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date: 19 May 2019

(p. 997) Index

(p. 997) Index

Note: Figures are indicated by an italic f following the page number. The index is not exhaustive.

Aalborg (Jutland) 953
Aarhus (Denmark) 944
abandoned villages see deserted villages
Abbey Church, Llantony (Abergavenny) 4f
Abbey of Fors (Jervaulx Abbey), Wensleydale (North Yorkshire) 145–6
Abbey Row, 30–50 Church Street, Tewkesbury (Gloucestershire) 313, 317
Abbeygate Street, Bury St Edmunds (Suffolk) 317
abbeys see monasteries
Abbot’s Staith, Selby Abbey (North Yorkshire) 344
Abbots Leigh (Bristol) 708
Abbotsbury (Dorset) 497, 498f, 501
Aberconwy (Clwyd) 297, 570
Aberdeen (Aberdeenshire) 14
Aberdeen Cathedral 582, 590, 591
animal remains 109, 134
architecture of churches 605
brewing industry 443
Broad Streets 319
buildings 301
dyes 748–9
Gallowgate 319
port 893
salterns 184
shops 319
St Nicholas East Kirk church 652
vegetable remains 119
Whitefriars 779
wolf hunting 146
Aberdeenshire
animal remains 111
Bishop’s Loch, Loch Goil 186
buildings 306
Castle Hill, Strachan 363
castles 363
Fetternear 382
Forvie, storm (1413) 159, 164
Garioch 176, 180
immigration 180, 991
Invernochty Castle 185
Old Rayne 111
Rattray 111, 306, 363
settlements 176, 177, 180
Wardhouse Castle 180
Abingdon (Oxfordshire) 306, 345–6, 858
Abingdon Abbey (Oxfordshire) 121, 780
Abou-El-Haj, B. 617
Absalon (Danish archbishop) 950
Abū Nasr al-Fārābī 733
Abu Ya’qub Yusuf I 514f
Acklum, William of Wharram le Street 58
Acle (Norfolk) 629
acoustemology 683
Act of Dissolution in 1547 873
Acton Burnell (Shropshire) 250
Acton Court (Gloucestershire) 121–2, 243, 250, 253, 797–8, 974
Adderbury (Oxfordshire) 457, 458
Addyman, Peter 11
aDNA see ancient DNA
analysis 826–7, 829–30, 843
adolescents 44, 765–6, 767
employment 767
Adoration of the Magi Mural, All Saints Church, Shelfanger (Norfolk) 745
adulthood 767–8
aerial photography 8, 25–7, 26f, 172, 465, 466f, 910f
of monasteries 567
aerial survey 25–7, 26f
(p. 998) Afforestable Land Survey 172–3
Afghanistan 897
Africa 371
coins from 514f
ivory 971, 975
leprosy 843
silks 895
trade with 150, 889, 891, 893, 894, 971, 975
see also individual countries
afterlife
belief in 868, 869f
Purgatory 641, 665, 775, 862, 870–1, 871f
Agaete, Las Palmas (Gran Canaria, Spain) 970f
ageing 759–61, 768–9
and disease 820
perceptions 774
Agincourt Battle [France, 1415] 404, 410
Agnus Dei 162, 796
Agnus Dei at Carlisle Cathedral 630
agricultural buildings 259–60, 260f, 262, 263–6, 264f
agriculture 74
chronological changes 74–5
climatic effect 79–80
equipment 196
environmental approach 77–80
family labour 475
food production 262–3
layout of holdings 266–70, 267f, 269f
methods 95
open fields 334
processing and production 477–8
tools 261–2
Ahrensfelde (Germany) 494
Ailnoth of Canterbury 949
Ailsworth (Northamptonshire) 220
alabaster 335, 439, 458, 471, 606, 953, 972, 973f
Álava (Spain) 968, 969f, 971
Albucasis 837
Alcácer do Sal (Portugal) 970–1
Alcester (Warwickshire) 201
Aldeburgh (Suffolk) 316
ale 443
Alexander III (Italian Pope) 837
Alexander III (King of Scotland) 514f
Alfonso VIII (King of Castile) 975
Alfonso X (King of León and Castile) 538, 975
Alhambra (Granada, Spain) 373
All Hallows-by-the-Tower Church (London) 637
All Saints and St Andrew Church, Kingston (Cambridgeshire) 746
All Saints Church, Litcham (Norfolk) 630
All Saints Church, Shelfanger (Norfolk) 745
All Saints Church, York (North Yorkshire) 662f
Almadén (Spain) 974
Almohad half dinar of Abu Ya’qub Yusuf I 514f
almshouses 847, 850–1 see also infirmaries
Alnhamsheles (Northumberland) 196
Alnwick (Northumberland) 31, 280, 574
Alsace (France) 932
Alsted (Surrey) 481
Alston Grange (Leicestershire) 460
Altarnum (Cornwall) 632
altarpieces 663
Althrey Hall (Flintshire) 252
amber 485
Amberley (Sussex) 503
Ambion Hill (Leicestershire) 408
ampullae 162f, 201, 548–9, 633, 648, 649–50, 665, 798
analytical earthwork survey (archaeo-topographical survey) 23, 25
Anarchy-period castles 361
Anastis Rotunda, Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem 40
Anchor Green, North Berwick (East Lothian) 649
ancient DNA (aDNA) 117, 124, 826–7, 829–30, 843
Ancient Monuments and Historic Buildings Directorate 9
Ancient Monuments Laboratory (London) 10, 102
Report series 103
Ancient Woodland Indicator Species (AWIS) 33
Andernach (Germany) 502
(p. 999) Angers (France) 307
Anglesey (Wales) 135
Anglo-Normans, invasion of Ireland 909–12, 920–1
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 516
animal bones 60, 251, 332
assemblages 103
burial pits 107–8, 107f
disease 107
dog 109
horse 109
size 105–6
animals
carcass products 482–4, 483f
cause of smells 731–2, 739
exotic imported 900, 971–2
farmed in France 927
farming 78–9
grazing settlements 180–2
imported exotic 148–9, 150, 894
wild see wild animals
‘animalscapes’ 367
Anketil, a famous goldsmith 950
Annales Cambriae 147
Annales school, France 70
Annals of Ulster (845 ad) 913
Annandale (Scotland) 184
Anne Boleyn (Queen of England) 974
Anne of Bohemia (Queen of England) 376
Anne of Cleves (German princess and Queen of England) 378
anoxic burial environments 117
antler carving 483–4, 483f
Antwerp (Belgium) 944, 974
anvils 482
APABE (Advisory Panel on the Archaeology of Burials in England) 827
Apologia (Bernard of Clairvaux) 689
apothecaries 837
apprenticeships 767
apses 598, 611f, 683
Aquitaine (France) 929
Arabian Peninsula 891
arable landscapes 86
chronological changes 92–8
effect of Black Death 96–8
