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date: 18 November 2019

(p. 713) Index

(p. 713) Index

Aam Aadmi (Common Man’s) Party 188–9, 198, 216
Abdullah, King 444
Abe, Shinzo 17–18, 461
Abraham, Thomas 415–16
accountability for foreign policy 206–7
Acheson Plan (1950) 583
Active Electronic Scanned Array (AESA) 529
Aden 59, 83
Aden Settlement (1937) 60
Aditya Vikram Birla Group 262
Advani, L. K. 542
Aeronautical Development Establishment 319
Afghanistan 10, 11, 83, 430–5, 424–8, 446
Afghanization policy 432
as British protectorate 427
‘Connect Central Asia’ policy 429–30
development aid, Indian 432, 500
and ‘global jihad’ 441
history as cultural capital 425–8
and India-Pakistan relations 379
International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) 153, 433, 631
investments, Indian 447
‘Look North’ policy 428–9
military aid problems, Indian 433
as outer ‘ring fence’ 53
relations with the British Raj 55–6
Russia and the British Raj 53–4
and soft power, Indian 188, 198
Soviet invasion and occupation 111, 118, 119, 122, 330, 349, 375, 431, 439, 442
strategic partnership agreement (2011) 139
student scholarships to India 194, 432
Taliban regime 431
trade delegation (1949) 83
UN membership 431
US intervention and drawdown 140, 155
Africa in Indian foreign policy 17, 566–77
civil society 573
democratization process 576
diplomatic significance of African states 571–2
historical outline 566–9
missions and embassies 573
Indian diaspora 567, 571
Indian strategic thinking 573–4
Indian UN peacekeeping operations 575, 577 n.7
institutional expertise and capacity 572–3
maritime security environment 570–1
New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPA) 575
oil, coal and natural resources 569, 573
private sector role 573, 575, 577 n.8
as proxy for Cold War rivalry 568
regional integration and multilateral cooperation 575
Sino-Indian competitiveness 572, 573, 574, 575, 576
six comparative advantages 574–6
six drivers 569–72
trade and investment 570
and UN membership 572
Africa’s Frontline States (FLS) 554
African Cavalry Guard 567
African National Congress (ANC) 553, 554
African Standby Force (ASF) 559
African Union (AU) 555, 559, 575, 628
Constitutive Act (2000) 561
Union Summit (2003) 475
Afro-Asian solidarity conference (1965), Tanzania 568
Agni V missiles 150
Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreements) 641–2
Ahluwalia, Monek Singh 615
(p. 714) Aid India Consortium 615
Air India Flight 182 bombing (1985) 292
Airports Company South Africa (ACSA) 556
Aksai Chin region 58, 224, 225, 359
al Qaeda 347, 378, 380, 386, 448
Al-Aqsa mosque attack, Jerusalem (1969) 440
Alexander I, Tsar 51
Alexandria 84
All India Anna Dravida Munnettra Kazhagam (AIADMK) 208, 216
All India Radio 568
Allied South East Asia Command (SEAC) 452
All-India Trinamool Congress 209
Allison, Graham 39
Al-Maliki, Nouri 448
Amarasinghe, Shirley 415
Ammadinejad, Mahmoud 548
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 470–1, 477
Andhra Pradesh 343, 618
Anglo-Russian Entente (1907) 54, 56
Anglo-Sikh War, First (1845–46) 58
Annan, Kofi 108, 606
Ansari, Hamid 437
Ansari, Mikhtar Ahmed 78 n.4
Antarctica Treaty 110
Anthony, Frank 76
anti-colonialism 9, 510, 554
India 403, 453
anti-imperialism 72–3, 74
anti-Panchayat movement, Nepal 401
anti-Semitism 540
Antony, A. K. 444, 475
apartheid regime, South Africa 15, 135, 568, 584
and the Ghetto Act 589, 599
and the Indian community 552–4
Appadorai, Angadipuram 43–4, 274
Arab Spring 304, 445, 449, 560
Arab-Israeli conflict 539, 545
Arafat, Yasser 543
Arakan/Rakhine Province 387
Arctic Council 162
Arctic offshore oil reserves 162–3, 168
Argentina 526
Arjun tank program 212
Arora, V. K. 43–4
Arunachal Pradesh 124
Chinese claims 364
full statehood 361
ASEAN(Association of South-East Asian Nations) 113, 135, 136, 331–2, 366, 455–7, 461–3, 464 n.1, 474, 584, 648
free trade agreement (FTA) with India 461, 474–5, 588
and India’s strategic dimension 458–9
Regional Forum (ARF) 456, 462
Summit (2003), Bali 461
trade 521, 643, 644
Zone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality (ZOPFAN) 457, 686
Asian Development Bank (ADB) 174, 177–8, 617
Asian Relations Conference (1947) 178, 181, 182, 278, 453, 454, 567
Asoka, Emperor 342
Asom Gana Parishad (AGP) 209
Assam, ‘inner line’ extended to ‘outer line’ 57
Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) 247, 257
Association of India Engineering Industry (AIEI) 247, 256–7 n.5
AtalantaOperation 500
Athulathmudali, Lalith 419
Atlantic Charter (1941) 597
Atomic Energy Act (1962) 110
Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) 315
Atomic Energy Establishment (AEET), Trombay 315–16, 319
Atomic Energy Research Council 314
‘Atoms for Peace’ Initiative 316, 321
Aurobindo Ghosh 67, 68–9, 72
Australia 11, 599
attacks on Indian students 305
maritime relations 475
Roundtable talks 281
Tamil refugees 420
trade partnership with India 163
Aviation Research Center 238
Awami League (AL) 14, 107, 386, 395
Awolowo, Obafemi 567
Ayni airbase, Tajikistan 429
Ayyangar, M. Ananthasayanam 74
Azad, Maulana 541, 546, 549
Azad Cultural Centre, Cairo 548
B. P. Koirala Foundation 409
Bab el-Mandeb, Red Sea 63, 475
Babar 53
(p. 715) ‘Babbar Khalsa’ 292
Babri Masjid temple 391, 441
Baghdad Pact (1955) 440
Bahl, Raghav 262
Bahrain 83, 439
Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) 207, 216 704
Bajaj, Rahul 251
Bajpai, Girija Shankar 687
Bajpai, Kanti 98–9, 273–4, 281
Bajpai, Sir Girija Shankar 80, 87, 344, 414
Bakimchandra Chattopadhyay 68, 69
balance of payments crisis (1990–91), Indian 331, 332, 489, 585, 610
Bali Action Plan on Climate Change (2007) 665
Baluchistan 83
Bandaranaike, Sirimavo 109, 415
Bandung Conference of Asian and African nations (1955) 178, 336, 452, 454, 455, 460, 567, 583
Banerjee, Mamata 209, 307
Bangladesh 9, 10, 27, 137, 192, 348, 371, 373, 384–96, 590
border security 389
China relations 387
Civil War (1971) 107–8, 604
and climate change 671
constants and variables 394–6
creation of 14, 584
cyclones (1970/1991) 385, 388
defence equipment 392
freedom moment 385
Hindu minority 391
India - four phases 385–6
Indian foreign aid 174, 386
Indian leadership and 703–4
Indian participation in UN peacekeeping operations 392
Indian recognition of 107
and Indian state governments 393
Indian trade and investment 393–4
illegal migrants in India 390, 391–2, 393
Islamist militancy and counter-terrorism cooperation 388–9
land border agreement with India (1974) 139, 226
maritime border with India 389–90
military coup (1975) 108
Myanmar relations 387–8
Pakistan relations 387
partition significance and legacy 395–6
and public opinion in India 392–3
and regional governance in West Bengal 209
strategic partnership agreement (2011) 139
Teesta River water sharing 139, 209, 233, 307, 390, 393
UN Security Council ceasefire proposal 108
US relations 388
Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka and Thailand Economic Cooperation (BISTEC) group 462
Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP) 386, 394
Bank of England 610
Bank of Japan 610
Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay 72
Barak River 390
Barak, Ehud 542
Baru, Sanjaya 277, 278, 300
Baruah, Paresh 389
BASIC group (Brazil, India, South Africa, China) 559, 560, 587
and climate change 671–2, 673
Basle Convention (1989) 250
Basrur, Rajesh 346
Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) 138–9
Belgrade conference (1961) 567
Bengal 51, 226
Hindus 384–5
Muslim identity 394–5
Berubari Union 226
Bhabha, Homi 110, 314, 315, 316, 318, 319
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) 110, 153
Bhagavan, Manu 588
Bhagwantham, D. S. 317, 319, 321
Bhakra dam 315
Bharara, Preet 296
Bharatiya Jan Sangh (BJS) 223, 224, 225
Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 15, 136, 208, 216, 333, 409, 466, 699
Gandhi-Mujibur agreement 226
government and the diaspora 293
majority government (2014) 705
territorial agreement with China 226
and the US-Indian nuclear agreement 227–8, 265–6
Bharat-Oman refinery, Bina 443
(p. 716) Bharti Airtel 557
Bhartia, Shobhana 262
Bhattarai, Dr. Baburam 402
Bhilai steel plant 97
Bhopal chemical disaster (1984) 16
Bhoras 567
Bhutan 10, 109, 184, 691
five-year plan 179
Indian aid 174, 179, 180
and Indian leadership 703–4
as inner ‘ring fence’ 53
rail transit 390
relations with the British Raj 56
treatieswith India (1949/2006) 139
water sharing 390
Bhutto, Benazir 127
Bhutto, Zulfiqar Ali 30, 108, 109
Biju Janata Dal (BJD) Party 216
Bikini Atoll nuclear tests (1954) 99
Bilateral Investment Promotion and Protection Agreement (BIPPA) with Nepal 402
Bilateral Trade and Investment Agreement (BTIA) (2007) with EU 497–8
Bimiyan Buddhas 426
Birendra, King 109, 126, 401, 404
Birla, G. D. 328
Blackett, Patrick 315, 320, 685
Blue Crane Exercise 559
Blyth, Robert 82
BMP-2 armoured personnel carriers 121
Bofors weapons procurement deal 124, 211
Bogor (Indonesia) Conference (1954) 454
Bollywood film industry 189, 190
‘Bombay Club’ 251
‘Bombay Plan’ 328
Bombay Presidency 60
Boothby, Robert 597
Border Security Force (BSF) 212, 213
Bose, Satyen 321
Bose, Subhas Chandra 349
Bosnia 108
Brahmaputra River 390
BrahMos cruise missile 156, 516
‘Brasilia Declaration’ (IBSA, 2013) 627
Brasstacks military exercise, Rajasthan 127
Brazil 17, 524–37, 703
bilateral relations evolution 527–30
and climate change 671
defence industries 708
economic and commercial relations 530
emerging powers in a transitioning world 531–5
and the Goa issue 528
see also BASIC; BRICS; IBSA
Bretton Woods system 290, 612–16
Conference (1944) 60, 330, 582, 611
BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa) group 16, 302, 365, 464, 514, 531, 532, 555, 557, 588
Contingency Reserve Arrangement (CRA) 626
forex reserve pool 617
New Development Bank 617, 626
Fortaleza Summit (2014) 533
global GDP share 625
IBSA comparison 628
India’s foreign policy goals converging with 626
New Delhi Summit (2012) 617, 626
plurilateralism 624–7
protest at Lagarde’s IMF appointment 617
revisionist power aggregation 533–4
as UN Security Council alternative 626
Yekaterinburg Summit (2009) 533
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) 262
poll attitudes towards India 309
British East India Company 343
British Empire, and Ceylon/Sri Lanka 413
