Abstract and Keywords
This article traces the scholarship on gender in the Fourth Gospel including the study of the roles of women in the Gospel, the masculinity of the Johannine Jesus, the application of queer theory to readings of the Gospel, gender, and symbolic language, and the intersection of gender and ancient genres. It shows how results from gender criticism are influenced by scholarly approaches (political, historical, and theological) as well as intended audiences for the work. Historically-oriented scholars who focus on the cultural context of the Gospel generally recognize the strongly androcentric leanings of the text. Political and theologically-oriented gender-critical studies of the Gospel typically highlight the mix of gendered language in the narrative with an interest in liberating interpretations. While these different approaches produce different assessments regarding how gender functions in the Gospel, the complexity of gender categories in the Gospel allows for this diversity.
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