regional variation 86–92, 88f, 89f, 90f
archaeoacoustics 683
Archaeological Data Service (ADS), University of York 103, 293, 984–5
Archaeological Investigations Project (AIP) 984
Archaeological Journal (AJ) 5, 6
archaeological societies 5 see also individual society names
Archaeological Survey of Ireland 914
Archaeology and the Middle Ages (SMA agenda) 982
archaeo-topographical survey (analytical earthwork survey) 23, 25
architecture
agricultural buildings 259–60, 260f, 262, 263–6, 264f
cathedrals 582–90, 587–8f
churches 554–5, 600–5, 603–4f, 611f
Denmark 947, 951–3, 952f
European influence on Normans 373
Gothic 3–6, 229, 375, 555, 586, 602, 747, 750
graffiti 634–5
layouts of buildings 805–6, 809f, 810
manor complexes 266–70, 267f, 269f
manor houses 243–6, 245f
monasteries 566–7, 566f, 571, 572–5
peasants’ houses 201–2, 204, 205–7, 206f, 226–38
Romanesque 371–5, 601–2
shops 313–15, 313f, 314f, 321
structuralist approach 40–1
surge in interest 6
tripartite plan 246–9, 246f
vernacular 810–12, 929, 985
Archive of Historical Earthquake Data (AHEAD) 985
archives
of aerial photographs 25–6
online 984–5
Arden Forest (Warwickshire) 87, 95, 213
Arena Chapel, Padua (Italy) 747
aristocracy 329, 366–8
board games 533, 535
designed landscapes 386, 395–7
in Ireland 915
(p. 1000) location of burials 858
pleasure gardens 393–4, 397
space and gender 813–14
tournaments 394
Aristotle 690, 732, 742–3, 745, 762
Armada shipwrecks 974
arrowhead, as charm 616
artefacts
from battlefields 408–11, 409f
biography of 45
biological 250–1
changing emphasis over time 5
coins as 513–15
destruction of 5, 45
domestic setting 43
evidence of trades and crafts 326
illegal removal 414
increased understanding of 15
from moated sites 250
movement across the Channel 5
numbers of finds 20
recycling 5
from sieges 411–13, 412f
storage 14, 439
symbols of resistance to power 427–8
urban 291
Arthur (King of the Britons) 419
artisans, symbols of resistance to power 427
Arts and Humanities Research Council 11, 414
artworks
commemorative 664–5
depicting chessboards 532
symbols of power in 418, 420f
wall paintings 660–1, 661f, 745–8, 746–7f, 879–80
Arundel, Thomas (Archbishop of Canterbury) 421, 749
Asferg (Jutland) 951
Ashmolean Museum, University of Oxford (Oxfordshire) 791, 792, 794
coin collections 512
Ashwell (Hertfordshire) 629, 630, 637
Asia, trade with 889, 891, 894 see also individual countries
assarting 93–4, 95, 96
Assize of the Forest 142
Association for Environmental Archaeology (AEA) 102
Association of European Archaeologists 448
Aston, Mick 11
At Risk Register 414
Athelhampton (Dorset) 247, 247f
Attleborough (Norfolk) 608
Atwell, George (surveyor and mathematician) 159
Aubrey, John (antiquarian) 373–5, 591
auditory perception see sounds
Audley (of Walden), Thomas Audley, Baron 405
Audun-le-Tiche (France) 494, 496
Augsburg (Germany) 532
Augustinian brethren 645
Augustinian canons 791
Augustinian Friary in Hull (East Riding of Yorkshire) 859
Augustinian Holy Trinity (Dublin) 920
Augustinian house, Wigmore (Herefordshire) 968
Augustinian monasteries 569, 571, 577
estates 576
Augustinian priories 581
Augustinian priory of Kells (Co. Kilkenny, Ireland) 919
Augustinian priory of St Mary Merton (Surrey) 439, 778
Auldhame (East Lothian) 547
aumbries 607
Austin Friars of Hull (East Riding of Yorkshire) 571
Austin Friars, Leicester (Leicestershire) 702, 703f, 704, 791, 795
authority, studies of 44
Avebury (Wiltshire) 878
Aveiro (Portugal) 970, 974
Avilés museum (Spain) 976
Azores (Portugal) 891
BABAO (British Association of Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology) 819, 827
Baber, John (brazier) 701
Bacon, Roger (philosopher and scientist) 691
badges, as symbols of resistance to power 428
(p. 1001) badges of royalty 421–3, 422f
Bagoeta, Álava (Spain) 968, 969f, 971
baileys 361, 363
Bakewell (Derbyshire) 863
Ballyine (Co. Limerick, Ireland) 500, 500f, 501
Balsall (Warwickshire) 244
Baltic coast 336, 942, 944, 945
Baltic Sea 128, 444, 889, 941, 964
Baltic states 442
coins 524
Estonia 446, 945
herring from 131, 134
trade with 131, 134, 147, 670, 893, 943, 945–6, 955–7
Baltonsborough Mill, Glastonbury (Somerset) 499
Bamburgh Castle (Northumberland) 5, 6f
Bampfield mine, North Molton (Devon) 463
bandages 838, 839f
Bangor Cathedral (Gwynedd) 584
Bannockburn, Battle of [Stirling, Scotland, 1314] 402, 404–5, 410
baptism 762, 775
baptismal fonts 608–10, 609f
Barcelona (Spain) 728
Bardney (Lincolnshire) 570
Bardowick (Germany) 500f, 501
Barentin family 427
Barentin’s Manor (Oxfordshire) 243, 251, 253, 703, 704
Barenton, Brittany (France) 221
Barkefold, John (15th century) 719
Barker Tower, York (North Yorkshire) 346
Barking Abbey, (London) 815
Barlings Abbey (Lincolnshire) 566
Barnack (Northamptonshire) 244, 329, 332
Barnack quarry (Cambridgeshire) 438, 457
Barnard Castle (Co. Durham) 14, 103, 104, 105, 111, 358, 363, 790–1
Barnard Chapel, St Mary’s Church, Luton (Bedfordshire) 872
Barnet, Battle of [Hertfordshire, 1471] 405, 408, 411
Barnham (Sussex) 897
Barra, Outer Hebrides (Scotland) 185
barrel-coopering 478
Barrow upon Soar (Leicestershire) 460
Bartholomaeus Anglicus 747
Barton Blount (Derbyshire) 155, 197, 506
Barton Farm, Bradford-on-Avon (Wiltshire) 265, 269, 269f
Basel (Switzerland) 301
basket houses 226
Basque trade 968
Bassingham (Lincolnshire) 635
bastles 365
Batalha (Portugal) 975
Bate, Athelard 672
Bath (Somerset) 346, 373
Bath cathedral 581
bishop palace 382
monasteries 569
Batsford (East Sussex) 496, 497, 498f, 499, 500, 500f
