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date: 16 June 2019

(p. 1251) Subject Index

(p. 1251) Subject Index

1st/2nd person pronoun 192, 208, 240–8, 882–3, 941, 1103, 1105; see also participant
A-bar (Aʹ, Ā)
extraction 74, 374–6, 379, 715–16, 1000; see also extraction
movement 323, 328, 385, 517, 527, 528 (fn14), 529, 742, 748–9, 1001; see also extraction
A-bar (Ā) position 394, 595, 604 (fn17)
ablative 451, 1089, 1109–10
ABS=DEF(ault) 107, 849
ABS=NOM 107
ABS-OBL pattern 232–4
absolutive 280, 285, 290, 293, 295, 299, 302, 650, 653, 811
-absolutive verb (ABS-ABS) 766, 768–9
argument 89, 378, 623, 627, 653, 791, 849, 853, 866
position 29, 1060
high ABS 79–81
marker 288, 679, 683–4, 687, 1066
mixed ABS 79–81
licensing 321
object 60, 143, 313, 320, 324, 398, 407, 409–12, 701, 725
-object gap 702, 716, 719, 721–5; see also object, gap
person marker 679, 681–2, 684–6
PRO 1053
subject 65, 144
-subject gap 702, 716–17, 721–6; see also subject, gap
abstract case 173 961, 983, 986
accusative 140–1, 280, 285, 297–8, 302, 421 (fn1), 501, 583–5, 595, 597, 810, 812–13
alignment 41, 270, 1076
case
lack of 503
unavailability of 90
discourse profile 42
versus ergative alignment, relative learnability of 713
licensing 321
accusativity, typological preference for 711
acquisition 74, 82, 637–9, 657, 662
of absolutive person marking 679, 682
of ergative marking 634, 639
of ergative person marking 673
of person marking 665, 667–70
active
alignment 132, 514
case 783
case
pattern 126–7, 133
class verbs 1123, 1126–7, 1129–31
ergative 206, 219–20
language 45, 127–30, 206, 217–20; see also split-S
voice 960, 969, 975, 984–5
Activity Condition 527
actor 45, 452, 455–6, 459–62, 564, 583, 633, 1093
voice 374 (fn3), 564, 569, 595, 609, 621, 624; see also voice system
adjacency 393–4, 510
head-head 392, 393 (fn33), 395
linear 393
adjunction 394–5
adpositions 346–7
advanced Tongue Root (ATR) 902
adverb insertion 675, 681
(p. 1252) Agent Focus (AF) 326, 738, 742–9, 753–6
agented passive 472, 913–15
agentive marking 933–4, 942–5
agentivity 259, 268, 793, 816
reduced 812
agreement 133, 173, 210–11, 220, 297, 315, 423–4, 426, 468–9, 476, 482–3, 488–90, 498, 540, 544, 740, 744, 746, 754, 762–5, 769, 773–5, 787–91, 813–16, 840–4, 849
and case
marking, interaction between 807
morphology, dissociation of 172
inversion of 876
marker 482, 560
markers and pronominal clitics, distinction between 667
patterns 337–9
as post-syntactic operation 327
subject 762–4, 839–40, 855
alignment
parameter 70
hierarchy 70, 74–5, 81–2
systems, competition between 713
allocutive 788
agreement 427, 789
allomorphy 283, 301
reduction of 462
animacy 245–6, 254, 262, 543, 548, 817, 1061, 1105
hierarchy 255, 258, 486, 498; see also person, hierarchy; Silverstein hierarchy
scale 285, 946
anticausative 61, 314, 536
anti-locality 75
antipassive 123, 310–11, 399–401, 406, 417, 516, 592–5, 617–18, 620, 625, 640, 744, 749, 844–8, 858–9, 966, 1056, 1095
construction 233, 272–3, 309, 316, 322, 377, 382
~imperfective correlation 316
marker 314–15
morphology 311, 382, 594
object 310, 321–2, 324, 625
spurious 327–8
super- 619
anti-topic 316, 407, 410
aorist 178–84
series 1115–17, 1119
A-position 595, 604 (fn17)
argument
encoding 279, 291
structure 26, 419, 421–2, 436, 611, 859, 1093
ergativity 423, 428
aspect 128, 150, 182–3, 416–18
category 183
neutral 182–3
/aspectual split 210–13, 228–31, 234
aspectual properties of verb 847
aspectual splits, fixed directionality of 228, 231
AspP 361, 614, 778
associative clause 974–977, 979–80
atelic event 362
atelicity 316
backgrounding 316, 942
backward control 867
bare nominal 799, 815
bare noun 757, 787, 796
bi-absolutive (bi-nominative) construction 313 (fn5)
biabsolutive construction 857–8
