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date: 27 June 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Traditionally the evidence cited for extractive industries in this period has been largely documentary. Here the emphasis is on archaeological evidence, most of which has been discovered in the last fifty years. The industries considered include stone quarrying and the extraction of sand, gravel, clay, and brickearth; precious and base metals (silver, lead, iron, tin, copper); coal, jet, and related substances; and salt. Also briefly discussed are the issues of transportation—from the source of the raw materials to processing sites, and thence to the point of use—and the importing and exporting of raw materials and finished products. Finally, a section outlines the possible directions of future research.

Keywords: quarrying stone, silver, lead, iron, tin, copper, coal, jet, salt, import and export

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