Battle (East Sussex) 745
Battle Abbey (East Sussex) 707, 795
battlefields 401–2
artefacts found 408–11, 409f
conservation management 413–15
contamination with modern items 414–15
evidence 404–8, 407f
records of 402–4, 403–4f
see also individual battles
Battlefields Inventory 413
Battlefields Register 414
Battlefields Trust, Resource Centre 402
Bawtry (South Yorkshire) 344
Bay of Bourgneuf (France) 933
bay divisions 301–2
Bayeux Tapestry 405, 418, 419, 420f, 707, 910
Baynards Castle (London) 749
BBC documentary 7
beads 485, 797
bears 146, 148–9, 149f
Beauchamp, Richard (Bishop of Salisbury) 620, 880
Beauchamp, Richard de (13th Earl of Warwick) 862
Beaufort, Henry (Bishop of Winchester) 880
Beaulieu (Hampshire) 502, 573
Beaumaris (Anglesey) 5
Beaumont-le-Richard (France) 244
Beauvais (France) 927
(p. 1002) Beckamoor Combe, Dartmoor (Devon) 464
Becket, Thomas (á) (Archbishop of Canterbury) 347, 423, 859
Becket ampulla, Canterbury 649, 650
Becket’s blood 648
Beckside (East Yorkshire) 500
Bedern, The, York (North Yorkshire) 481
Bedfordshire
Bedford 346
Chicksands Priory 566–7
Dunstable Priory 571, 620
Husbands Crawley 630
Leighton Buzzard 24
Luton 610, 872
pottery in 332
Stratton 122, 123
Tempsford Park 243
Beer quarry (Devon) 457
Beguine movement 550
Beijing (China) 730
Belchamp (Essex) 263
bell-casting 481
bell foundries 439
bell-ringers 718f, 719
bell towers 584, 598, 718, 719, 723
bells 715, 716f, 716–17
church 555, 718–25, 724f
for communication 715
Belmont on Unst, Shetland (Scotland) 464–5
Belton church (Lincolnshire) 718f
Ben Lawers Landscape Project (Scotland) 173, 175, 176f, 178, 181
Benedict XII, Pope 376
Benedict XIII, Pope 972
Benedictine abbey, Reading 968
Benedictine monasteries 569–70, 571, 577, 581
belief in Purgatory 870
cloisters 572
estates 575–6
medical conditions 575
Benedictine nunneries 815
Benedictine Rule 571, 573
Benson (Oxfordshire) 720, 721f, 723
Bere (Gwynedd, Wales) 288
Bere Alston (Devon) 184, 463
Bere Ferrers (Devon) 175, 437, 461, 462f
Bergen (Norway) 441, 446, 946
Bergmann’s Rule 106
Berkeley Castle (Gloucestershire) 54
Berkeley family (13th century) 858
Berkshire College, Cambridge (Cambridgeshire) 377
Bermondsey Abbey (London) 14, 810
Bernard of Angers (11th-century author) 531–2
Berrick Prior (Oxfordshire) 719, 724
Berrien, Brittany (France) 929
Berwickshire
Berwick port 643, 893
Coldingham 570
Eyemouth 134, 183
Fast Castle 790–1
The Hirsel 547, 652
Kirk Ness 847
Bessingby (North Yorkshire) 632
Bethersden (Kent) 218
Beverley (East Yorkshire) 14, 119, 120, 300, 302, 306, 500, 739, 749
board games 533
Bewdley (Worcestershire) 327f
bezels 797
Bible 621
Biblia pauperum (Poor Man’s Bible) 658
Bicker Haven (Lincolnshire) 469
Big Data 72, 984
Biggar (Lanarkshire) 180, 605
Bignor (Sussex) 471
BioArCh team, University of York 105
Bilbao (Spain) 968, 976
Bilney (Norfolk) 460
Bilson, John (18th-century scholar) 592
Binham Priory (Norfolk) 630, 635, 688, 688f
bioarchaeology 60–1, 819, 824, 827, 926, 992
analytical techniques 828
data analysis 829–30
future research 830–1
biographical studies 44–5
biographies, archeological 988–9
biomolecular archaeology 15, 32
birds, wild 144–5
Birmingham (West Midlands) 438, 439, 549
birth 762
Bisconis, Andreas de (15th-century cleric) 626
Bishop Auckland (Co. Durham) 382
(p. 1003) bishoprics 372, 372f
bishops 581
Bishop’s Loch, Loch Goil (Aberdeenshire) 186
Bishops Waltham (Hampshire) 382
Bishopsgate (London) 341
Bishopstone (East Sussex) 129
Blackburn, Nicholas Sr (Lord Mayor of York) 662f
Black Death (1348–50) 147, 154, 325, 376, 377, 820, 840–2
catastrophic cemetery (East Smithfield) 829
commemorated in church inscriptions 629
dwellings rebuilt after 232, 239
effect on ageing norms 769
effect on arable landscapes 96–8
effect on fishing industry 135
effect on housing 305
effect on monasteries 576
effect on population 285
effect on shops 320
effect on work practices 767
studies of 60–1
and urban change 289
black earth 333
Blackfriars, Gloucester (Gloucestershire) 469, 829
Blackfriar’s Barn, New Winchelsea (East Sussex) 314–15
Black Friary, Trim (Co. Meath, Ireland) 919
Black Gate, Newcastle upon Tyne (Tyne and Wear) 790
Black Sea 891
blacksmiths 481–2
Blairgowrie (Perthshire) 182
Blakeney (Norfolk) 601, 601f, 636
Blanche’s Crown 420–1
Blekinge (Sweden) 941
blood-letting 838–40
Blythburgh (Suffolk) 635
boar, symbol 422–3, 422f
board games 531–8, 532f, 534f, 536f
Boarstall (Buckinghamshire) 201, 331
Bodiam Castle (East Sussex) 23, 42–3, 55, 253, 357
Bodleian Library, University of Oxford (Oxfordshire) 54, 285, 287
Bodmin Moor (Cornwall) 41, 93, 95, 463
Bohemian glass-making 443
Bohun family 422
Bollingen (Württemberg, Germany) 517
bones
abnormalities 780, 781
ageing process 761
animal see animal bones
charnel 857
evidence of morbidity in children 767
examining 859–60
fracture rates from leprosy 829–30
human 60–1, 819–30 see also burials
limited diseases affecting 826
objects made from 483–4
Boniface VIII, Pope 860
Book of Sainte Foy, The (Bernard of Angers) 531–2
Books of Hours 659, 668, 669f
Boothby Pagnell (Lincolnshire) 244, 245
Borbjerg, Jutland (Denmark) 953
Bordeaux (France) 444, 514, 919
Border wares from London 751
Bordesley Abbey (Worcestershire) 163, 437, 478, 482, 567, 568f, 569
watermill 495f, 495, 496, 497, 499f, 499, 500, 501, 502
Boreham Airfield (Essex) 246
Børglum Cathedral Jutland (Denmark) 953
Bornish, South Uist (Scotland) 131
Boston (Lincolnshire) 132, 133, 342, 345, 670–2, 671f
Boston stump see St Botolph’s Church, Boston (Lincolnshire)