British Raj 8–10, 25, 481
association with international bodies 60
Bengal partition 384
‘buffer’ state practice 53
Central Asia relations 427
China relations 53, 54–5, 56
Chinese claims on Tibet and Assam 57
central control from London 52–3
First World War 59
foreign policy legacy 9, 51–63
geopolitical norms 344
Great Mutiny (1857) 8–9, 61, 65, 260, 399
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 61
guarding India’s land frontier 53–5
and Gulf security 438–40
Indian army 59, 63 n.8
and Indian migrant labour 85
legacy and the region 342–5
nature of colonial rule 61
regional foreign policy 691
(p. 717)
relations with states in the immediate neighbourhood 55–8
relations with states on the Indian Ocean rim 58–60
‘the ring fence’ 53
‘Russophobia’ 54
security policy (1860s onwards) 53–4
Shimla Conference (1913–14) 57–8
Tibet relations 56–8
Brookings Institution 282
Brown, Judith 553
Brunei 455
Buddha 398
Buddhism 190, 357, 426
‘buffer’ state practice, British Raj) 53
Bukhara 53
Bulganin, Nikolai 510
Bull, Hedley 42
Burma see Myanmar
Bush,George W. administration, US 15, 155, 252, 484, 488
India relations 491–2
and India’s nuclear programme 133, 489–90
C-130 Hercules 460
Cabinet, Indian 233–4
Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) 240
Committee on Security (CCS) 240
Cambodia 136, 455, 456
Cancun Ministerial Conference (2003) 642
capability, and foreign policy 11–13
carbon caps 161
carbon emissions 166–7
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique 528–9
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 278, 282
Carr, E. H. 93, 104
Carter, Ashton 156
Carter, Jimmy 486
CastorOperation (Maldives) 474
Caulfield, Catherine 615
Central Asian Republics 424–30, 434–5, 447
‘Connect Central Asia’ policy 136, 351, 429–30
history as cultural capital 425–8
Indo-Tajik relations 429
‘Look North’ policy 428–9
Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) 212
Centre for Civil Society 277
Centre for Policy Research (CPR) 279
Ceylon, and the British Empire 413
Ceylon Citizenship Act (1948) 414
Chahbahar port 447
Chandra, Naresh 240, 249
Chandrasekharan, K. 321
Chavan Y. B. 657
Chechnya 513
Chen, Ivan 57
Chengappa, Raj 280
Chernenko, Konstantin 121
Chetty, Shanmukham 84
Chiang Kai-Shek 70
Chicago Council on Global Affairs 301, 302
Chidambaram, P. 609, 610–11, 619
Chile, India trade 643
China 11, 224–5, 356–68, 399, 666,
African foreign policy 566
aid priorities in Africa 180
and ASEAN 457, 458
Asian Relations Conference (1947) 181, 182
Bangladesh relations 387
British Raj relations 53, 54–5, 56
capitalization following the global financial crisis 612
conversion of economic power to political power 706, 707
economic growth 333, 344–5, 682–3
economic reforms 124
and foreign aid 184
Free Trade Area (FTA) proposal 364
global ambitions 365, 695
‘Great Leap Forward’ 190
as great power 702–3
Hindi-Chini Bhai-Bhai period 358
mineral exports 162
National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) 520
Non Proliferation Treaty negotiations 657
nuclear test (1964) 318
nuclear weapons programme 657
and Pakistan nuclear cooperation 360
Pakistan, support for 349, 363–4, 368, 469, 510
Russian relations 512
Soviet troops, clash with (1969) 360
territorial imperative 364
Tibet annexation (1951) 10, 57
UN representation 96, 101 n.2 (p. 718)
and US-India relations 491–2
US factor 366–7, 368
US relations 106, 134, 361, 366–7, 368, 491–2
Western imperial dominance 357
see also BRICS; RIC
China–India relations 353, 686–7
Assam, claims on 57
Border Defence Cooperation Agreement (2014) 364
border issues 124, 125, 134, 226, 348, 361, 362, 512, 604
border war (1962) 3, 12, 13–14, 26, 30, 92, 98, 147, 180, 192, 225, 300, 316, 317, 359–60, 467, 487, 568, 584, 603, 652, 685
China’s strategic assessment of India 691
economic ties 363-4
as external threat to India 147, 346
Five Principles of Peaceful Cooperation with India 358
historical borders 348
Indira Gandhi’s policy 113–14
maritime relations 474, 476, 477
military aid to Bangladesh 392
Nehru’s policy 454–5, 461
and Nepal arms deals 401, 404
‘package deal’ 360, 364
path to normalization 360–1
Pokhran II tests 111, 251, 362
post-1990 134, 136
protracted conflict 21–33, 22 Tab. 2.1
Rajiv Gandhi 123–5
regional and sub-regional cooperation 365–6
resources strategies and overlaps 167–9
‘string of pearls’ strategy 558
South East Asia, role in 459–60
Chittagong arms haul 389
Chogyal 109
Chola Empire 466
Chomsky, Noam 260
Chungking, China 84
Churchill, Winston 481, 597–8
CIPLA 556
CIRUS reactor 316
Citizenship Act (1955) 294
Citizenship to Stateless Persons (Special Provisions) Act 39 (1988) 416
Civil Nuclear Liability Act (2010) 15–16, 228
civil/military nuclear programme separation 133
civil nuclear programme, India 110
Clean Development Mechanism, Kyoto Protocol 665
climate change,multilateral diplomacy 12, 16–17, 167, 250, 252, 257 n.8, 560, 586–7, 591, 593 n.6, 663–74
current energy use 673
developed/developing countries dichotomy 664
drivers of India’s diplomacy 667–72
and energy security 668–9
and English print media 668
and environmentalism 668
EU-India, and sustainable development 503–4
evolution of India’s diplomacy 663–7
international forces and influences 670–2
Kyoto Protocol 664–7
Paris Summit (2015) 17
rethinking India’s approach 672–4
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 252, 560, 663–4, 666
voluntary targets 666
Clinton, Bill 221, 489
India relations 487–8
India visit (2000) 295
and the Kashmir ‘nuclear flashpoint’ 133
CNN 262
coal 121, 160, 163, 164, 167
Cockroft, John 315
Coelho, Vincent H. 528
‘Coffee Club’ 533
‘Cold Start’, Indian military strategy 152, 379
Colombo conference (1954) 567
Colombo Plan 174, 181
colonialism legacies 145–7
Commonwealth of Nations 97, 178, 554, 581
Fund for Technical Cooperation (CFTC) 174
Heads of Government Meeting (CGOGM), Colombo (2013), 229, 233
India’s relations with 42
membership debate 75–6, 223, 344
Communist Party Marxist (CPM) 208, 216
Communist Party of India (CPI) 24, 223, 224, 509
opposition to US-Indian relationship 265
Community of Democracy initiatives (2000) 142
Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) (1996) 221, 489, 585, 586, 590, 651, 652, 656, 658–9
(p. 719) Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) 247, 251, 256 n.2, 333
and climate change 668
Congo crisis 568
UN peacekeeping mission 96
Congress centenary (1985) 118
Congress of Oppressed Nationalities (1927), Brussels 357
Congress Party 24, 31, 76, 81, 87, 136, 216, 219, 223, 251, 264, 300, 357, 372
1967elections 105
1971electoral victory 106
1977 electoral defeat 111
Indian Ocean policies 466
Muslim League differences 28
and relations with China 124
socialist philosophy 29
US-Indian nuclear deal 227
‘Connect Central Asia’ policy 136, 351, 429–30
Constituent Assembly, and foreign policy 220–2
Cooch Behar 225–6
Copenhagen Accord (2009) 560, 665, 666, 667, 669
Copenhagen Conference (2009) 587
Cortright and Mattoo survey 301
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) 313, 314, 317
counterfeit Indian currency 401
Cray supercomputer, XMP-24 120
crimes against humanity 589
Crocker, Walter 5
Cuba 599
Revolution (1949) 526
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) 105
Curzon, Lord Nathaniel 56, 427, 438, 467
cyber/internet, and global security negotiations 253–4, 257 n.11
cyber terrorists 346
cyclones, Bangladesh (1970/1991) 385, 388
Daimary, Ranjan 389
Dalai Lama 24, 28, 56, 57, 147, 358–9, 409, 603
Daman Portuguese conclaves 53
Das, Biswanath 74–5
Dassault Aviation, France 155–6
‘Day of the Indians Abroad’ 285, 293, 294
Defiance Campaign (1952) in South Africa 553
‘Delhi Declaration’ (2003) 444, 550
democracy promotion 142
Enlightenment values 7
and foreign policy 7–8
and global governance 590
Deng Xiaoping 30, 112, 113, 125, 131, 133, 360, 361
Department of African Studies, University of Delhi 274
Department of International Relations, Jadavpur University (JU) 274
Desai, Morarji 138, 328, 510, 511
Development and Integration of Indian and European Research (New INDIGO) 498
Development Partnership Administration 136, 236
diaspora, Indian 10, 85, 195–6, 239, 336, 498
and the abolition of slavery 287
Burma, repatriations from 291–2
Caribbean 526
China’s diaspora compared 289–90
Global Organization of People of Indian Origin (GOPIO) 293
East African communities 292
and foreign direct investment (FDI) 295
identifying 286–8
and the indenture system 287, 289
Indian-American lobby 295–6
as instrument of soft power 295–6
Ministry of Non-Resident Indian Affairs 294
numbers and categories 286–7, 296 n.2
‘Overseas Citizens of India’ (OCI) 294, 297 n.7
PIO/NRIs division 286, 288
post-independence distancing from its diasporas 290–1
reimagining 292–6
remittances 294–5
‘Report of the High-Level Committee on the Indian Diaspora’ 286
role of 285–97,
role of non-resident Indians (NRIs) 292–3
‘semi-skilled’ labour and Gulf States 287–8
situating 289–92
skilled professionals and emigration to the West 287–8
South Africa 553
and US economic sanctions 293
US 288
(p. 720) Directorate General of Foreign Trade (DGFT) 645
Dissanayake, Gamini 419
Diu, Portuguese conclaves 53
Dixit, J. N. 280
Doha Round of trade agreements, WTO (2001) 252, 559, 587, 641–2, 643, 647
Dong Feng-3 nuclear-capable ballistic missiles 150
Doordarshan TV network 261
Dorjieif, Aghvan 56
Dr Reddy’s Laboratories 556
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) party 208, 266, 307
Driya Shah 398
Dubois, W. E. B. 597
Dumbarton Oaks meeting (1944), Washington 597
Durand Line 427
Durban Platform on Climate Change 665, 666–7
Dutch ‘Police Action’, Indonesia 454
Dutt, Manmatha Nath 67
Earth Summit (1992), Brazil 528
East African emigrant communities andmigrant labour 85, 292
East Asian economic crisis (1990s) 611
East Asian Summit (EAS) (2005) 462
East India Company, British 51, 636
East Pakistan 225, 584
breakaway movement 373
civil war (1971) 107–8, 604
surrender of Pakistani forces 385
see also Bangladesh
economic and commercial policy, private sector 250–4
economic growth 12
1950–2000 334
1980s 4
fiscal deficit 702
see also GDP
economic imperatives shaping foreign policy 326–37
balance of payments crisis (1990–91) 331, 332, 489, 585, 610
economic development and foreign policy links 327–8
foreign trade 332–3