biclausal configuration 197–9
biclausal construction 212, 450, 464
binary split 239, 243–4, 246
binding 62, 747, 1000
non-local 1004
bleeding 305
blood oxygen-level dependent contrast (BOLD) 696
body part 461, 953, 958, 960, 972
bound pronoun 453–4, 949–52, 1003 (fn16)
Burzio’s generalization 83, 276, 187
Call on Addressee (CoA) 430–1
canonical ergativity, deviation from 478–9
(p. 1253) case
absorption 318
agreement
analysis 595–7, 599, 601
approach 383, 392,
alternation 124–5, 259, 384, 805, 836 (fn8)
assignment 281, 303, 338, 366, 412, 415, 761, 765
-competition 344–6; see also dependent case
competitor 132, 194, 322, 335, 345, 839; see also dependent case
concord 190, 952
error 656, 660
feature 175, 501, 527, 797, 999,
deletion 286, 291–4
preservation 286, 291
language 900, 919
neutralization 905, 916–17
polysemy 550
realization hierarchy 368
relations 92, 101, 105
scale 286 290, 292–7, 299
-structure ergativity 423
causation 795, 1058
causative 77–8, 125–6, 140, 611, 615, 836–8, 858–9, 1058, 1063
-inchoative alternation 118
causativization 858
Causer 61–4, 66, 69–70, 73
child language 36–7
class marker 790
clausal bifurcation 231
clausal conjunction 863, 866
cleft construction 452, 456, 460
co-reference relashionship 966
cognate object 954
comment 409–11, 414
communicative function 24
complement
presence of a 148
complex predicate 148, 186, 796, 800, 1093–4
N-V 815, 819
V-V 818
compound verb 859, 1121
conative 955–6, 959
alternation 234, 325, 329
/locative-type alternation 118, 122
concealed transitive 130–2, 423
concord 302–3, 305
Condition on Extraction Domain 518
conjoined construction 879
conjunction reduction 866, 871; see also coordination, reduction
connective 1011, 1027–31
constituent order 917
change 920
contrastive alignment 1007, 1023
control 163, 172, 198, 324, 367, 504, 532, 539, 633, 866–70, 961–6, 1047–9, 1052, 1085, 1098–100
clause 712
/ownership 214–15; see also volitionality
stucture 711
converb 863–6
conveyance voice 590 (fn3)
coordination 305–6, 996–8, 1002–3, 1048
clausal 505
reduction 995, 1005; see also conjunction reduction
copula 214, 820, 885–90, 991
construction 516–19, 523
identification 602
sentence 170
coreference 864–5, 867–9, 995–998, 1002–4, 1042, 1048, 1085
case constraint on 998
counter-bleeding 303
C-T inheritance 527
(p. 1254) cueing 715, 727–8; see also semantic cue; syntactic cue
agreement-based 725–6
cyclic head movement 999
dative 124, 130, 151, 472–4, 458–9, 596, 650, 653, 655, 761, 767, 772–6, 810, 813, 819–20, 825, 939, 950, 968
agreement 596, 660, 662
/ergative alternation 820, 827
person split 210
datives and ergatives, relationship between 829
default 646
agreement 403–4, 711
form 646–7
inflection 647
morphological 379, 732
defective intervention 350
definiteness 245–6, 263–5, 416, 486, 600–1, 610
marker 452
scale 285, 290, 294, 946
/specificity effect 609
demonstrative 304, 453–5, 635, 785
dependent case 112, 124 176, 193, 195, 236, 238, 241, 249–50, 344–6, 368–9, 731, 767–8, 770, 775–7, 820
approach 135, 424
Dependent Case Theory (DCT) 112, 115, 120, 760, 772
dependent marker 1010–11, 1013, 1015, 1020, 1023
dependent-marking 115, 127, 713–14, 717, 726, 949
derived nominal 364–5, 370–1
derived subject 114–15, 120–1, 195, 341, 804
desiderative 156
detransitivization 640, 743–4
diff 260–2, 265
differential agent marking 1089, 1100
Differential Argument Marking 235–9, 244, 248
Generalization 246
Differential Case Marking (DCM) 269, 546, 548, 550–1, 767, 808–9, 812, 816–17, 820, 826, 1111
asymmetric type 266–9
ergative/nominative 818, 826
fluid type 268–9
split type 268–9
symmetric type 266–9, 274
differential marking 925, 929–31, 940–1