imports and exports 894–5, 897
Bosworth, Battle of [Leicestershire, 1485] 401, 405, 408, 409f, 411, 414, 418, 795
Boteler’s (or Oversley) Castle (Warwickshire) 366
botijas or ‘olive jars’ 974
Bottisham (Cambridgeshire) 608
Boulogne area (France) 458
Bourges (France) 496
Bourne (Lincolnshire) 331
Bovey Tracey (Devon) 608
box-framing timber tradition 229, 234, 234f
Brabant region 590
(p. 1004) Bradbourne (Derbyshire) 673
Bradford-on-Avon (Wiltshire) 265, 269f, 481, 879f
Bramber (West Sussex) 458, 468, 470
Bramford (Suffolk) 608
Brandes-d’Oisans (France) 929
Brandon (Suffolk) 218
brasses 862
Brassington (Derbyshire) 205
brass-rubbings 775–6, 777f
Bray (Berkshire) 872
Brayford Pool, Lincoln (Lincolnshire) 345
breastfeeding 763
Breckenborough (North Yorkshire) 517
Brennilis, Brittany (France) 929
Breviarium Bartholomei (by John Mirfield) 836
brewing industry 443, 477
brickmaking 443
bridge chapels 643
bridge estates 348
Bridge Masters 346
bridges 345–8, 347f
Bridge Street, York (North Yorkshire) 316
Bridgettine order 955
Bridgewater Without (Somerset) 505
Bridgnorth (Shropshire) 280
Bridlington (North Yorkshire) 132, 504
Brightwell Baldwin (Oxfordshire) 720, 721–2f
Brikar, Thomas (15th-century carpenter) 442
Brill (Buckinghamshire) 201, 331
brine springs 484–5 see also salt production
Brinklow (Warwickshire) 280
Briquebec (France) 244
Bristol 284, 285, 287, 290
Abbots Leigh 708
bridges 346, 347
Bristol Castle 972
dyes 479, 480f
houses 297, 301, 306, 307, 317
Keynsham Abbey 566, 651
Lord Mayor’s Chapel 5, 974
market stalls 319
ports 135, 291, 342, 344, 919, 964, 974, 975
pottery 444, 751, 919–20, 974
Poyntz family 901, 974
quarries close to 471
Redcliffe area 479, 480f
shop-houses 318, 486
St Bartholomew’s Hospital 847, 850
St James’s Priory 525
St James the Less Church, Iron-Acton 901
tanning 482–3
textile industry 479, 480f, 482–3
trade route to Ireland 919
urban regeneration 12, 14, 275
waterfronts 279, 343
wine 330, 446
British Archaeological Association 5–6, 14, 593, 660
British Association of Biological Anthropology and Osteoarchaeology (BABAO) 819, 827
British Geological Survey 471
British History Online website 53
British Library (London) 54, 253, 702
British Museum 6, 7, 12, 380, 422, 518, 607, 615–16, 715, 794, 799, 987
coin collections 512
Brittany (France) 39
Broad Streets, Aberdeen (Aberdeenshire) 319
Bromholm Priory (Norfolk) 646, 656
Brompton Bridge (Yorkshire) 651
brooches 615–16
coins as 524–5
Brook Street, Winchester (Hampshire) 304, 304f, 308
Brooks Wharf (London) 966
Brora (Sutherland) 184
Brown Willy, Bodmin Moor (Cornwall) 93, 95
Browne’s Hospital, Stamford (Lincolnshire) 851
Bruegel, Pieter (16th-century artist) 538
Bruges (Belgium) 944, 971, 974
Buckfastleigh (Devon) 608
Buckland-in-the-Moor (Devon) 632
Bucklersbury (London) 315
buckle plates 798f, 799f, 800
buckles 203f
building industry 200
Buildings at Risk Register 382
buildings
agricultural 259–60, 260f, 262, 263–6, 264f
(p. 1005) on bridges 347–8, 347f
copied designs 213
designed to be impressive 212–13
fronting 306–7
lordly 212–13
manor complexes 266–70, 267f, 269f
privacy 216
standing see standing buildings
stone 301, 317, 456–60
tripartite plan 246–9, 246f
urban 298–308, 299f, 303f, 304f
views from 213–15, 214f
vocalized 211–12
waterfront 342–4, 345, 441
Bulkington (Wiltshire) 445f
Bull Hall, Winchester (Hampshire) 699
Burgo, Richard de (‘Red’ Earl of Ulster) 913
Burgundy (France) 933, 935
burials 44
cathedrals 585
children 775–80, 777f
coins in 525
commemorations 426–7, 426f, 862–3
criminals 861
crossroads 862
data analysis 829–30
evidence of battlefields 405–8, 407f
exhumations 819, 820f, 827, 857
and funerals 856–7
gender segregation 808–9
grave goods 858–9
infant 762–3
limitations of data 825–7
locations 857–8
mass graves 841–2, 842f
monasteries 575
mortuary practices 860–2
pilgrims 651–5, 652f, 653f, 654f
position of bodies 819–20, 820f
royal tombs 863–4
sex and age estimation 826
St Mary Spital hospital cemetery 823–5, 824f
studies of bodies 859–60
tomb shrines 664–5, 666f
Burnham (Lincolnshire) 553
Burton (Wiltshire) 608
Burton Agnes (Yorkshire) 244
Burton Dassett (Warwickshire) 506
Burton on Trent (Staffordshire) 161, 335, 570
Bury St Edmunds (Suffolk) 320, 342, 476–7
Abbeygate Street 317
cathedral 968
coin-making 476, 514f
Moyse’s Hall 213
stone 332
windows 314
Butcher’s Row, Shrewsbury (Shropshire) 317
butchery
carcass products 482–4, 483f
practices 697
in smallholdings 198–9
written documents 60
Buzzart Dykes (Perthshire) 185, 382
Byland Abbey (North Yorkshire) 567, 574, 986
Cabaret, Durfort (France) 929
Cade, William of London 418
CADW, Welsh historic environment service 11
Cadwallader (Northumberland historian) 6
Caen, Normandy (France) 332, 458, 459f, 470, 897
Caen stone 445–6, 933
Caernarfon (Gwynedd) 284, 287, 913
Caesarius of Heisterbach 535
Cahir Castle (Co. Tipperary, Ireland) 913
Cairngorms (Scotland) 141
Calais (France) 515
Caldecote (Hertfordshire) 62, 173
Calicut (India) 971
Calstock (Cornwall) 463
Cambridge (Cambridgeshire) 334–5
animal remains 109
museums 512, 514
River Cam 221
St John’s Hospital 405, 850
stone 332
University 25, 54, 377, 567, 840, 872
Cambridgeshire
Barnack quarry 438, 457
Bottisham 608
burial of criminals 861
(p. 1006) Chesterton 460
Duxford 460, 629, 633f, 638
Ely see Ely; Ely Cathedral
Gamlingay 776–7
Harlton 637
Hayley Wood 33
Hemingford Grey Manor House 244
Histon 460
Kingston 746f, 777
Peakirk Church 606
Peterborough 220, 331
Peterborough Abbey 438, 567