growth rates (1950–2000) 4, 11, 12, 28, 334, 609, 610, 688, 690, 701–3
IMF assistance 330–1
information technology growth 13, 118, 333
interdependence and international relations 334–5
Look East policy 332–3
mixed economy 329–31
multilateral aid to India 329
non-alignment 329–31
planning and foreign relations 327–9
post-Cold War/post-liberalization era 331–4
share of world trade 329, 334
Soviet aid 330
‘state capitalism’ 329, 331
US aid 330
US private sector investment in India 328–9
World Bank aid 330
economic liberalization 12, 248, 251, 255, 377, 456, 489, 585, 605, 637, 640–4, 699
gradualism 611
Eelam War IV (2006–9), Sri Lanka 419, 421, 229
Egypt, and India-Israel relations 548
Eighteen Nation Disarmament Committee (ENDC) 321–2
Einstein, Albert 602
Eisenhower, Dwight 99, 223, 316, 484, 487, 603, 654
Elizabeth II, Queen 406
Elman, Colin 38
Embraer 145 aircraft 529
Emergency Rule (1975–77) 14, 111, 114, 190, 372, 604
Energy and Resources Institute 277
energy requirements 702
and the Indian-Russian relationship 520
see also coal; gas; oil
energy security 167, 170 n.13, 181, 336
Enlightenment values, and Indian democracy 7
Enterprise, USS carrier fleet 108
Erasmus Mundus program 498
Espinosa, Patricia 670
Estimates Committee, Parliamentary 221–2
Ethiopia 194
‘ethnic cleansing’ 108
European Central Bank 610
European External Action Service (EFAS) 496
(p. 721) European Free Trade Area (EFTA) 496
European Security Strategy (ESS) 500
European Union (EU) 495–505
attitudes to India 309
economic cooperation 497–8
Energy Panel 504
Enhanced Partnership Agreement (1996) 495
investment in India 497
Joint Action Plan (JAP) with India 495, 496, 497, 499, 500, 504
Lisbon Strategy (2000) 690
Initiative on Clean Development and Climate Change 504
Marseille summit (2008) 504
Eurozone debt crisis 611
Evacuee Property compensation 84
Evans, Alexander 348
Exclusive Economic Zone, India-Bangladesh 389
Exim Bank, India 177, 179
lines of credit to Africa 570, 573
Extractive Industries Transparency Initiatives 168
Eytan, Walter 540
Ezulwini Consensus (2005) 561
F-18 fighter jets 460
Farraka barrage dispute 184
fascism, rise of 73–4
fast breeder nuclear reactors 319
Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) 247, 252, 253, 256 n.4, 257 n.10, 333, 573
and climate change 668
Fernandes, George 542
First World War 54, 55, 71
Gandhi’s efforts to recruit 70
Indian involvement 52, 59, 72, 84
Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT) 651, 660
Five-Year Plans, India 315, 316–17, 327–8
‘Forbes Billionaires’ 333
Ford Foundation 487
foreign aid, India’s recipients 174–6, 175 Fig. 13.1 see also International Development Programme, India’s
Foreign Currency Regulation Acts (1973/2010) 239
foreign exchange crisis (1957–8) 329
Foreign Secretary (FS) appointment 236
Foster Dulles, John 484
France:
academic collaboration with India 499
Non Proliferation Treaty negotiations 657
nuclear agreement withIndia 315
uranium supplies to India 113
Franco-Russian Alliance (1894) 54
Friedman, George 342, 345
G-4 group 503, 531, 532, 561, 562, 572, 586
status quo power aggregation 532–3
G-8 + 5 group 531
climate change 666
G-20 group 191, 238, 460, 531, 532, 571, 582, 588, 611, 688
47-point Action Plan 534
climate change 666
and the global financial crisis (2007–8) 616–17
London Summit (2009) 534
problem solving 534
Washington Summit (2008) 534, 617
G-77 group 113, 135, 178, 251, 330, 526–7, 560, 583, 623, 628–9, 632
Galileo system 498
GambhirOperation (Indonesia) 474
Gandak River project 402
Gandhi, Indira 14, 30, 119, 131, 132, 139, 148, 192, 226, 234, 233, 330, 331, 360, 372, 408, 485, 510, 511,536 n.5, 632,
ASEAN 113
Brazil visit 528
China relations 113–14
Cold War period 3
Congress Working Committee 106
currency devaluation 615
East Pakistan civil war 107–8
economic policies 112
Emergency Rule (1975–77) 111, 114, 190
foreign policy 104–15
Green Revolution 12, 106
Indian Ocean policy 467
and Indian Tamils in Sri Lanka 415
‘Indira Doctrine’ 109–10, 138
Iran relations 112
Kosygin relations 106
Line of Control (LOC), Jammu and Kashmir 108–9 (p. 722)
Lyndon Johnson relations 106
military advance into Bangladesh 107–8
Nepal relations 109
New International Economic Order (NIEO) 133
Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 322
nuclear weapons development 110–11
oil price crisis 112
Persian Gulf region 113
policy formulation 207
Reagan relations 113
and realist political theory 111, 112, 114–15
recognition of Bangladesh 107
Saudi Arabia visit 112, 441
Sikkim relations 109
Simla Agreement (1972) 108–9
South African cooperation 111–12
Soviet occupation of Afghanistan 111
Soviet relations (1980s) 113
Sri Lanka relations 109
UN stance 604
Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand (Mahatma) 13, 14, 15, 33, 69–70, 71, 72, 74, 198, 289, 293, 567, 596
on Ceylon 412
non-violence doctrine 72, 189
Palestine 540
in South Africa 553
Gandhi, Rajiv 12, 15, 114, 131, 138, 139, 192, 266, 331, 353, 361, 408, 547, 584, 605
assassination 209
Beijing visit 125, 134
Benazir Bhutto relations 127
Bofors scandal 211
Brasstacks military exercise, Rajasthan 127
China relations 123–5
economic development 118–19
economic liberalization 248, 251, 699
foreign policy(1984–1989) 117–29
information technology 118
Israel relations 541
Maldives coup attempt (1988) 126
maritime policy 467–8
Nepal relations 126, 137
nuclear weapons 122–3, 132
Pakistan relations 126–7
policy formulation 207
pro-Israeli American groups 120
Rajiv Gandhi Action Plan (RGAP) on nuclear disarmament 651, 653, 655–6
realignment with US and Soviet Union 118
regional crises 125–8
Six-Nation Five-Continent Peace Initiative 632
Soviet economic and military cooperation 121
Soviet relations 121–2
Soviet state visit (1985) 251
Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan 122
Sri Lanka relations 118
Sri Lankan crisis 128
US military cooperation120
US relations 119–20
Gandhi, Sonia 334
Gayoom, Maumoon Abdul 126
Gazprom 520
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 86, 582, 636, 638, 640–1 see also individual trade rounds
General Electric jet engines 120, 149
Geneva Conference (1954) 97
Genghis Khan 11
Georgia, Russian intervention 701
Germany:
academic collaboration with India 498–9
official development assistance (ODA) with India 499
Ghetto Act (1946), South Africa 589, 598, 599
Gibraltar Operation (Kashmir) 105
Gilani, Yousaf Raza 267
Gilpatric Report (1965), US 321
Gilpin, Robert 104
Giri, V. V. 106
Gita 68
global financial crisis (2007–2008) 588, 609–10, 611, 616–17, 620
global governance, India and 19, 581–93
challenges 590–1
climate change 586–7, 591, 593 n.6
Cold War period 583–4
democratization 590
early ideas 582–3
economic diplomacy 587–8
global norms 588–90
and international status 16
new approach 585–90
and the UN Security Council 585–6, 592–3 n.2
(p. 723) Global Organization of People of Indian Origin (GOPIO) 293
GLONASS satellite navigation system 516
Goa 44, 524, 525, 526, 528, 566, 603
Freedom Movement 528
as Portuguese conclave 53
seizure of 93
Gokhale, B. K. 400
Gokhale, Gopal Krishna 67, 289
Goldstein, Judith 39
Gorbachev, Mikhail 118, 127, 361, 512
India relations 156
nuclear disarmament talks 123
Rajiv Gandhi relations 121–2
security systems in Asia 123–4
Gorkha state 398
Great Depression 73
Great Mutiny see Mutiny, Great (1857)
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, China 360
‘Green Group’ of 72 countries 665
Green Revolution Program (1960s/1970s) 12, 106, 329
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 11, 637, 639, 688, 690, 699–700, 701–2, 703, 706
China compared 28–9
growth (2009–10) 609
growth (mid-2013) 610
UK compared 11
Guha, Ramachandra 5
Gujarat pogrom (2002) 138
Gujral, Inder Kumar 15, 112, 138, 332, 468
Gujral Doctrine 15, 138, 233, 332, 334
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) 112, 136, 333, 439, 442–3, 448, 449, 703
Gulf region 437–50
economic engagement 442–4
Indian workers 443–4, 287–8
India’s ties with 440–2
new challenges and imperatives 448–50
oil resources 438–9
Raj legacy 438–40
sheikhdoms 439
and US military power 439–40
Gulf War (1990–91) 238, 331, 636, 640
Gundevia, Y. D. 80, 88
Gupta, B. M. 74
Gupta, Sisir 39–42, 44
Gupta, Vijay 554
Gupta family 262
Gupta empire 8, 342
Guyana, and Indian migrant labour 85
Gwadar port 365, 475–6
Gyanendra, King 401, 408
Hague Summit (2004) 496
Hahn, Otto 313
Haksar, P. N. 234
Haldane, J. B. S. 315, 321
Hamburg 84
Hamilton, Alexander 696
Hasina, Sheikh 386, 388
Hassin, Yousef 541
Heiligendamm Process 531
Herman, Edward 260
Hermann, Margaret G. 38
High Level Committee on the Indian Diaspora 293
Hill, Archibald 315
Hindu colonialism 343
Hindu nationalism 71–2
Hindu, The 262, 263, 266, 269
Hinduism 190, 347
classical texts 66–7, 68–9
as ‘universal brotherhood’ 66
Hindutva ideology 346–7
Hirakud dam 315
Hiroshima atom bombing 314
Ho Chi Minh 224, 453
Holsti, K. J. 37
Holsti, Ole 37
Hong Kong Ministerial Conference, WTO (2005) 647
Hopf, Ted 38–9
Horn of Africa anti-piracy operations 558
Hu Jintao 558
Human Development Index (HDI) 499
India’s position 673
human rights records in Indian companies 165
human rights vs. sovereignty 7–8
human trafficking 142
humanitarian agenda, US and the West 142
Hungary, Soviet invasion 603
Husain, Zakir 106, 511
Hyderabad 399
hydropower 164
(p. 724) IBSA (India, Brazil and South Africa) 475, 531, 532, 533, 556, 559, 570, 588, 627–9
BRICS comparison 628
community building 534–5
maritime exercises 629
and the Nuclear Suppliers Group 629
outward foreign direct investment 628
identity, and foreign policy 7
Ikle, Fred 119
Imperial War Conferences, UK 60
India Acts (1919, 1935), UK 52
India:
balance of payments crisis (1990–91) 332, 489, 585, 610
border war with Chinaborder war (1962) 3, 12, 13–14, 26, 30, 92, 98, 147, 180, 192, 225, 300, 316, 317, 359–60, 467, 487, 568, 584, 603, 652, 685
capitalization following the global financial crisis 612
constitution of 220–1, 225, 226
economic liberalization 12, 248, 251, 255, 377, 456, 489, 585, 605, 611, 637, 640–4, 699
geography and regional position 10–11
Intelligence Bureau 238
Green Revolution Program (1960s/1970s) 12, 106, 329
Kargil War (1999) 15, 16, 147, 261, 350, 373–4
Independence Act (1947) 58
Pakistan wars (1965/1971) 247, 360, 510 512
