norman font at Belton church (Lincolnshire), showing a bell-ringer in action 718

  158. 44.3 Ewelme hundred in south Oxfordshire, based on nineteenth-century maps 721

  159. 44.4 Selected bell soundmarks in Ewelme hundred 722

  160. 44.5 Dorchester Abbey’s tenor bell of c.1380, weight 843 kg 724

  161. 45.1 729

  162. 45.2 Civic smell perceptions 736

  163. 45.3 Smell perceptions 737

  164. 45.4 Positive civic smells 738

  165. 45.5 Negative civic smells 738

  166. 46.1 Wall painting in All Saints and St Andrews Church, Kingston, Cambridgeshire 746

  167. 46.2 Traces of white paint at Fountains Abbey, North Yorkshire 747

  168. 46.3 A striking pottery vessel made in the fifteenth century in the Valencia area, Spain, decorated with gold and blue colours 752

  169. 47.1 Defining chronological, biological, and social age, in relation to medieval language commonly used to describe those under the age of 21 years old 764

  170. 48.1 Copy of the brass of the infant Nicholas Wadham (dated 1508), St Peter’s Church, Ilton, Somerset 777

  171. 48.2 The deserted medieval village of Widford, Oxfordshire 782

  172. 48.3 Finger-pinched decoration on a sherd of medieval pottery 785

  173. 49.1 The right-hand hawking glove believed to have belonged to Henry VIII 792

  174. 49.2 Hair-covering of embroidered silk net with braid edging dated to c.1300, excavated from Rig VI, High Street, Perth 793

  175. 49.3 Gold, amethyst, and enamel reliquary ring from the hoard found near Thame, c.1350–1400 794

  176. 49.4 Gold seal ring set with a reused sapphire intaglio carved with the veiled head of a woman 796

  177. 49.5 AVE MARIA inscribed buckle plates 798

  178. (p. xxxi) 49.6 Copper-alloy buckle of gaping-mouth beast type 799

  179. 50.1 The Templar preceptory at South Witham in Lincolnshire as reconstructed after excavation by Philip Mayes in 1965–7 809

  180. 51.1 A late medieval skeleton in a grave prior to excavation: Hull Magistrates Court site 820

  181. 51.2 Stature trends over the four phases of burials at the site of the hospital and priory of St Mary Spital 824

  182. 51.3 Stable isotope plot showing mobility histories of skeletons with evidence of treponemal disease buried at the site of Hull Magistrates Court 828

  183. 52.1 Lead sheet wrapped around the right shin of a 26–35 year old female, Sk 7186 (c.1250–c.1400), and a copper-alloy plate found between the knees of skeleton 12441, a 36–45-year-old male (c.1120–c.1200), both from St Mary Spital, London 839

  184. 52.2 The Black Death cemetery at East Smithfield 842

  185. 52.3 An example of rhino-maxillary syndrome seen on Sk 48 from St Mary Magdalen, Winchester 844

  186. 52.4 St Mary Magdalen chapel in Ripon, North Yorkshire, built in the first half of the twelfth century 845

  187. 52.5 Plan of St Mary Spital, London, showing the known layout of the site at the time of the Dissolution 848

  188. 54.1 Doom painting, North Leigh Church, Oxfordshire 869

  189. 54.2 Medieval wall painting from South Leigh Church, Oxfordshire, showing the Virgin Mary and St Michael weighing a soul 871

  190. 54.3 The Markham Chapel, Newark Church, Nottinghamshire 873

  191. 54.4 The elaborately decorated porch and chantry chapel of John Greenway (c.1517), Tiverton, Devon 874

  192. 54.5 Chantry chapels of Bishop William Wayneflete, Winchester Cathedral (late fifteenth century) and Sir Edward Despenser, Tewkesbury Abbey (late fourteenth century) 875

  193. 54.6 Reconstructed pre-Reformation view-sheds at Stoke Charity Parish church, Hampshire, and Holy Trinity Bradford-on-Avon, Wiltshire 879

  194. 55.1 Main places mentioned in the text and sea routes around Great Britain in the medieval period 888

  195. 55.2 Main places and sea routes around Europe in the medieval period 890

  196. 55.3 Some of the main medieval trading routes, links, and places mentioned in the text beyond the Mediterranean 892

  197. (p. xxxii) 55.4 A range of imported items found in British contexts 896

  198. 56.1 Aerial photograph of an early medieval ringwork castle at Danesfort, Co. Kilkenny 910

  199. 56.2 Trim Castle, Co. Meath 912

  200. 56.3 Plan of the deserted medieval village of Piperstown, Co. Louth 917

  201. 56.4 Earthworks of the Pale at Kilteel, Co. Kildare 921

  202. 57.1 Frequency of large fish groups and their distance to shore in north-west of France in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries 928

  203. 57.2 The east tower of a urban fortification at Talmont, Vendée, France 931

  204. 57.3 A leper’s grave at Saint-Thomas d’Aizier, Eure, France 934

  205. 58.1 Denmark and part of Norway and Sweden with main place-names mentioned in the text 942

  206. 58.2 North portal of Lime church, northern Jutland, Denmark, c.1100 952

  207. 58.3 Part of a ‘dancing girl’ jug from Ragnhildsholmen Castle in south-western Sweden, c.1250–1310; and an English jug of Grimston Ware, found in Ribe, thirteenth to fourteenth century 954

  208. 58.4 Reconstruction of the crown of Philippa of England 956

  209. 59.1 Main medieval routes to Santiago de Compostela and places mentioned in the text 965

  210. 59.2 Staff or bordón fragments found during excavations in Oviedo, and Compostela pilgrims as depicted in the Book of Trades of 1568 967

  211. 59.3 Ironworks excavated at Bagoeta, Álava (seventh to fourteenth centuries) 969

  212. 59.4 A fifteenth-century sugar factory under excavation in Agaete, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria 970

  213. 59.5 Alabaster figures from an altarpiece made in England c.1440–60 and originally installed at the church of Campo del Tablado, Castropol, Asturias 973