Peterborough Cathedral 582, 586, 593
Ramsey Abbey 438, 441
St Neot 43
Yaxley 460
Cambuskenneth Abbey (Stirling) 184
Camp Shiel Burn (Peeblesshire) 181
Campbells of Glenlyon (Perthshire) 615
Campo del Tablado Church, Castropol (Spain) 973f
canals 345
Canaries Islands (Spain) 971
candles 436
Canmore database 184, 185, 402
canons 581
Canterbury (Kent) 320, 643, 644, 955
ampulla 648, 649, 650
Christ Church 265
dental health 823, 830
monasteries 569
Northgate 161
St Augustine’s Abbey 377–8, 458, 470, 573
St John’s Church 644
stone buildings 301, 470
Canterbury Cathedral, Canterbury (Kent)
artwork 747
construction of 346, 582, 583f, 586, 592, 933
inscriptions 635
pilgrimages to 43, 619, 629, 643, 646–7, 919, 955, 966
planning 583f, 585
Priory 571, 573
royal marriage 956
shrines 584, 643, 646–7, 648, 689, 955
tombs 426, 665, 666f, 791, 858, 895
Canterbury Tales, The (Chaucer) 643, 743–4
Cape of Good Hope (South Africa) 891
Capetian kings 372, 376
Capon, William 378
carcass products 482–4, 483f see also butchery
card games 537
Cardigan Bay 228
Cardinal College (Christ Church), Oxford University 577
Care of Cathedrals Measure 593
Carisbrooke Castle (Isle of Wight) 60, 367, 813
Carlisle (Cumbria) 337
Carlisle Cathedral (Cumbria) 581, 589, 590, 630
Carmarthen (Wales) 974
Carmelite friary 439
Carolingian empire 571, 615
Carrick (Argyll) 532
Carrickfergus (Co. Antrim, Ireland) 911–12
Carse of Gowrie (Perthshire) 182
Carta Mercatoria (1303) 900
Cartagena (Spain) 972
Carter, John (18th-century draughtsman) 3
Cartergate, Grimsby (Lincolnshire) 132–3
Carthusian monasteries 569
Carthusians, cloisters 574
cartography see mapping
carvings 318
Cashel Cathedral (Ireland) 445
castellology see castles
Castile (Spain) 975
Castle Acre (Norfolk) 212, 213, 358, 532, 534–5
Castle Combe (Wiltshire) 288
Castle Donington mill (Derbyshire) 496, 498, 502
Castle Eden (Co. Durham) 91
Castle Green cemetery (Hereford) 858
Castle Hill, Strachan (Aberdeenshire) 363
Castle Mall, Norwich (Norfolk) 359
castle-palaces 371
Castle Rising (Norfolk) 813
Castle Studies Group 8, 355
castle-towns 279–80, 284
castles
association with chess 532
design 212–13
(p. 1007) earth-and-timber castles 361–3
earthwork castles 185
in France 930–2, 931f
gardens surrounding 394
gender and space 813, 814
in Ireland 909–13, 910f, 912f
layout 805
‘military v. symbolism’ debate 357–8
motte-and-bailey castles 356, 358, 910, 911, 930
‘origins of the castle’ debate 41–3, 356–7
plant remains 121
projective and reflective views 366–7
studies of 355–6, 358–68
siege castles 361
surge in interest 5, 7
towns built next to 329
see also individual castles
Caston (Norfolk) 635
Castor (Northamptonshire) 216
Castrojeriz, Burgos (Spain) 966
catastrophic events 154, 156–9, 157f, 158f
mitigating the damage 159–61, 160f
protection from 161–4
cathedrals 581–2
architecture 582–90, 587–8f
burials 585
design and construction 582–6
furnishings 590–1
plans 583–6, 583f
studies of 591–3
see also individual cathedrals
Catherine of Aragon (Queen of England) 968
Catpund quarry (Shetland) 440f
cats 108–9
cattle 332
cattle stalls 262
cattle-farming 74, 79, 110–11
calf slaughter 104–5
disease 106–8
grazing 333–4
leather-working 105
living conditions 262
size of cattle 105–6
on smallholdings 197, 199
vellum production 104–5
Caus (Shropshire) 325
Causeway Lane, Leicester (Leicestershire) 108
Caxton, William 659
Cefn Graeanog (Gwynedd) 171, 179
cellars 318
Central Province 87
ceramics
albarelli 898
assemblages 698–700, 700f
colour 751–2, 752f
dripping pans 699
imported 898
jugs 705, 706f
pipkins 850
traditions 441
see also pottery
cereals 118, 120, 121, 123, 197
Chalgrove (Oxfordshire) 427, 616, 719, 723, 724
chalk 460
chamber blocks 244
Champagne fairs 889
chancel areas 598, 599, 607–8
Chancery records 53
chantries 600, 872–5, 873f, 876, 878
chantry chapels 872, 874–5f, 875–6, 878–81
Chapel Hill, Ballachly (Caithness) 464
Chapel of our Lady of the Pew, Westminster Abbey (London) 378, 380
chapels 220, 552–4, 597, 600
on bridges 348, 643
Chapman, Adam (seller of pilgrim badges) 645
chapter-houses 573, 585
charcoal 435–6
Charlemagne 615 see also Carolingians
Charles I (King of Great Britain and Ireland) 379, 419
Charles the Bold (Duke of Burgundy) 523
Charlottenburg Palace, Berlin (Germany) 947
charnel 857 see also bones
charring 117, 120
Chartered Institute for Archaeologists (CIfA) 13
Charterhouse Square (London) 841
‘chases’ (deer reserves) 388
chasses 647
Châteaugiron, Ille-et-Vilaine (France) 926
(p. 1008) Château-Thierry (France) 930
Chaucer, Geoffrey 523, 643, 743–4
Cheam (Surrey) 486, 751
Cheapside (London) 283, 315, 319, 320, 321, 341, 481
Cheddar (Somerset) 371
Chedworth (Gloucestershire) 629
Chellaston (Derbyshire) 335, 458
Chelmsford (Essex) 346
Chepstow Park (Monmouthshire) 184
Chepstow Castle (Monmouthshire) 14, 318, 363–5, 364f, 813
Chertsey (Surrey) 380
Cheshire
Buerton 25
College Fields 25
Combermere Abbey 566
Darnhall 570
Meols 159–60, 704, 793
monasteries 570
Nantwich 469, 484
Newhall Tower 26, 26f
Norton Priory 437, 567, 572
Old Abbey Farm 243
Poulton 570
salt working 469, 484
Stanlaw on the Mersey 570
Tatton 205
Vale Royal 570
chessboards 531–3, 534, 536, 537–8, 990
chess pieces
chalk 534
found on Isle of Lewis 15, 46
ivory 484, 896f
Northampton 483f
Chester (Cheshire) 11
buildings 301, 303, 306, 316, 320
Chester Cathedral 573, 590, 683–4, 684f
Chester Rows 318–19, 487
Dee Bridge 346
Dominican Priory 778, 795
Earls of 276
monasteries 569, 570, 778
shops 318–19, 320, 487