UN economic sanctions 251–2
India, defence policy:
defence industry 12
Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSUs) 149
Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) 149, 153, 211–12, 319, 352, 526, 529
Eastern bloc military equipment 318
external reliance on military equipment 707–8
Five Year Plan 316–17
spending 316–17
see also Indian Navy
India, foreign policy post-1990 131-43
ASEAN 135, 136
Connect Central Asia’ policy 136
China relations 136
Development Partnership Administration 136
economic interdependence challenge 142–3
emerging strengths challenge 142
future policy challenges 141–3
Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) 136
humanitarian agenda, US and the West 142
Indian Ocean Rim Association for Regional Cooperation (IOR-ARC) 135, 136
Kashmir 137
Look East policy 135, 136
Look West Asia policy 136
Manmohan Singh and the Gujral Doctrine 138–9
military power and security cooperation 136–7
non-alignment, rethinking 135, 140–1
‘non-intervention’ contradictions 139
Pakistan, stabilizing the relationship 137–8
re-engaging with the great powers 132–4
regional relationships 134–7
Shanghai Cooperation Organization 136
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) 138,
South Asian primacy, securing 137–40
‘strategic autonomy’ policy 142
strategic partnership agreement with Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Malasia (2011) 139
trade liberalization 135–6
US intervention in Afghanistan 140
India, international relations 1857–1947 65–77
critiques 69–71
debates in the constituent assembly 74–6
early stirrings 65–7
militant nationalist violence 69
moral nationalism 68–9
sharp divergences 71–4
India, protracted conflicts 21–33
alliance pressures 25–7
archive-based policy studies 32
domestic polices 30–1
with Pakistan, China and US 21–33, 22 Tab. 2.1
and political values 28–30
and post-colonial sovereignty 23–5
power distributions 27–8
India, and the region 341–54
British Raj geopolitical norms 344
China relations 348–9
Connect Central Asia Policy 351
democracy or stability in South Asia 353
(p. 725)
foreign policy evolution 8–10, 18
geography and technology 345–6
Hindu colonialism 343
ideologies 346–7
imperial legacy 342–5
‘Indian subcontinent’ term 341
outside powers 347–50
Pakistan Afghan policy 351–2
Partition consequences for India 344
South Asia as region without norms 352
South Asia as strategic whole 353
South Asia term 341
stratagems 350–3
‘strategic-partners-but-not-allies’ 353
UN membership 344
India, rise of 681–96
democratic identity and pressures 693
economic growth and inequality 689
energy source, access to external 694–5
environmental degradation 690
growth as strategy 688–90
‘Manmohan Singh Doctrine’ 688
militarization 690
Nehru’s response to power asymmetries 683–7
‘neo-Curzonian’ post-colonial argument 691–2
redistribution of wealth 689
strategy in a democratic age 692–4
three perspectives 683–7
US/Western opposition to Indian globalization 689–90
India, as rising or constrained power 699–710
conversion of economic into political power 704, 707–10
corruption 705
defensive power 707
democracy and human rights 709
economic growth rate 701–3
external reliance on military equipment 707–8
as ideological model 709
market-oriented reforms 704–5
minority coalition governments 704
options 708–10
power ingredients and relevant characteristics 700–3
as regional cooperation promoter 709
regional power constraints 703–8
soft power 708–9
India, theorizing foreign relations 35–46
and Anglo-American ethnocentrism 39
constructivist approaches 41, 45
idealist approaches 43
neoclassical realists 45
neoliberal institutionalist 45
opposing ‘quarantine’ theorizing 39–44
realist approaches 41
and Third World States 40–42, 44
India-Africa Project Partnership (2005) 569
India-Africa Summit (2008), Addis Ababa 557
India Center for Migration (ICM) 196
India International Institute of Democracy and Election Management (IIDEM) 501
Indian Administrative Service (IAS) 87, 237, 244 n.12, 249
Indian and Pakistan Residents Act (1949) 414
‘Indian Caucus’, US Congress 293, 295
Indian Chamber of Commerce, Kolkata 257
Indian Council for Culture Relations (ICCR) 195
Indian Council for Research 277
Indian Council of World Affairs (ICWA) 195, 274, 278
Indian Development and Economic Assistance Scheme (IDEAS) 177
Indian Development Foundation (IDF) 196
Indian Foreign Service (IFS) 45, 235, 236–7, 243, 249
size and scope 210, 352, 705
understaffing 496
Indian Institute of Public Opinion 301
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 314
Indian Intelligence Bureau 238
Indian Legation, Baghdad 83
Indian Maritime Doctrine (2004) 468
Indian National Congress (INC) 67, 208
missions to colonial colonies 28
Indian National Defence University (INDU) 281
Indian Navy 466–77, 558, 701
aircraft carrier groups 472
capabilities 471–3
humanitarian assistance 474
Indian Ocean maritime security 557–8, 571
naval power 345, 352
projective capabilities 471–3
in South East Asia 458, 459, 460–1
US cooperation 476, 477
(p. 726) Indian Navy Ships (INS)
Aridhaman 473
Arihant 473, 516
Chakra 467, 473
Jalashwa 472
Sindhurakshak 473, 516
Vikramaditya 156, 211, 472, 516
Vikrant 467, 472
Viraat 211, 467, 472
Vishal 472
Indian Ocean 466–77, 570
choke points 63, 469
diplomatic position 473–6
extra-regional powers 476
geopolitics and geoeconomics 469–70
island states 473–4
location and oceanic holdings 470–1
maritime security 557–8, 571
naval projective capabilities 471–3
official frameworks 466–9
Zone of Peace (IOZOP) 467
Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) 469, 558, 570
Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA) 135, 136, 467–8, 570, 473, 558
Indian Peace Keeping Forces (IPKF) 266, 413, 500, 558, 602, 606
Bangladesh 392
Sri Lanka 128
Indian Political Service 83, 88
Indian School of International Studies (ISIS) 274
Indian Union Muslim League 546
India’s Maritime Military Strategy (2007) 468
Indo-German Science and Technology Center, New Delhi 499
Indonesia 10, 94
Netherlands military offensive 94
Indo-Thai Corpat 474
information technology growth 13, 118, 333
Institute for Defence Studies and Analysis (IDSA) 277, 278–9
Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta 314
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) 15, 265, 322, 650, 658
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) 614, 617–19
International Court of Justice 250
International Criminal Court (ICC)606
and India 502
International Development Association (IDA) 615, 617–19
international development program, India’s 173–85
African countries and lines of credit 177
aid receiving 175, 176 Fig. 13.2, 176 13.3
China factor 180–1
fruit of aid 182–4
‘goodwill and soft power’ 182–3
lines of credit 177–8, 179
motives behind 180–2
nature of 178–80
recipients 176–8
South Asia share of aid budget 177
UN General Assembly voting patterns and Indian aid 183
International Finance Corporation 178
international financial institutions (IFIs) 16, 19, 609–21
balance of payments crisis (1991) 616
from Bretton Woods to the globalization era 612–16
capitalization campaign 611
deregulation of labour markets 613
Executive Boards 614
India’s Special Drawing Rights (1981) 615–16
and market fundamentalism 613
and Nehru 272–3
‘neoliberalism’ 613
‘Nixon shock’ 613
and the ‘two Indias’ 617–19
International Labour Association (ILA) 60
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 105, 229, 238, 250, 330, 332, 533, 534, 572, 582, 609–17, 619–20
BRICs protest at Lagarde’s appointment 617
India’s 2012 pledges 194
India’s bail out 377
India’s growth estimate 610
quota 610–12, 620
surveillance errors 610
vote shares 617
International Refugee Organization 600
International Relations Theory (IRT), and Indian foreign relations 35–6, 37–9
classical realists 38
(p. 727)
constructivist approaches 38–9
leadership policy 13–17
liberal approaches 38
literature on 5–7
national role conceptions 37
neoclassical realism approaches 38
‘operational code belief system’ 37–8
‘pre-theory’ and ‘theory’ 37
‘structure of the belief system’ 37
International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), Afghanistan 153, 433, 631
International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) 498
International Trade Organization (ITO) 582
developing countries and free trade 638–9
international trading system 636–48
domestic context 644–8, 645 Fig. 46.1
economic nationalism 637–40
foreign direct investment 644–5
impact analysis 645
India’s bilateral Free Trade Agreements (FTA) 643
India’s manufacturing sector 639
India’s global GDP share 637, 639
Mode 1 access 643
Mode 4 access 643
Iran 10, 27, 440, 445–7, 631
Afghanistan investment 447
gas pipeline (Iran-Pakistan-India) 164, 377
India-Israel relations 548–9
India relations 112, 549
as Indian outer ‘ring fence’ 53
Iraq War (1980–88) 112, 135, 445
Islamic Revolution (1979) 111, 112, 135, 439
nuclear programme 265, 446, 447, 586
Western sanctions 442, 446
US relations 449
Iraq 112, 439, 440, 447–8
Kuwait invasion (1990-91) 133, 543
nuclear weapons 658
UN Sanctions 448
US-led intervention 222
Iran War (1980–88) 111, 112, 135, 439
see also Gulf War
Ireland, NPT proposal 657
Isaacs, Harold 31
Islam:
Bangladesh 384–5, 386, 388, 394–5
in Central Eurasia 426
ummah 395, 396
Islam, Nazrul 393
Islamic fundamentalism and extremism 148–9, 344, 350
Pakistan 29, 30
Tajikistan 429
Israe 16, 120, 539–50
agriculture links 545
defence industries 708
détente
diplomat terror attack (2012) 548–9
diplomatic recognition by India 332
diplomatic relations with India 15, 17, 135, 350, 539, 540–1, 543
economic relations 542, 544–5
education links with India 546
external influences 547–50
history 540–1
Indian Muslim attitudes 546
and Indian state governments 544–5
military-security links with India 542, 550 n.1, 544, 545, 547–8
normalization and after 541–2
nuclear capability 701
and the oil crisis 112
patterns in bilateral relations 544–6
three phases 542–4
Iyengar, Kasturi Ranga 262
Jain family 262
Jamaat e Islami (JeI) 386
Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) 58, 108, 132, 146, 147, 148, 152, 360, 373
insurrection 114, 148
Line of Control (LOC) 108–9
Jan Andolaan-I/II’ people’s movement, Nepal 403, 404, 406, 408
Jan Sangh party 511
Janata Dal United (JDU) Party 216, 511
Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP), Sri Lanka 109, 413
Japan 11, 17–18, 63
Comprehensive Economic Partnership with India 135 (p. 728)
conversion of economic power to political power 706, 707
imperialism 453
UN Security Council seat 586
‘Jaswant Singh-Strobe Talbott talks’ 253
Jauhar, Mohammad 78 n.4
Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) 274
Jayasinghe, W. T. 414, 415–16
Jayewardene, J. R. 128, 413, 415, 417, 418, 419
Jervis, Robert 38
Jha, C. S. 415
Jhari coal mines 121
Jindal group 569
Jinnah, Mohammad 347, 371, 385
Johnson, Lyndon B. 487
Indira Gandhi relations106
Johnson-Ardagh Line 24, 58
Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) 235
Joint Working Group (JWG), Sino-Indian 361
Joliot-Curie, Frederic 315
Jordan 440
Joshi, Devendra 472
Joshi, G. V. 67
Joshi, Manoj 280
Jumriany, Abdul Jalil 433
Junejo, Muhammad Khan 127
Kabir, Humayun 317
Kabul, Afghanistan 53
suicide bombing (2008) 430
Kachchatheevu island 416–17
Kalaikundaair base, West Bengal 265
Kalam, A. P. J. 150, 319, 323, 542
Kalecki, Michal 329–30, 331
Kapur, D. 206, 296, 301, 302, 303, 618
Kargil War (1999) 15, 16, 147, 350, 373–4
media reporting 261
Karmapa Lama 362
Karnataka 618
Karunakaran, K. P. 42–3
Karzai, Hamid 194, 432, 433, 446
Kashmir 23–4, 27, 28, 32, 44, 58, 114, 127, 146, 152, 347, 365, 370, 378, 399, 424, 440, 441, 511, 582, 589, 699
accession to India 219
conflict (1947–8) 10, 95–6
human rights violations 133
identity conflict 371
Indian Parliamentary debates 225
insurrection 114, 148
Line of Control (LoC) 108–9, 147
militants 376
post-1990 137
as Princely State 95
Russian views 514, 515
Saudi Arabia and 444
as symbol of secular nationalism 23–4
UN and 604
US stance on 25
Kathmandu airport 179
Katju, Vivek 574
Katzenstein, Peter J. 39
Kaunda, Kenneth 567
Kautilya 104, 343
Kazakhstan 351
Kennan, George 146
Kennedy, John F. 98, 484, 487
Kenya:
expulsions 568
Indian emigrants 59
Keohane, Robert O. 39
Kerala 545, 547
Kerala fishermen case (2012) 307–8
Keynes, John Maynard 612–13, 613–14
Keynesianism 290, 295
Khalistan independence 292
Khan, Ayub 30, 105
Khan, General Yahya 107, 511
Khan, Zafarullah 84
Khardekar, B. H. 74–5
Khatami, Mohammad 446
Khilnani, Sunil 592
Khmer Rouge 135
Khobragade, Devyani arrest 296, 305
Khojas 567
Khomeini, Ayatollah 112, 548
Khruschev, Nikita 510
Khulna massacre (1963) 391
Kim, Jim Yong 615
Kirantis 398
Kirloskar 573
Kissinger, Henry 14–15, 106, 107, 252
Koirala, B. P. 407, 408
Koirala, M. P. 406, 407
(p. 729) Koithara, Verghese 346
Kolkota-class destroyers 472
Korean War (1950–53) 97, 510, 583, 602
India’s role and diplomacy 358
Kornegay, F. 560
Kosi River project 402
Kosygin, Alexei 105, 511
Indira Gandhi relations106
Kotelawala, Sir John 413
Kotnis, Dr 357
Kozyrev, Andrei 513
Krishna, S. M. 268, 428, 542, 550
Krishnamachari, T. T. 328
Krishnan, R. S. 314
Kudankulam nuclear reactor 521
Kumar, Rajiv 277–8
Kunzru, Hriday Nath 274
Kurshid, Salman 352
Kushan Empire 426
Kuwait 83, 439
Iraq invasion 133, 135, 543
Kyoto Protocol (1997) 586–7, 593 n.6, 664–7
Kyrgyzstan 351
Lagarde, Christine 617
Lakshadweep Islands 470
Lall, K. B. 249
Langley Research Centre, Virginia, US 319
Lansdowne, Lord 53
Laos 455
Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) 379, 381, 431
Latin America 525–7
economic crisis (1980s) 611
Laugier, Henri 601
League of Nations 72, 84, 221, 582, 599
failure 71, 94
Indian delegation 60
Lebanon War (2006) 543
Lee Kuan Yew 455, 462–3
Leninist theory of imperialism 40
Levy, Jack 39
Lhasa 55
British expedition (1903–4) 56
Li Peng 125
India visit (1991) 361
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) 109, 128, 209, 265, 266, 307, 413, 418
Libya intervention (2011) 586
‘licence Raj’ 13
Lichhavies 398
Liddell Hart, Basil 685
Light Combat Aircraft (LCA), India-US project 119, 120, 149
Like Minded Developing Countries (LMDCs), and climate change 667, 671–2, 673
Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT) 321–2, 323
Line of Actual Control (LoAC), China and India 150, 265, 364, 701
management 267–8, 269
Line of Control (LOC), Jammu and Kashmir 108–9, 147, 373, 701
Kargil sector 137
Little Coco Island 474
Living Media 262
Look East policy 135, 136, 163, 332–3, 351, 366, 452–64, 468, 477, 521, 648
Asian regionalism 461–3
Indian Security Sphere 452
leading Asia stage 454, 455
leaving Asia stage
returning to Asia stage 455, 461 n.1
romancing Asia stage 453
strategic dimension 458–61
Look North policy 428–9
Look South policy 468, 477
Look West policy 136
Lowry Institute 301, 302, 303
Lucky Dragon incident (1954) 654
Lula da Silva, Luiz Inácio 529, 534
Macartney-MacDonald Line 58
Machiavelli 104
Madagascar 475
Mahakali treaty with Nepal (1998) 402
Mahalanobis, P. C. 321
Mahan, Alfred 467
Mahendra, King 109, 400, 401, 404
Mahindra and Ashok Leyland 556
Malabar exercise 459, 476
Malaysia 10, 455
India’s military cooperation 458–9
maritime relations 474
Maldives 10, 184
attempted coup (1988) 126
CactusOperation467 (p. 730)
Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) 474
strategic partnership agreement (2011) 139
Manekshaw, General Sam 107
Manhattan Project 313
Manmohan Doctrine 469
Manu Smriti 66, 67
Mao Zedong 30, 113, 454, 603, 687
Great Leap Forward 30
Maoist insurgency (1996–2006), Nepal 408
Maoist violence in India 148
Maoists/Naxalites 404
Maran, Murasoli 252
Maritime Strategy, India 460, 472 see also Indian Navy; Indian Ocean
Markey, Daniel 273
Marshall Plan, US 614
Mathai, John 328
Mauritius 10
Indian migrant labourer 85
security agreements 467
Mauryan Empire 8, 342–3
Mbeki, Thabo 534, 561
McMahon Line 24, 56, 57, 62, 349, 359
media role in foreign policy 259–70
cable news broadcasting 261
CNN effect 260
emergence of new technologies 260
foreign news agencies role 263
foreign policy today 263–4
fraying consensus 264–5
government role 262–3
India-Pakistan relations and Balochistan 266–7, 269
Indo-US nuclear deal 264, 265–6, 269
Kargil conflict (1999) reporting 261
Mumbai terror attack (2008) 261
newspapers 260, 261–2
newspapers, Indian language 264
ownership patterns 262
profile 261–3
Sino-Indian border issues 267–8, 269
Sri Lankan Civil War 265, 266, 269
TV ‘mass’ audience 260, 262
understanding foreign countries 263
Meersheimer, John 104
Mehta, Hansa 601
Mehta, Jagat 88
Mehta, Pherozshan 67
Mehta, Pratap Bhanu 279, 352
Meireles, Cecilia 536 n.3
Meitner, Lisa 313
Menon, P. Achuta 89
Menon, Shiv Shankar 276, 280, 592
Menon, V. K. Krishna 12, 80, 95, 239, 602, 603
and China-India border war (1962) 603
Mercer, Jonathan 37–8
MERCOSUR 535, 556
Merkel, Angela 498–9
Merv, Russian occupation 53
Metal and Minerals Trading Corporation (MMTC) 556
Mettur dam, Tamil Nadu 315
Mexico 526
Middle East Conference (1991), Madrid 542–3
MiG fighter aircraft 121, 459
MiG-27 121
MiG-29K 472
migrant labour, Indian 83–4, 85
Africa 567
Persian Gulf states 112, 443–4
Milan naval exercise (2014) 459, 468
Millennium Development Goals (MDG) 499, 503
Milner, Helen 38
minerals and domestic regulation 162, 166–7
Ministry of Commerce and Industry (MoCI) 238–9
Ministry of Defence (MoD) 210–11, 214, 237–8
capabilities 149–50
and foreign policy 210–11
missile development 319
power and security cooperation post-1990 136–7
under-sourcing 211
Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) 239
and climate change 670
Ministry of External Affairs (MEA), establishing 80–90, 210, 236–7
Afghan trade delegation (1949) 83
Committee for the Transfer of Power 88
Commonwealth Relations Wing 88
continuity with British approaches 81–4, 88, 89
(p. 731)
Department for Indians Overseas 84
as elitist closed-shop 276
Enemy Property legislation 84
Expert Committee IX 88–9
External Publicity Division 259
foreign aid allocations 174–5, 175 Fig. 13.1
foreign policy 210
Indian citizenship 85
‘inner’ circle of policy 82
international obligations, existing 89
missions abroad 239–40
Partition and Evacuee Property 84
passport regime 85–6
the Persian Gulf 83
Political Service 81
professionalization of officers 88
‘protectorate’ territories 83
Public Diplomacy Division 281
Ministry of Finance (MoF) 238–9
Ministry of Home Affairs, and foreign policy 212–13
Ministry of Non-Resident Indian Affairs 294
Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs (MOIA) 195–6, 239, 286–7
Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MPNG) 239
Ministry of Renewable Energy 239
Mirza, Lt Col. Iskander 89
Mishra, Brajesh 15, 138, 227, 234, 242, 280, 547
Mitra, Amit 257 n.10
Mitra, Rajendra Lal 67
Mittal, Sunil Bharti 278
Mittal Steel 13
Modi, Narendra 4, 13, 16, 17, 18, 19, 229, 249, 251, 461, 502, 514
foreign policy 335–6
Modi Hindutva ideology 346–7
Mohan, C. Raja 280, 477, 584 , 590, 607
Monocle magazine 197
‘Monroe Doctrine’ 109, 110
Montreal Protocol (1987) 664
Moravcsik, Andrew 38
Morgenthau, Hans 38, 104
Morse, Bradford 616
Mount Kailash 113
Mountbatten, Lord Louis 89, 95
Mozambique 566
maritime relations 475
Mubarak, Hosni 548
Mughal Empire 8, 9, 51, 342, 343, 426
Mujahidin (Mujahideen) 112, 429, 431
Mukherjee, Pranab 470–1, 501, 542
Mukherji, Abani 78 n.4
Mukti Bahini 107
Mumbai terrorist attack (2008) 16, 152, 266, 342, 374, 379, 542
media coverage 261
Muni, S. D. 341
Munshi, K. M. 76
Muscat, Sultan of 58, 59
Musharraf, Pervez 374, 376, 378
Muslim Brotherhood 448
Muslim League 81, 347, 540, 549
Dhaka 384
Mutiny, Great (1857) 8–9, 61, 65, 260, 399
Myanmar 10, 138, 455
Bangladesh relations 387–8
gas pipeline 390
independence (1948) 193
Indian immigrants 453
Indian repatriation from 291–2
maritime relations 474
military junta 193
Nagasaki atomic bombing 314
Najibullah, Mohammad 431
Nalanda University 426–7
Napoleon Bonaparte 51
Narasimham, M. 330–1
Narayan, Jai Prakash 408
Narayanan, K. R. 528
Narayanan, M. K. 268, 280
Naroji, Dadabhai 67
Nasser, Gamal Abdel 440, 603
Natal Indian Congress 553
National Action Plan on Climate Change 669
National Advisory Committee on International Trade 646
National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM) 253
National Democratic Alliance (NDA) 174, 251
opposition to Indo-US nuclear deal 265
private sector influence 252–3
National Human Rights Commission (1993) 142
National Maritime Foundation, India 471
(p. 732) national security 145–57
China as external threat 147
China border with India 150–1