Differential Object Marking (DOM) 92–3, 102, 106–7, 130, 235–6, 245–8, 250, 253–6, 261–2, 265–6, 270, 277 (fn12), 326, 465, 486–7, 490, 493–5, 503, 544–5, 548, 814 (fn4), 845, 878, 882
optimality-theoretic account of 255
Differential Subject Marking (DSM) 235, 245–50, 253, 257, 261–5, 267, 270, 274, 326, 547, 549, 760, 925
direct case 783
directional element 457
disambiguation 938, 943–4
discourse
function 28
participant 192; see also participant
-pragmatic factor 990
profile 26, 29, 36, 45–6
prominence 315, 950, 1134
dislocation 537, 651, 1045
distinguishability 255–6, 262, 269
Distributed Morphology 209, 285, 415, 646, 652, 660
ditransitive 242, 771, 836–7
double agreement, see agreement
double case violation 699
double oblique, see oblique
downstep 904
DP 370–1
case scale 286
dyadic sentence 557–8, 569–73
dyadic verb 766, 768, 771
Dynamic-Stative 883–4, 886, 895–896, 898
early posterior negativity 728
economy 74, 1111–12
constraint 255, 270–1
(p. 1255) effectiveness 233, 1103
Effectivness Condition (EF-CON) 233
effector 1095–7, 1112
electroencephalogram (EEG) 694–5
ellipsis 637–41, 651
Elsewhere Principle 339
Elsewhere Condition 646, 660
enclitic pronoun 956
ergative-absolutive alternation 802; see also exceptional case marking
ergative-absolutive syncretism 785–7
ergative agreement 76–7, 544–6, 617–19, 624–6, 804–5
pattern 842
production of 654
ergative analysis 377, 382–4, 390, 589, 591–2, 594, 599–601, 622
ergative case
assignment 115, 123, 136, 138, 140–4, 146, 150, 152, 154, 346, 771
distribution of 60, 64, 69–70, 74
on internal arguments 115
licensing of 89
marking 450, 452, 562, 592, 634–6, 817, 916, 1094
Ergative Case Generalization (ECG) 114–15, 117, 120–1
ergative/dative alternation, see dative, /ergative alternation
ergative-dative verb (ERG-DAT) 771, 775, 798
ergative discourse profile 25, 29, 32, 36–40, 42–4
ergative displacement (ED) 790–1
ergative extraction 605, 622, 624, 742, 745–51, 753–6; see also extraction
Ergative Extraction Constraint (EEC) 738, 742, 746–9, 750, 753–6
ergative hypothesis 376, 378–9; see also ergative analysis
ergative language
high- 135, 153
low 136
ergative-marked complement 960
ergative-marked instrument 972–3
ergative-marked manner adjunct 972
ergative marking
discourse-pragmaic function of 1102–3
of instrument 957, 1096
loss of 543
production of 677
ergative morphology 631, 634–8, 737–8, 749
ergative person marker 673, 675–9, 686
ergative-subject gap 716, 719, 721–2, 724; see also subject, gap
ergativity
classic definition of 468–9
discourse motivation for 42
morphological 160, 740, 758, 871, 879, 895, 1002
origin of 920
passive origins of 46
event 176–7, 185–9, 192–3, 196–7, 199
-denoting predicate 593, 603–4, 616, 612, 623–4
-denoting root 611, 613–14, 617
related potential (ERP) 693–5, 698–702, 704–5, 707, 713, 720, 726–8
evidential verb 683
exceptional case marking (ECM) 60, 113–14, 125, 126 (fn11)
exclamatives 440
experiencer 63, 66–7, 69, 73, 76–8, 118, 145, 148, 161, 164–5, 276, 479, 768–9, 940, 1082
extended ergative 881–3, 885–6, 890, 895–8; see also active; marked nominative; Split-S
marking 681–2
extended intransitive 557, 559, 567, 569 (fn9), 570–1, 584, 852, 857, 861, 870
extraction 76, 381–92, 394, 518, 523, 525, 605–8, 621–7, 738, 744, 756; see also A-bar, extraction; ergative extraction
marking 383–4, 392
object 725–6
restriction 378, 390, 525, 527, 601 (fn13)
(p. 1256) restriction on 595, 607, 622
subject 725–6
Ezafe (EZ) construction 476
faithfulness 756–7, 1111
constraint 260, 286–8
feature
deletion 286, 289, 291–3
valuation 999, 1004
filler-gap dependency 723
fine structure 43–4
finite clause 952, 962–3, 975, 977, 983–4, 986
fluid A marking, see optional ergative, marking
fluid-S 214
focal ergativity 264
focus 451, 456, 929, 931, 933, 935, 1106
argument 1109–10
broad 933–6, 938, 1106