streets 316, 341, 342
trade route to Ireland 919
urban landscapes 281, 285, 286f, 325
Watergate 316
Chester’s Pentice, Felsted (Essex) 316
Chesterton (Cambridgeshire) 460
Chestnut Wood, Borden (Kent) 25
Chew Magna (Somerset) 872
Chichele, Henry (Archbishop of Canterbury) 426, 665, 666f
Chichester (West Sussex)
bell-casting 481
Bishop’s Palace 380–2
Chichester Cathedral 163, 582, 584
St James and St Mary Magdalene Hospital 829, 843, 861
St Mary’s Hospital 644, 645
Chicksands Priory (Bedfordshire) 566–7
childbirth, death in 778
children 44, 61, 763–5, 774–5, 780–5
burials 775–80, 777f, 858
as craftworkers 443
education 767
infants 761–3
morbidity 767
physical labour 781
socialization 783–5
work 766
Chillingham (Northumberland) 105, 107
Chilmark limestone 586
Chilterns 720, 721f, 723
Chilvers Coton (Warwickshire) 201, 331
chimneys 307
China 891
Chingley Forge (Kent) 464, 496, 497, 498f, 499, 500, 500f, 502
Chrétien de Troyes 148
Christ Church, Canterbury (Kent) 265
Christ Church, Oxford University 577
Christ Church, York (North Yorkshire) (York) 551
Christchurch Priory (Dorset) 878
Christchurch Priory, Twynham (Hampshire) 615
Christian I (King of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden) 956–7
Christianity 371–2, 375–6
Christina of Markyate 627
(p. 1009) Christmas festivities 621
Chronicles (Froissart) 532
Chroniques d’Angletere 702
Church
association with landscape 545–6
resistance to 428–9
and State 371–2
Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem 40, 810
Church Monument Society 862
church records 53–4
Church Street, Tewkesbury (Gloucestershire) 313
churches
acoustic modelling 550–1
aesthetics 554–6
architecture 554–5, 600–5, 603–4f, 611f
bells 555, 718–25, 724f
board games in 535–7, 536f
chapels 552–4
components 598–600
Denmark 949, 950, 951–3, 952f
design and construction 600–1
details and furnishings 605–10
fixtures and fittings 663–4
Gothic architecture 375–6
graffiti inscriptions see graffiti inscriptions in churches
interplay of the senses 683–5
Ireland 918–19
and landholders 555–6
landscapes 551–6
parish see parish churches
plans 598–9, 599f, 646
studies of 610–12
in towns 549–50
wall paintings 745–8, 746–7f
see also monasteries
Cicero 690
Cinema City excavations, Norwich (Norfolk) 649, 650f
cinnabar 974
Cinque Ports 132, 446
circular keeps 912
Cirencester (Gloucestershire) 598, 605
Cistercian monasteries 569, 570, 573
cloisters 574, 575
estates 576
Cistercian nuns 643
Cistercian Ware 751
Cistercians 744, 745, 747, 748
architecture 586
monuments 863
Ciudad Real (Spain) 974
Clarendon Palace (Wiltshire) 371, 376, 377, 380, 381f, 382, 383, 896, 897
Clarendon Park (Wiltshire) 39, 373, 375, 389f
clay dabbins 205
Cleeve Abbey (Somerset) 566, 566f
Clement VI, Pope 376
Clerkenwell nunnery (London) 14
Clermont-Ferrand Cathedral (France) 589
Cley-next-the-Sea (Norfolk) 635, 636, 636f
Clifford, Rosamund (mistress of Henry II) 373
climate 154–6
effect on agriculture 79–80
effect on animal size 105–6
effect on cattle 107–8
effect on health 820–1
climate change 76
Cloere Brien prison (Berkshire) 60
cloisters 572–5
Cloontycarthy (Co. Cork, Ireland), watermill 492f
cloth-making 335
cloth-working 441–2
clothing 336, 789
colours 748–9
dress accessories 793–800, 794f, 796f, 798f, 799f
finds 790–3, 792f
future research 800
production 199, 200
religious 791
cloth seals 895, 896f
Cluny Abbey, Saône-et-Loire (France) 301, 933
Clwydian Hills (Wales) 70
Clywd-Powys Archaeological Trust 415
coal 436
coal mining 465–6, 466f, 467f
coastal areas 71
ship graffiti 635
(p. 1010) specialized settlements 182–3, 183f
storms 159
coats-of-arms 423, 955–6
Cobham, John de (builder) 211
cochineal 749
Cockersand (Lancashire) 221
Coflein database 11, 402
Coge, Agnes (midwife) 779
Coggeshall (Essex) 298
coins 199–200, 235, 511–12, 514f
collections 512–13
dating 515–17, 516f
Denmark 950–1, 953
as documents and artefacts 513–15
folded 160–1, 160f, 525, 616, 989
forgeries 516
future research 525–6
hoards 517–19, 518f
from Iberian Peninsula 976
imported 521–4, 522f
mutilation 525
production 476
as sacred relics 616–17
Scandinavia 946
secondary use 524–5
single finds 519–21, 521f
Spain 966
Colchester (Essex) 298, 325, 334, 519, 847, 848–9, 899, 955
Coldingham (Berwickshire) 570
Coleham Island, Shrewsbury (Shropshire) 347
Coleorton (Leicestershire) 465–6, 466f, 467f
collaborations between disciplines 985–6
College Fields (Cheshire) 25
Cologne Cathedral (Germany) 615
Colomby (France), watermill 494, 495f, 495, 496, 500f
colour 742–5
ceramics 751–2, 752f
clothing 748–9
detail in churches 605–6
manuscripts 750
in wall paintings 745–8, 746–7f
Colwyn Castle (Powys) 184
Combe Martin (Devon) 461
Combe-in-Teignhead (Devon) 632
Combermere Abbey (Cheshire) 566
commemorations 426–7, 426f, 664–5, 862–3
commerce 444–6, 445f see also trade
Common Law, age of responsibility 767
Common Pleas court, Westminster 53, 379
communication, sounds 715
community archaeology 987–8
community projects 11–12, 22–3, 173f
Company of Pewterers 704
compass arms 496
compass-drawn designs 632, 634f
computed tomography 828
computer recording systems 102–3
Conan IV (Duke of Brittany) 145–6
coneygarths 391
Coney Street, York (North Yorkshire) 304
Conflict Archaeology International Research Network (CAIRN) 401
Conques (France) 549
conservation management of battlefields 413–15
Constantinople (Turkey) 621f, 891
Conwy (Wales) 276, 284, 287, 301
cooking 697, 698–701, 700f
Cooling Castle (Kent) 211
Copenhagen (Denmark) 957
Copenhagen Psalter 950