‘Cold Start’ military strategy 152
colonialism and partition legacies 145–7
external threats 146–7
Himalayan border 150
internal threats 147–9, 157 n.2
Islamist terror 148–9
Maoist violence 148
military capabilities and their limitations 149–50
nuclear gyre 153–4
Pakistan relations 152–3
Pakistan nuclear doctrine 152–3
Pakistan state involvement in terror 152
policies and strategies 150–3
Russian Federation 156
strategic links with USA 154–6
National Security Advisory Board (NSAB) 235–6, 280, 281
National Security Council (NCS) system 234–6, 240, 243, 244
National Technical Research Organization 238
navy see Indian Navy
Nehru, Jawaharlal 3, 5–6, 9, 11, 12, 13–14, 15, 23, 26, 30, 33, 62, 75, 76, 84, 104, 114, 146, 178, 214, 222, 236, 249, 336, 346, 357, 466, 485, 491, 539, 540, 581, 596, 632, 652
African causes 567
anti-imperialism 72–3, 74
Asian cooperation 454, 464
apartheid regime in South Africa 290
‘atomic colonialism’ 99
Burma support 193
Ceylon relations 412, 413, 414
China border war (1962) 98, 359
China policy 147, 454–5, 461
China relations 98, 358–9
China’s nuclear programme 100
China’s UN representation 96, 101 n.2
decolonization 94, 96, 141
disarmament 98–100, 101
foreign policy 92–101, 36, 207, 272–3
foreign policy, initial 326–7
Forward Policy 30
grand strategy 375
idealistic ideologue 92, 101 n.1
ideology 346–7
and the Indian Foreign Service 272–3
Indian Ocean policy 467
Indians abroad 290–1
India’s external relations vision 87, 88
India’s international influence 97
Indonesian independence champion 453
informing the Cabinet on foreign policy decisions 233
Israel 546, 547
licenses to manufacture military equipment 97
military alliances, opposition to 686
Ministry of External Affairs and Commonwealth Relations 80, 223
‘moral purpose of the state’ 554
and national interest 43–4
negotiations with Pakistan on Kashmir 225
Nepal, security interests 180, 399–400, 403, 405–6, 408
non-alignment 96–8, 101, 105, 140, 146, 347, 483
nuclear weapons 316, 654–5
‘One World’ policy 600, 603
pan-Asianism 685
and Parliament 219, 221, 300
Partition 344
power asymmetries, response to 683–7
realpolitik approach 93
resources for intended development 94–5
rise of fascism 73
science 313
socialism 485, 509
soft power strategy 192
‘standstill agreement’ on nuclear tests 99
secular identity 371
sovereign state idea 686
Soviet relations 224
Soviet trade agreement 97
stifling independent scholarship 273–4
strategic importance of economic development 327–8
Third World solidarity 181
and the UN 93–6, 100–1, 599
UN Disarmament Sub-committee 601–2
UN Human Rights Commission 601, 607 n.2
UN peacekeeping mission in Congo 96
UN Security Council and Kashmir crisis (1947) 95–6
US air defence agreement 98
US tour 328
(p. 733) Nehru, B. K. 105
Nehru-Noon agreement (1958) 225–6
Nepal 6, 10, 55, 109, 348, 398–410, 691
assistance, Indian 193–4
breakdowns in India’s policy 405–9
British Raj relations 56
China aid 180
China arms deals 401, 404
China relations 400–1, 405, 408
crisis with India (1980s) 126
cross-border security 401, 404, 405
cross-border terrorists from Pakistan 401, 410 n.4
First Constituent Assembly 404
hydro-power development 402, 408
Indian aid 174, 178–9, 180
and Indian leadership 703–4
India’s interests in 109, 398–402
as inner ‘ring fence’ 53
Mahakali treaty (1998) 402
Maoist insurgency (1996–2006) 404, 408
Nehru and security issues 180, 399–400, 403, 405–6, 408
Nepali Congress 404, 406
Panchayat system 403, 404
policy dynamics 403–5
prospects 409–10
rail transit 390
Rana system 403, 404, 406
treaty with India(1950) 126, 139, 194
Tibet relations 399, 410 n.1
US relations 400, 408
water harnessing 402
water sharing 390
Nepali Gurkhas 399
Netherlands, military offensive in Indonesia 94
Network 18 262
New Delhi conference (1947) 567
New Delhi Declaration (2003) 475
New Development Bank, Shanghai 533
New International Economic Order (NIEO) 113, 527
New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPA) 575
newspapers 260, 261–2
English print media 668
Indian language 264
Nicholas II, Tsar 56
Nigeria 569
oil exports to India 569
Nightingale, Florence 260
9/11 terrorist attack 25, 27, 140, 155, 163, 388, 431, 439, 444, 445, 682
Nitin Pai 282
Nixon, Richard 14–15, 106–7
Nkrumah, Kwame 567
Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) 112, 178, 191, 247, 330, 510, 541, 554, 583–4, 623, 632, 684–5, 699
and Latin America 527
and Nehru’s foreign policy 96–8, 101, 105, 140, 146, 347, 483
Nonalignment 2.0 380
policy implications 14, 26–7, 28, 31, 32, 44, 220, 272, 329–31, 352, 357, 375, 456, 483, 687
post-1990 135
replaced with ‘strategic autonomy’ 142
rethinking post-1990 140–1
and Soviet Union collapse 488–9
Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) 15–16, 100, 105, 110–11, 322, 486, 513, 657
non-resident Indians (NRIs) 292–3, 571
Noon, Firoz Khan 225
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 224
expansion 513, 707
intervention in Bosnia and Kosovo (1992–93) 513
Libya intervention (2011) 560–1
Northern Alliance, Afghanistan 441, 445
Northern Provincial Council, Sri Lanka 419, 421, 422
NorthWest Frontier Provinces 83
Novatek’s Yamal LNG project 520
nuclear energy, civil 15–16
nuclear weapons policy, and multilateralism 650–61
1974 nuclear test 14, 110, 264, 319, 321, 486, 658
1998nuclear test 111, 133, 251, 346, 362
arms control 656–9
and disarmament 653–6
India’s diplomacy651–3
nuclear weapons and security policy 22
arsenals 10
disarmament 16, 250, 590, 653–6
India’s programme 93, 212, 321, 584
India-Pakistan relations 376, 379
andIndia’s capabilities 700–1, 708
‘minimum credible deterrence’ 153
nuclear/conventional costs analysis 318–19
nuclear research 1930–1947 314–15
Pakistan’s acquisition of 147
and Rajiv Gandhi 122–3, 132
tactical weapons 152–3
UNSecurity Council 133
US relations 489
Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) 110, 147, 163, 530, 658
and IBSA 629
and India 489–90
Nye, Joseph S. Jr. 189–90
Nyerere, Julius 567
Obama, Barack 134, 367, 460, 488, 490
Obasanjo, Olusegun 561
Observer Research Foundation (ORF) 277, 279
officialdom 232–45
Cabinet 233–4
challenges 241–3
coordination 240–1, 242–3
criticisms 243
Foreign Secretary (FS) appointment 236
integration issues 242–3
ministries and agencies 237–9
Ministry of Commerce and Industry (MoCI) 238
Ministry of Defence (MoD) 237–8
Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF) 239
Ministry of External Affairs 236–7
Ministry of Finance (MoF) 238–9
Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs 239
Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MPNG) 239
Ministry of Renewable Energy 239
missions abroad 239–40
National Security Advisor (NSA) 235
National Security Advisory Board (NSAB) 235–6
National Security Council (NCS) system 234–6, 240
Prime Minister’s office 234
turf wars and protection 242
oil and gas supplies 702
African resources 569, 573
imports (2012–13) 442
and India’s sea lanes 469
Iran 446
Iraq 447, 448
price rise (1979–80) 639
price rise following Gulf War 640
price surge (1990s) 636–7
prices and pricing 160, 161–2, 163–4, 164–5, 167
RIC (Russia, India and China) 631
as weapon against the West 440–1
Old Mutual 556
Oliphant, Mark 315
Oman 439, 467, 475
Oman-India Strategic Consultation Group 475
Oman-Indian fertilizer project 443
ONGC Videsh (OVL) 163, 520, 569, 573
Onley, J. 438
Oppenheimer, Robert 601–2
Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 165
Development Assistance Committee (DAC) 175, 176 Fig. 13.2
Organization of African Unity (OAU) 554
Organization of Oil Exporting Counties (OPEC) 112, 113
and climate change 671, 672
Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) 385, 440, 441
Organski, A. F. K. 104
Orissa 618
‘Overseas Citizens of India’ (OCI) 294, 297 n.7
Overseas Indian Facilitation Center (OIFC) 196
overseas labourers see migrant workers
Oxus civilization 425
P-5 states 532
Padit, Vijayalakshmi 239
Pai, A. V. 89
(p. 735) Pakistan 11, 14
alliance with US 140
allies to counteract India (‘borrowed power’) 27, 345, 348
army 137
Bangladesh relations 387
and the Brasstacks military exercise, Rajasthan 127
breaking South Asian unity 347
British Raj legacy 61–3
China partnership 349, 363–4, 368, 469, 510
Commonwealth Relations Wing 88
creation of 9
East Pakistan civil war (1971) 12, 107–8 192
and Gibraltar Operation in Kashmir 105
and India-Israel relations 549–50
and Indian leadership 703–4
Islamic extremism 29, 30
Joint Commission 127
Kashmir as symbol of religious nationalism 24
military leadership effects 29
partition 9
Partition and Evacuee Property 84–5
Rajiv Gandhi relations 126–7
Sino-Pakistan Alliance 363–4, 368
social and economic indicators 191
Soviet arms deal 511
and the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan 122
state involvement in terror 152
Stinger missile stockpiles 122
symmetric war strategy in Kashmir 146–7
Pakistan, and India’s policy towards 152–3, 370–82
‘asymmetric strategy’ with India 376, 379, 380
backing of jihadis 379
and Balochistan media reporting 266–7, 269
containment policy 373, 379
domestic politics and changing worldviews 378
globalization and economics 377–8
identity and Partition as source of conflict 371–2
Muslim League (Nawaz) 377
negotiations option 374, 379
nuclear weapons effects 376, 379
People’s Party (PPP) 377, 378
policy, assessing 374–5, 380–1
policy efforts 373–4, 378–9
policy options 378–9
political systems as source of conflict 372–3
as protracted conflict 21–33, 22 Tab. 2.1
stabilizing the relationship, post-1990 137–8
support for cross-border terrorism 373–4
‘symmetric option’ 380
trade with India (post-2001-2002 crisis) 377
Pakistan nuclear weapons programme 27, 126, 147, 346, 652, 655
China cooperation 360
doctrine 152–3
and India 376, 379
North Korean clandestine networks 151
tests (1998) 373
and UNSecurity Council 133
US pressure for India/Pakistan mutual nuclear restraint policy 123
Pakistan–US relations 25, 26–7, 146, 154
Defence Pact (1954) 223
military/financial aid 118, 119, 120 , 375
and Soviet arms transfers (1960s) 105
anti-Soviet alliances 485, 486
Palestine, and Indian support 440, 539, 540, 542–3, 544, 549, 550 n.2, 604
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) 543
Palk Bay region 416, 422
Pan-African e-Network 196
Panchayat system, Nepal 403, 404
Panchsheel agreement (1954) 686