clauses 905
contrastive 451, 930, 936
(FOC) feature 756–7
narrow 1107
focused pronoun 640
foregrounding 311, 942
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 696, 707
event-related 703
future tense 776–80
gender
marking 362–3
/number agreement 853–5, 866
genitive 355–7, 359, 370, 375, 381–6, 451, 472–4, 514–16, 549, 560, 569, 573–5, 577–8, 601, 605–8, 612, 636, 811, 914, 921
interrogative 606, 608
possessor 535
predicate 606
pronoun 48, 565, 588
gerund 360–2
nominal 360–2, 370
Given A Constraint 40, 49, 52
given information, see information, structure
grammaticalization 275, 447, 667, 912, 920–1, 1026
grammaticization 42
gross structure 43–4
grounding 430–2; see also speech act, structure
structure 433–6
harmonic alignment 284, 286, 290
HAVE-BE alternation 509
head
-marking 42, 127, 717, 726, 949
movement 318–20, 394, 653, 783, 999
headedness 724
homophony 718, 813, 848
implicit argument 194, 319, 367; see also reflexive, -implicit argument marker
implicit object hypothesis 796
impoverishment rule 285, 288, 292
inactive class verb 1123. 1127–28
inalienable possession 461, 1066, 1103
incorporation 164, 342–3, 509–10, 751, 796–7, 815–16
pseudo noun (PNI) 139, 312–14, 393 (fn33)
independent accusative phrase 880, 882–3
index 260–2, 265
indexical 452–6
indexing function 260, 262
indirect syntax 1126
individual-level predicate 213–14, 216
individual-level predication 826
inflectional error 656, 658–61
information
and discourse structure 925, 927, 946
given 28, 43, 455, 1136
(p. 1257) processing 26
packaging 409, 938–9
inherent case 59–60, 113, 124, 195, 196 (fn12), 221, 341, 502–3, 731, 798
approach 424
Inherent Case Theory (ICT) 111, 115, 123
inherent ergative hypothesis 159–60
input frequency 684
instrument/instrumental 62, 66, 69, 71, 78, 450–1, 460, 532–4, 537, 549, 636, 641, 810, 812, 912, 957–8, 1096–97
instrumental adjunct 512
instrumental agent 534
instrumental-to-ergative hypothesis 534
internal argument 114, 118–19, 121–2, 144, 503
interrogative 623
intransitive 954–5
inverse
function 327
marking 326
voice 564, 572; see also voice system
irrealis perfect 889
L2 acquisition 705, 707
labile verb 859
language
contact 461–2
use 24, 46, 52, 54
learnability 714, 730
left anterior negativity (LAN) 695–696, 698, 706, 720
lexeme-based splits 233
lexical arguments 29, 31, 34
lexical effect 151
lexical selection 138–9, 146
lexical semantic approach to case 817
lexical(ist) approaches to antipassive 317
lexically saturated implicit objects (IMPs) 319–20
lexico-semantic process 698
light verb 796, 818–19
construction 152, 774 (fn15)
linguistic realism 54
local conjunction 284, 286–99
locality restriction 525, 529
locative construction 231
locative prepositional phrase 28
long-distance agreement (LDA) 711, 815–16, 867–7
long-distance dependency 715–16
macro-comparison 561
Mahajan’s Generalization 332
marked intransitive 458
marked nominative 452, 459–60, 900–1, 903, 906–7, 915, 919, 922; see also extended ergative
/ergative split 906
markedness 209, 255, 257, 259, 263, 266–7, 473, 546–7
maximized interpretation 417
medio-active construction 460 (fn8)
meteorological verb 593
micro-comparison 561
minimal search 413 (fn25)
modality 549, 1105
modifier 302–5
mood 402
marker 843
Moravcsik’s genralization 227
morphological case 173
morphological complexity 658
morphological ergativity, see ergativity
morphological markedness 877, 883, 895
morphological object, see object
morphological subject see subject
morphologically ergative language 749
morphosyntcatic orientation 1132
morphosyntactic processing 699
Multiple Case Condition 370–1
N400 695–6, 698, 704, 706
narrative 638, 643
native vs. non-native language processing 704–5
N-bonding 394–5
Network Morphology Framework 647