University of Copenhagen 957
copper
mining 463
transportation 470
copper alloy 336
cooking pots 700–1
from Scandinavia 948–9
Coppergate, York (North Yorkshire) 476, 702
Coquetdale community archaeology 988
Corbett, Peter (Marcher lord) 146
Corcannon (Co. Wexford, Ireland) 493
Corfe Castle (Dorset) 25, 29f, 484
Cork (Ireland) 444, 918
Corn Street (Bristol) 319
Cornwall 96, 205
Altarnum 632
(p. 1011) Bodmin Moor 41, 93, 95, 463
Calstock 463
chapels 552, 553
churches 605
copper mining 463
field systems 90f, 91
fishing industry 135
Fovey 506
hamlets 174
Launceston Castle 11, 13, 79, 102, 104, 106, 111, 358, 366, 532, 897, 898, 984
Liskeard 814
Penhallam 242, 244, 248, 250, 707
St Michael’s Mount 412–13
tin mining 463
Coromandel Coast 891
Corona chapel, Canterbury 646–7
Coronation Chair, Westminster 419
Corporal Works of Mercy, All Saints North Street, York (North Yorkshire) 660, 662f
Corpus Christi play cycle 551
Corpus Christi processions 621, 663
Corpus of Scottish Medieval Parish Churches project 985
correspondence, private letters 54
Cosmati pavements 897
COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) 136
Cotswolds 441, 480
Council Chamber, York (North Yorkshire) 347
Council for British Archaeology 7, 9
Council of Canterbury (1236) 778
Council of Lyons (1274) 870
Council of Treves (1310) 778
countryside surveys 70–1, 73–4
chronological changes 74–5
environmental approach 77–80
theoretical approaches 75–6
County Clare (Ireland) 914
County Durham (England)
field systems 91
silver mining 461
County Kilkenny (Ireland) 914
County Limerick (Ireland) 914
County Meath (Ireland), windmills 503
County Tipperary (Ireland) 914, 915
County Wexford (Ireland) 915
Couper Angus Abbey (Perthshire) 182
Courcey, John de 912
Court Hall, New Winchelsea 315
court rolls 54, 55, 58, 62, 218
courtyard houses 302, 303f
courtyards 266, 267f, 365
Coventry (Warwickshire) 120, 201, 276, 277f, 284, 285, 287, 290, 292f, 304, 325, 342, 439
churches in 549
Coventry Cathedral 581
Covington (South Lanarkshire) 180
Cowthorpe (North Yorkshire) 607
Crabhouse Priory (Norfolk) 159
craft production 199, 326, 436, 475–7
animal products 483–4, 483f
France 932–3
rural households 477–8
craftworkers 442–4, 442f
crannogs 185–6
Crawley (West Sussex) 464
Crécy Battle [France, 1346] 404, 421
creel houses 226–8
Cricklade (Wiltshire) 28f
criminals, burial practices 861
Croft (Lincolnshire) 607
crofts 176
Cromarty Medieval Burgh Community Archaeology Project 12
Cromwellian Wars 914, 918
Crondon Park, Stock (Essex) 391
crop rotation 926
‘Cross-and-Crosslets’ coinage 516–17
cross-heads 548
Crossrail project (London) 841
crossroads burials 862
cross-trees 504–5, 506
Crowe, John (14th-century peasant) 218
Crowland Abbey (Lincolnshire) 221, 861
Crowmarsh Gifford (Berkshire) 361
crowns 419–21, 420f
Imperial State Crown 419
Philippa of England 956f
crucifixes 896f
cruciform plans of cathedrals 583, 583f
cruck-trusses 226, 227f, 228–9, 231f, 233f, 235
(p. 1012) Cruggleton (Dumfries and Galloway) 363
Crusades 900
Cuckoo Lane, Southampton (Hampshire) 650, 702, 972
Cuddeson (Oxfordshire) 724
Cumberland, copper mining 463
Cumbria 228, 461
Cuppin Lane, Chester (Cheshire) 341
Curia Regis Rolls 53
curiae 266, 267f
Currently Occupied Rural Settlements (CORS) project 11–12
Custom House, Hull (East Riding of Yorkshire) 344
cutlery 704
Cuxham (Oxfordshire) 720, 721–2f
dabbins 228
Dalkeith (Midlothian) 605
Dalyngrigge, Sir Edward (builder of Bodiam Castle) 55
dams, construction 498
Danbury (Essex) 486
Dance of Death 660
dancing-girl jugs 953, 954f
Danesfort (Co. Kilkenny, Ireland) 910f
Danevirke 941–2
Danish Scanian fishery 132
Darenth (Kent) 608
Darnhall (Cheshire) 570
Daroca Cope 972
Dartmoor (Devon) 41, 78, 230, 326, 464
Dinna Clerks 699
granite 502
Dasing (Germany) 494, 496, 500
data, storage 984–5
data analysis, from burials 829–30
data collection 102–3
plant remains 116–18
techniques 986–7
dating techniques 986
David I (King of Scotland) 184, 185, 523
Dean Court Farm, Abingdon Abbey (Oxfordshire) 121
Deansway, Worcester (Worcestershire) 120, 700f
death
funerals 856–7, 933–5, 934f
post-neonatal 763
studies of 856
Decorated period 602
decoration
in churches 605–6, 663–4
in royal palaces 379–80, 381f
deductive approach 38–9
Dee Bridge, Chester (Cheshire) 346
de Elsyng, Richard (14th-century London mercer) 318
Deeping St Nicholas (Lincolnshire) 730
deer 372
deer-farming 111
deer-hunting 142–4, 149–50, 388–91
deer parks 185, 373, 382
defences, urban 281
Degannwy (Gwynedd) 375
Dekker, Thomas (17th-century writer) 627
demesne farming 97, 108, 477
Denbigh (Denbighshire) 315, 319
Denbigh Moors (Denbighshire) 182
dendrochronology dating techniques 31, 32, 59, 59f, 297–8, 566–7, 985
Dene, Robert (Stoneleigh) 58
Denmark 135, 261, 941–3, 942f
architecture 947, 951–3, 952f
churches 949, 950, 951–3, 952f
contrasted with Britain 947–8
craftworkers 443
import of metals 944
produce 945–6
relationship with Britain 948–56
relationship with Scotland 957
research in 259
dental health 822–3
depositions 46
Derby (Derbyshire) 348
Derbyshire 344
Bakewell 863
Barton Blount 155, 197, 506
Belper 814
Bradbourne 673
Brassington 205
Castle Donington mill 496, 498, 502
Chellaston 335, 458
Drakelow 221
Needham Grange 97
Norbury 598
Peak (or Peveril) Castle 210–11, 368, 989
Peak District 93, 97, 145, 205, 332, 463, 502
River Dove 519
Royston Grange 22
silver mining 461
Deritend (Warwickshire) 201
Deserted Medieval Village Research Group (DMVRG) 7–8
deserted villages 155, 172, 179, 200, 204, 782f, 916–18, 917f