Pandalai, S. 269
pandemics 250
Pandit, Vijaya Lakshmi 85, 96, 589, 597–9, 602
Panikkar, K. M. 80, 342, 345, 350, 452, 467
Pant, Apa 567
Pant, Govind Ballabh 224
Pant, K. C. 122
Paris Peace Agreement (1991) and Cambodia 456–7
Parliament 219–29
and China 224–5
China border agreements with India 226
Commonwealth membership debate 223
committees of oversight 221–2
constitution of India 220–1, 225, 226
decentralised process of foreign policy formulation 227
early years and foreign policy 222–6
foreign policy and the twenty-first century 227–8
Gandhi-Mujibur agreement 226
(p. 736)
Kashmir debates 225
Nehru-Noon agreement (1958) 225–6
and public opinion 306
Russia/Anglo-US Cold War dichotomy 223–4
states and foreign policy 228–9
terrorist attack (2001) 374
treaties 221
‘Union List’ 221
US-Indian nuclear deal 227–8
US-Pakistan Mutual Defence Pact (1954) 223
Parthasarathy, D. 320
Parthasarathy, G. P. 109, 249, 279
Partial Test-Ban Treaty(PTBT) (1963) 99, 100, 590, 652, 657
Partition 9, 81, 371–2
Committee 89
legacies 145–7
violence 370
‘passenger’ Indians 553, 567
Passive Resistance Campaign (1946–48), South Africa 554
Patel, H. M. 89
Patel, Sardar Vallabbhai 233, 453
Patil, Pratibha Devisingh 529
Pearl, Daniel 432
people of Indian origin (PIOs) 571 see also under diaspora, Indian
People’s Liberation Army (PLA), China 225
People’s Liberation Army Navy (PLAN), China 151
Peres, Shimon 541
Pershing missiles 121
Persia 83
Pew Global Attitudes Project 301, 302
Pew Global Attitudes Survey 197
Phalcon early warning systems (AWACs) 548
Philippines 455
physics, and state funding 313
piracy 474, 501, 557, 558, 570, 575
plurilateralism 623–34
BRICS 624–7
IBSA 627–9
India’s transition from global opposition 632–3
RIC (Russia, India and China) 629–32
seeking a politically and economically integrated Asia 633
value-based frameworks, and India 633
Pokhran nuclear tests 335, 605
Pokhran-I (1974) 14, 110, 264, 319, 321, 486, 658
Pokhran II(1998) 111, 133, 251, 346, 362
Policy Planning Review Division 273
Pondocherry, French conclaves 53
Portugal 528
Portuguese conclaves 53
Portuguese empire 524
Poseidon P-81 aircraft 472
Prakasa, Sri 88
Prasad, Rajendra 220
Pratt and Whitney 150
Pravasi Bharatiya Divas (Day of Indians Abroad) 196
Prebisch, Raúl 527
Premadasa, Ranasinghe 413, 418, 419
Press Note 18, Vajpayee government (1998) 257 n.9
Primakov, Yevgeny 630
Prime Minister’s Global Advisory Council (PMGAC) 196
Prime Minister’s Office (PMO) 234, 272–3, 280
Princely States 146, 225, 343
international assets 89
private sector 247–58
‘Bombay Club’ 251
climate change negotiations 252, 257 n.8
corporate sector as divided and fragmented 255–6, 258 n.16, 258 n.17
delegations and private sector representation 254, 257 n.12
Doha Round negotiations (WTO) 252
economic and commercial policy 250–4
economic prosperity 249–50
global cyber/internet security negotiations 253–4, 257 n.11
and global public goods 250
government and public sector monopolies reliance 256
Indian multinationals (MNCs) 248
Indo-US Civilian Nuclear Treaty (2005) 253
Indo-US Strategic Dialogue 252
Indo-US Track II Strategic Dialogue (2002) 252, 253, 257 n.7
international economic sanctions 251–2
investment in India, US 328–9
Jaswant Singh-Strobe Talbott talks 253
‘licence-quota Raj’ 248
(p. 737)
Press Note 18, Vajpayee government (1998) 257 n.9
protectionist and mercantilist tendency 255, 258 n.15
public sector expansion 248
Rajiv Gandhi’s economic liberalization 248, 251
‘Second Bombay Club’ 255
security dominated foreign policy stance 249, 255, 257–8 n.13
software industry 253–4, 255
Soviet Union state visit (1985) 251
trade related intellectual property (TRIPs) 251, 257 n.6
Public Accounts Committee 221–2
Public Diplomacy Division (PDD), Ministry of External Affairs 185, 309
public opinion 298–310
‘Al Jazeera’ effect 304
attacks on Indian students, Australia 305
degree of warmth towards other countries 302–3
Devyani Khobragade arrest 305
factors affecting 304–6
government ‘indexing’ 299
information revolution 299
Kerala fishermen case (2012) 307–8
knowledge gap 298–9
linking mechanisms to foreign policy decision-making 306–8
media coverage 297, 298, 304–5
in other countries about India 308–9, 308 Fig. 22.1
and Parliament 306
social media 304
Sri Lanka relations 307
surveys 301–3
swing voters 300–1
Teesta River case 307
US and 302–3
Punjab 126
insurgency 148
militancy (1980s) 292
secessionist movement 118, 373
Purie, Aroon 262
Putin, Vladimir 513–14, 516
relations with India 156
Putnam, Robert D. 39
Qadhafi, Muammar 515
Qatar 439, 445
Qing dynasty 55, 56, 57
quantitative easing (WE) 610
Radcliffe, Cyril 225
Radcliffe Award 226, 389
Raddy, Sanjeeva 106
Radhakrishna, Sarvapalli 239, 528
Radio Peking 568
Rafsanjan, Hashemi 548
Raghavan, Srinath 279
Rahman, Mujibur 14, 108, 226, 385–6, 392–3
Rahman, Ziaur 111
RainbowOperation (Sri Lanka) 474
Rajaman, Lavanya 587
Rajan, M. S. 43
Rajan, Raghuram 619–20
Rajapaksa, Mahinda 229, 266, 419
Rajiv Gandhi Action Plan (RGAP) on nuclear disarmament 651, 653, 655–6
Rajkhowa, Arabinda 389
Ramachandran, M. G. 415
Raman, B. 268
Raman, C. V. 314
Ramana, Raja 322
Ramayan, Lord Ram 398
Ramesh, Jairam 587, 670, 673
Rana, Subarna Shumsher 407
Rana system, Nepal 403, 404, 406
Ranbaxy 556
Rangpur Princely State 225
Rao, B. Shiva 220
Rao, Nirupama 240, 469
Rao, P. V. Narasimha 15, 138, 236, 251, 292, 428, 539, 546, 547, 548, 586, 68, 704
Brazil visit 528
Look East policy 135, 332–3, 351, 456
Rao, Thirumala 222–3
rape and murder of Indian women (Delhi 2012) 188
rare earth metals, China 162, 170 n.2
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) 347
Rasul, Begum Aizaz 75
Reagan, Ronald 14, 113, 330, 486, 613
India relations 119–20
nuclear disarmament talks 123
Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) agreement 135, 643
(p. 738) Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships in Asia
(ReCAAP, 2004) 459
regionalization of politics 205, 206, 208, 216
Reid, Escott 5
Reliance Industries 13, 262, 279, 569, 573
remittances 294–5, 332
renewable energy sources 161
Report of the High-Level Committee on the Indian Diaspora 286
Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW), Intelligence Agency 222, 236
Reservation Orders for Scheduled Castes and Tribes 321
resources 160–70
Arctic offshore oil reserves 162–3, 168
Australia trade partnership 163
carbon emissions 166–7
China resource strategies and overlaps 167–9
climate change 167
coal 160, 164, 167
domestic resources governance 166–7
energy security 161–2
exploration and development activity 161
foreign trade and security policy 167–9
gas supplies 164
global responses to searches 164–5
maritime transit 168, 170 n.16
minerals and domestic regulation 162, 166–7
nature of the challenge 161–3
oil prices and pricing 160, 161–2, 163–4, 164–5, 167
sustainability and equity challenges 165–7
trade and investment 163–4
UN General Assembly resolution 1803 (1962) 166
uranium trade 163
Responsibility to Protect (R2P) doctrine 108, 560–1, 589, 590, 593 n.12, 606
India’s position 502, 515
Reykjavik Summit (1986) 123
RIC (Russia, India and China) 629–32
Rima tribe 57
Rio Earth Summit on Climate Change (1992) 585, 587, 583 n.6
Rio+20 Summit on climate change (2012) 503
Riyadh Declaration (2010) 444
Robinson, P. 261, 269
Rockefeller Foundation 487
Roosevelt, Eleanor 597, 601
Roosevelt, Franklin D. 349, 481, 487, 597
Rose, Gideon 38
Rosenau, James 37
Rosneft 520
Rousseff, Dilma 529
Roy, M. N. 78 n.4
Roy, Prannoy and Radhika 262
Rukhmini satellite 472
rupee-rouble trade 132
bilateral trading agreement 332
Russell, William Howard 260
Russia 11, 17, 161
arms and defence acquisitions 211
arms deals 515–17, 517 Tab. 37.1
conversion of economic power to political power 706–7
interventions in Georgia and Ukraine 701
see also Soviet Union
Russia-India relationship 509–21
aid projects in India 511
Cold War era 509–12
economics 517–21, 518 Tab. 37.2, 519 Tab, 37.3, 519 Fig. 37.1, 519 Fig 37.2
energy 520
foreign direct investments 520
military cooperation 156–7
and Pakistan 511
post-Soviet uncertainties 512–14
projects 521
relationship politics 514–15
security 515–17, 517 Tab. 37.1
see also BRICs; RIC
Russian Empire:
and the British Raj 53–4
and Central Asia 427
collapse (1917) 54, 55
Rwanda 108
SABMiller 556
Saddam Hussein 112, 135, 515
SagittariusOperation 476
Saha, Meghnad 314
Sahay, Bhagwan 400
Sakhalin III project 520
Salafi groups 448
(p. 739) Samaj, Arya 67
Samajwadi Party (SP) 207, 704
Samarkand 53
Samudra Ratnakar 470
Sanha, Yashwant 138
Sapru, Sir Tej Bahadur 273
Sapru House 274
Saran, Shyam 162–3, 279, 471
Saras transport aircraft 149–50
Saraswati, Swami Dayanand 67
Sardar Sarovar Dam and Irrigation Project 616
Sastri, V. S. Srinivasa 84
Saud-Al-Faisal, Prince 444
SaudiArabia 10, 444–5, 703
defence cooperation with India 444–5
Indira Gandhi’s visit (1982) 112, 441–2
Kashmir issue 444
Pakistan military aid 440
pan-Islamic solidarity 440
Saudi Arabian General Investment Authority (SAGIA) 443
Savarkar, Vinayak 71–2
School of International Studies (SIS) 274
Schroeder, Gerhard 498
Scientific Advisory Committee to the Cabinet (SACC) 320, 321
scientists in defence and foreign policy 312–25
1930–1947 313–14
1947–1962 314–16
1962–1794 316–22
1974–present day 322–4
Atomic Energy Establishment (AEET), Trombay 315–16, 319
CIRUS reactor 316
fast breeder reactors 319
Five-Year Defence Plan 316–17
Indo-French nuclear agreement 315
missile development 319
nuclear/conventional costs analysis 318–19
nuclear research 313–14
Soviet and Eastern bloc aid and cooperation 318
working conditions 320–1
Sea Lanes of Communication (SLOCs) 469
SeabirdOperation472
Seacom/Tata intercontinental connections 575
‘Second Bombay Club’ 255
Second World War 63
Gandhi’s views 70
Indian Empire military support 52
Nehru and73–4
Sen, Keshub Chandra 65–6, 67
Senegal 136
Settlement of the India-China Boundary Question (2005) 362, 364
Seychelles coup avoided 467
Shah Kings of Nepal (Sisodia rajputs of Rajasthan)398398
Shah of Iran 112
Shah, K. T. 75, 86
Shalom, Silvan 541
Shamti Swarup Bhatnagar 313, 314
Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) 136, 348, 366, 430, 514, 588, 631
Shanghai Declaration (1972) 106–7
Shangri-La Dialogue (SLD) 459
Shankaracharyas 408
Sharif, Nawaz 17, 152, 380–1
Sharif, Shahbaz 379
Sharm el-Sheikh summit (2009) 266–7
Sharma, D. 169
Sharon, Ariel 541, 548, 550
Sharpeville Massacre (1960), South Africa 553
Shastri, Lal Bahadur 14, 105, 316, 319, 415, 652
Shimla Conference (1913–14) 57
Shriram, Lala 328
Siachen glacier 126, 127, 137, 372
Siang tribe 57
Sick, Gary 440
Siddi communities 567
Sikh community, and Khalistan independence 292
Sikkim 14, 226, 349, 360
annexation (1974–75) 109
Indian aid 174
as inner ‘ring fence’ 53
relations with India 109
British Raj relations 56
Silk Road 426
Simla Agreement (1972) 108–9
Singapore 6, 10, 455, 456
Comprehensive Economic Partnership with India 135
Doha round of WTO negotiations 252
maritime relations 474
Singh, Alladi K. A. K. 76
(p. 740) Singh, Arun 211
Singh, Sir C. P. N. 403, 406, 410 n.7
Singh, Gulab 58
Singh, Jaswant 138, 242, 362, 432, 441, 455, 542, 546
Singh, Maharaja Hari 95
Singh, Manmohan 4, 15, 16, 18, 112, 133, 142, 210, 227, 236, 249, 251, 265, 269, 275, 334, 335, 336, 337 n.14, 363, 433, 468, 488, 503, 514, 529, 585, 590–1, 605, 617, 630, 700
and the Gujral Doctrine 138–9
India-Pakistan rapprochement 266–7
and IBSA 627
Pakistan challenges post-1990 137–8
Sri Lanka relations 229
trade liberalization 136
Singha, Radhika 85–6
Singhvi, L. M. 240
Sinha, Yashwant 529
Sinopec 573
Sir Creek 137
Sirimavo-Shastri Pact (1964) 415
Sita of Janakpur 398
Sitaramayya, Pattabhi 289
slavery abolition 287
smuggling 393
Smuts, Jan 290, 598–9
Snowden, Edward 682
soft power 188–99, 708–9
Adam Aadmi (Common Man’s) Party 188–9, 198
Afghanistan and Indian 188, 198
Afghanistan study and training fellowships 194
assessing 197–8
culture 190
democratic political values 190–1
development cooperation 193–4
development partnerships budget 194
and economic growth 191
Ethiopian support 194
foreign development paradigm 191
India Center for Migration (ICM) 196
in the Indian context 198–92
Indian Council for Culture Relations (ICCR) 195
Indian Council of World Affairs (ICWA) 195
Indian Development Foundation (IDF) 196
and the Indian diaspora 295–6
and Indian foreign policy 191, 192–3
Ministry of Overseas Affairs 195–6
Monocle magazine 197
Nepal assistance 193–4
Overseas Indian Facilitation Center (OIFC) 196
Pew Global Attitudes Survey 197
Prime Minister’s Global Advisory Council (PMGAC) 196
public diplomacy 184–7
Public Diplomacy Division (PDD), Ministry of External Affairs 185
and the reaction to the rape and murder of Indian women (Delhi 2012) 188
World Public Opinion survey 197–8
Soulbury Committee Report 414
South Africa 552–62, 703
‘African Agenda’ 559–62
apartheid regime 15, 135, 290, 552–4, 568, 584
and climate change 671
bilateral trade 555–6
contemporary relations 554–62
defence industries 708
economic diplomacy 555–7
‘Ghetto Act’ 589, 598, 599
Indian diaspora 85, 289, 553
maritime relations 475
‘passenger’ Indians 553
Passive Resistance Campaign (1946–48) 554
peace and security 557–9
peacekeeping 558–9
Responsibility to Protect (R2P) 560–1
support for India’s nuclear programme 571
UN Security Council reform 561–2
South African Development Community (SADC) 535, 559
South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) 10, 111, 138, 148, 341, 348, 352, 366, 386, 432, 535
South Asian Free Trade Agreement (SAFTA) (2004) 138, 333
South China Sea offshore development 168
South East Asia, and Indian immigrants 453
South Korea 11, 151, 707
Comprehensive Economic Partnership with India 135
economic success 375
sanctions against India 335
(p. 741) Southern African Customs Union (SACU) 556
Southern African Development Community (SADC) 555, 559
South-South cooperation 555, 627–9
Soviet Union 23, 146
Afghanistan invasion and occupation 111, 119, 122, 330, 349, 375, 431, 439, 442
Afghanistan relations (1930s) 56
alliance treaty 247
Cold War relations 25, 26, 349
collapse 264, 332, 361, 456, 512, 585, 605, 637
collapse, and India’s non-alignment policy 488–9
Defiance Campaign (1952) 553
and Eastern bloc aid scientific aid 318
Hungary invasion 603
and India’s non-aligned stance 97
Kashmir veto 603
Rajiv Gandhi relations 121–2
trade agreement (1953) 97
Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Cooperation (1971) 14, 107, 114, 211, 512
World Bank and IMF 614
space programme, India 110, 208, 216
Special Commonwealth African Assistance Plan (SCAAP) 174, 177
Sri Lanka 6, 10, 109, 118, 126, 229, 348, 412–22
Accord (1987) 128, 413, 418–19
All-Party Conference (1984) 128
and the British Empire 413
delimitation of maritime boundary 416–17
devolution of powers to provinces 418–19
economic cooperation prospects 421
Free Trade Agreement (1998) 334
Free Trade Agreement (2000) 421
geography as opportunity 422
government/LTTE agreement 109
India and ethnic conflict 417–20
India’s policy of opportunism 420–1
India’s policy towards human rights violations 421
and Indian leadership 703–4
love-hate relations with India 412–13
maritime boundary agreements (1974/1976), 416
Pakistani air force refuelling 413
Provincial Council system 419
and public opinion in India 307
and regional politics in Tamil Nadu 208–9
stateless people in Ceylon 414–16
13th amendment to the Constitution 418–19, 421
Sri Lankan Civil War 128, 208–9, 501
Fourth Eelam war (2006–9) 229
human rights violations 266
Indian military interventions 15, 137, 139
media coverage in India 265, 266, 269
military offensive against LTTE 265, 266
refugees, reluctance to return 419–20
Stalin, Josef 146, 509
Standing Committee on External Affairs 306
Standing Committee on Science and Technology 228
state and politics 205–17
accountability 206–7
Bangladesh and regional governance in West Bengal 209
changing international pressures 216–17
coalitions 207–8
Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) 211–12
devolution and decentralization 215–16
director general of defence acquisition 210
growth uncertainties 215
limited capacity and insufficient oversight 214
Ministry of Defence (MOD) 210–11
Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) 210
Ministry of Home Affairs 212–13
need for balance 214–15
politicization and neglect 213–14
regionalization of politics 205, 206, 208, 216
Russia: arms and defence acquisitions 211
shifting issues 215–16
Sri Lanka and regional politics in Tamil Nadu 208–9
state governments and federalism 208–9
voting 206
weapons development 214
State Trading Corporation outlets, Nepal 401
Stein, Janice Gross 38
Stiglitz, J. E. 611
Stinger missile stockpiles in Pakistan 122
Straits of Hormuz 63, 439, 475
Straits of Malacca 63
Strategic Forces Command 153
Strategic Partnership Agreement with Afghanistan (2011) 432–3
(p. 742) Strategic Partnership Agreement with Indonesia (2005) 460
Strauss-Kahn, Dominique 617
Subbaro, Duvvuri 619
Subrahmanyam, K. 77, 238, 278, 279–80
and public opinion 300
Subterranean Nuclear Explosions Project 147
Suez Canal opening (1869) 59
Suez crisis (1956) 541, 603
Suez isthmus 58
Sugauli Treaty on Nepal (1816) 399
Sukarno, President 141
Sukhoi-30 fighter aircraft 150, 211, 472
Sumdurong Chu confrontation 124, 361
Sundaram, Lanka 287
Sundarji, General K. S. 124
Supreme Court, and the Nehru-Noon agreement 226
Suu Kyi, Aung San 193
Swaraju, Susma 463
Swarup, Damodar 75
Swatantra Party 256 n.1, 511
and Kashmir 225
Syria 631
civil war 535, 586
T-50 fighter jet 516
T-72 battle tanks 121
T-90 battle tank 212, 516
Tagore, Rabindranath 33, 69, 70–1, 189, 357, 393, 453
Taiwan 707
defence industries 708
economic success 375
UN expels Chinese Nationalist government 106
Tajikistan 429
Ayni airbase 351
Taliban 374, 426, 441, 445
in Afghanistan 431
US-led assault on 445–6
in Pakistan 378, 379, 380
Tamerlane 11
Tamil Nadu 109, 118, 128, 307, 343, 415, 422
fishermen tragedy 416–17
Legislative Council and Sri Lankan war crimes and genocide 229
political parties and the Sri Lankan offensive against LTTE 265, 266
Sri Lanka conflict 208
support for the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF) 417
Tamil refugees 420
Tamil National Alliance (TNA) 419
Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF) 417
Tamils, Indian 126, 417
refugees to Australia 420
in Sri Lanka 118, 128, 139, 414–16
rebels in Sri Lanka
Tangyanika, Indian emigrants 59
Tanham, George 65, 342, 345
Tashkent 53
Tashkent Conference (1966) 510
Tata Group 12, 556, 569, 573
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Bombay 314, 318
Tata, J. R. D. 252, 328
Tawang tribe 57
Teesta River water-sharing with Bangladesh 139, 209, 233, 307, 390, 393
Tehran Declaration (2001) 445, 475
Tehri hydroelectric power plant 121
Tellis, Ashley 280
Thailand 455, 456
Thakurdas, Purshothamdas 328
Thanjuvar airbase 472
Tharoor, Shashi 191
Thatcher, Margaret 14, 613
think-tanks 249, 271–3, 276–9
access to policy information 277
Centre for Policy Research (CPR) 279
Indian Council of World Affairs (ICWA) 274, 278
Institute for Defence Studies and Analysis (IDSA) 277, 278–9
institutional context 272–3
lack of funding 277–8
Observer Research Foundation (ORF) 277, 279
quality of research 276–8
role of individual actors 279–81
way forward 281–3
Third World 377, 699
agendas 529, 531
movement 527
radicalism 62
(p. 743) Thomas, Tessy 423
Thondaman, S. 416
Three Doctor’s Pact (1947) 553
Thucydides 104
Thumba Range 319
Tibet 55, 150, 409, 603, 687
as Autonomous Region 424
British Raj relations 56
China’s annexation (1951) 10, 685
Nepal relations 399, 410 n.1
as outer ‘ring fence’ 53
protests against Olympic Games, Beijing 267
rail network 401
and Sino-Indian relations 358–9
status 24
uprising (1959) 358
Tilak, Bal Gabgadhar 68
Times of India, The 262, 263
Tipaimukh dam 390
Tokyo Round of GATT negotiations 640
Track II Dialogue on Indian Ocean (TDIO) 473
Indian Community 625
diplomacy 252, 253, 257 n.10
trafficking, drugs and human 250
transnational crime 570
Transvaal Indian Congress 553
Treaty of Friendship and Mutual Cooperation with Russia(1971) 107, 360, 584
Treaty of Friendship Cooperation and Peace with Bangladesh (1972) 392
Treaty of Lisbon (2007), EU 496, 505
Treaty of Peace and Friendship with Nepal (1950) 399, 403, 404
Treaty of Tilsit (1807) 51
Treaty of Versailles (1919) 60
Tribhuwan, King 400
Trilateral Maritime Security Cooperation (TMSC) 474
Trinamool Congress (TMC) 307
Trinity atomic test, Alamogordo 314
Trivedi, V. C. 657
Truman, Harry S. 224, 487
Tunda, Abdul Karim 410 n.4
Turkmenistan 351, 428