France 929
desiccation 117
Despenser, Sir Edward le 875f, 878
Despenser chapel, Tewkesbury Abbey (Gloucestershire) 878
detectorists see metal-detecting
de Ufford, Robert (Justiciar of Ireland) 913
developer-led archaeology 12–14, 21
Devon 77–8, 96, 228, 239, 332
Beer quarry 457
Bere Alston 184, 463
Bere Ferrers 175, 437, 461, 462f
Bovey Tracey 608
Buckfastleigh 608
Buckland-in-the-Moor 632
chantries 876
chapels 552
Combe Martin 461
Combe-in-Teignland 632
field systems 90–1, 90f
fishing industry 135
Frithelstock 608
Great Beere 7
hamlets 174
Harberton 608
Hound Tor 230
Marwood 608
Morebath 673
North Molton 463
Okehampton 196–7, 358
Ottery St Mary 598
Plymouth 974, 975
rivers 461–2, 463
silver mining 461
Tavistock 437f
tin mining 463
Tiverton 874f
see also Dartmoor; Exeter
de Voragine, Jacobus 161
devotional images 658–60, 670–2
after the Reformation 673–4
senses 686–91
types 660–9, 661f, 662f, 667f, 669f
devotional panels 972
dice 534
diet 123, 697–8, 836, 837
aristocratic 150
of calves 105
childhood 765, 774, 775, 780, 781
deficiencies 825
effect on neonatal mortality 763
at Launceston Castle 145
marine 129, 822
meat 103, 571
and medicine 840
in monasteries 571, 572, 822
peasant 200, 202, 920
of pigs at Dudley Castle 79
weaning 763
see also food
Dieulacres (Staffordshire) 570
diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) 575, 822
Dig Hungate project by York Archaeological Trust 988
DigVentures excavation, Leiston Abbey (Suffolk) 12, 987
dining practices 701–4, 703f
Dinna Clerks, Dartmoor (Devon) 699
dioceses 581
diseases 739, 744, 820–3, 829–30
analytical techniques 828
animal bones 107
dietary deficiencies 822, 825
limited data from burials 826–7
spread 825
DISH (diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis) 575, 822
Dissolution 577
ditches 120–1
(p. 1014) Dives and pauper 658
D. João, royal tomb 975
DNA analysis 124, 826–7, 829–30
dogs 109
as saints 620
Dolforwyn (Powys) 358
Domesday Book 53, 130, 359, 365, 468, 471, 476–7, 485
domestic environments 43, 58
Dominican Priory, Chester (Cheshire) 778, 795
Doncaster (South Yorkshire) 343, 439, 441
Donington-Le-Heath (Leicestershire) 244
‘Doom’ (Last Judgement) wall paintings 660, 661f, 868, 869f
doorways 315, 317
monasteries 567
Dorchester (Oxfordshire) 723
Dorchester Abbey (Oxfordshire), church bell 724f, 724
Dore (Herefordshire) 570
Dornoch (Moray) 581
Dorset 331
Douglas standard 408
Dover (Kent) 570, 635, 644
Dover Castle (Kent) 383, 506
Dowglen (Eskdale) 177
Dragon Hall, Norwich (Norfolk) 306, 447f
Drakelow (Derbyshire) 221
draughtsmen 3–5
Drayton (Oxfordshire) 724
dress accessories 793–800, 794f, 796f, 798f, 799f
dress-hooks 794
drinking practices 705
drinking vessels 704–8, 706f, 932
dripping pans 699
Droitwich (Worcestershire) 485
droveways 181
Dryburgh Abbey (Scottish Borders) 181
Dryslwyn (Carmarthenshire) 111, 358, 532
Dryslwyn Castle (Carmarthenshire) 14, 59, 121, 123, 897
Dublane Cathedral (Stirling) 586
Dublin (Ireland) 915, 918
imported pottery in 444
potter’s district 441
Duchy of Lancaster 548
Du Colombier farm, Varennes-sur-Seine (France) 929
Dudley Castle (West Midlands) 79, 103
Dugdale, Sir William 54
Dumfries (Scotland) 345
Dumfriesshire (Scotland) 177
Dunadd (Argyll and Bute) 419
Dunamase (Co. Laois, Ireland) 913
Dunbar (East Lothian) 109
Duncan (Earl of Fife) 643
Dundee (Scotland) 109, 605, 893
Dundonald (Ayrshire) 358, 532
Dundrum Castle (Co. Down, Ireland) 912
Dundry stone 444, 471
Dunfermline (Fife) 306
Dunfermline Abbey (Fife) 184, 647, 791
Dunkeld Cathedral (Perth and Kinross) 590
Dunrod and Bombie (Kircudbrightshire) 252
Dunstable Priory (Bedfordshire) 571, 620
Dunstable Swan jewel 795
Dunster (Somerset) 329
Dunwich (Suffolk) 130, 132, 157–8, 164, 345
Dunwich Bailiffs 131
Dupplin Moor Battle [Perth and Kinross, 1332] 402
Durfort (France) 926, 929
Durham (Co. Durham) 301, 346
Durham Cathedral 683
burial site 652
construction 583, 583f, 584, 585, 586, 587f, 682f
furnishings 590, 591
graffiti 638
kitchen 121f
pilgrimages to 43
Purbeck marble 458
Durham Priory 573, 574
Dussindale, Battle [Norfolk, 1549] 405
Duxford (Cambridgeshire) 460, 629, 633f, 638
dye-houses 479–80, 480f
dyes 120, 748–9
imports 893, 895
dykes 163
dynamic entanglements 340
Eadgar the Peaceful (King of the English) 515
Earlspark (Co. Galway, Ireland) 395–6
(p. 1015) Earldom of Ormond 914
‘Early English’ interior design 602
Early Medieval Corpus (EMC) 513
earth-and-timber castles 361–3
earthwork castles 185
earthwork survey 986
earthworks 361, 363
monasteries 567
around watermills 497
Easby (North Yorkshire) 574
Easebourne (East Sussex) 471
East Anglia 172, 313, 332, 336–7, 548, 605, 608, 610
field systems 89–90, 89f
textile industry 480
East Dereham (Norfolk) 610
East Haddesley (West Riding of Yorkshire) 243
East Midlands 94, 228
East Midlands Heritage 984
East Midlands Research Framework 984
East Riding of Yorkshire 602
Beverley 119, 300, 739, 749
burials 859
gardens 571
Hull 341, 739, 859
Keyingham 159
Ravenser Odd 157
Weedley 503
East Smithfield cemetery (London) 60–1, 783, 829, 841, 842f
East Stoke, Battle [Nottinghamshire, 1487] 406
Eastbourne (Sussex) 506
Easter Sepulchre/Tomb of Christ 607
Eastgate Street, Chester (Cheshire) 341
Eastgate, Beverley (East Yorkshire) 300
ecology 32–3
Écouen château (France), artefacts from 5
Edinburgh 306, 605
Edinburgh Castle 14, 377
Edington, William (Bishop of Winchester) 591
education 766
Edward I (King of England) 146, 284, 287, 288, 318, 394, 421, 426, 514f, 517, 523, 619,