neural network 713–14
neutral alignment 1007
(p. 1258) neutral aspect, see aspect
neutral languages 337–9
neutralization of case 901
new information, see information, structure
new referent, introduction of 34, 42
Niya documents 543
nominal antipassive analysis 319–20
nominal inflection 785
nominal layer 360
nominal possessor 636, 740; see also possessor
nominal predication 520–1
nominalization 190, 197–8, 366–7, 512–13, 516, 518–20, 528–9, 601–3, 608–10, 628, 850, 1052, 1057
clausal, reanalysis of 359
oriented 1049
nominalizer 366, 518, 521, 528
nominative 178, 280, 285, 297, 349–50, 451, 501–2 557, 561, 566–7, 570, 572–5, 577–8, 595, 811–12, 815
-accusative 231, 251, 270, 273, 366, 632, 879, 885, 900, 948, 950–1, 1007
/accusative alternation 814
agreement 596, 669
marker 667, 676, 678–9, 682, 685
clitic, see clitic
/ergative alternation 812
interpretation 137
orientation 1133
person marking 669
pronominal clitic, see pronominal clitic
non-active voice 188
Non-Canonical Subject construction 473
non-control infinitival complement 169
non-culmination of events 180–1
non-finite clause 961–73, 976, 980, 983–4, 986
non-finite context 79, 651
non-perfective aspects 231
non-pivot subjects 392–3
noun incorporation, see incorporation
NP
split 207, 209, 510–11; see also person, split
null subject 960–2, 966, 971
number agreement 191 703–4
object 1053, 1064
agreement 140–2, 242
demotion 234
double marking of 893
grammatical 420, 422
marking, clitic nature of 405
morphological 1117
voice 377, 389
Obligatory Case Parameter 88
Obligatory Case Principle 196
obviative 967–9, 973–4, 983–4
omnivorous number 405
Optimality Theory (OT) 255, 258, 263, 284, 292, 808, 1102
architecture 756–7
optional ergative 55, 644, 1089, 1094
marking 463, 925, 1100–1
overgenralization 640
P300 713
participant 243–6, 249
nominalization 601
participle 470, 474, 504, 508–9, 532–6, 874, 884–9
passive 190, 198, 273, 329, 364–5, 367–9, 449–50, 464, 503–6, 532, 534, 619, 640, 902, 912, 941
analysis 1118
-to-ergative analysis 504–5
-to-ergative hypothesis 503, 533–5
-to-ergative reanalysis 531
participle 874–6, 878, 895–6
voice 975, 984–5
passivization 366–7
past copula 889, 898
past perfective 894
clause 1105
(p. 1259) past reference 942
Patient Proto-Role 793
perception verb 63, 69, 72, 124, 131, 801–3, 1082
perfective aspect 179, 181, 196, 537, 547, 941
perfectivizing preverb 181
performative hypothesis 425
neo- 426
person
agreement 788, 853–4, 871
exceptionality 753, 755
feature 138, 142
hierarchy 207, 256, 258, 855, 1021; see also animacy, hierarchy
marking 665–7
and number features, separation of 789
-number hierarchy 753
restriction on 880
scale 285, 292, 296–7, 299; see also animacy, hierarchy
split 129, 207–10, 226, 228, 235, 239, 511, 824; see also NP, split
Person Case Constraint (PCC) 242–3, 403–4, 654
Person Licensing Condition (PLC) 243–4
PF deletion 1002–3, 1005
Phase Impenetrability Condition (PIC) 75, 349, 522, 778
phasehood 244–6
phi- (ɸ-)
agree 402–6
picture-matching experiment 721, 723
pivot 375, 375 (fn4)
plural agreement 478, 488–9
plural marker 786
plural morphology 361–2
polar question 439
possessive
agreement 402 (fn12), 403–4
construction 212, 508–9, 535–6
possessor 140, 194, 376–9, 404, 451, 473, 508–9, 516, 535, 603–9, 613–16, 636, 740–1, 746, 768, 840, 896, 1066, 1080
agreement 834, 842–3
extraction 605 (fn18)
raising 140, 536
post-syntactic operation 327, 726
post-syntatic optimization 284
postposition 190, 344–6, 772, 1037–8, 1047, 1055
pragmatic constraint 32
pragmatic factor 643
pragmatic functions 635
predicate nominal 522–3
Preferred Argument Structure (PAS) 29, 31–2, 35, 39, 41–3, 45–50, 737 (fn1)
constraint 455–6
preposition 187, (fn6), 341, 347, 448, 451, 509, 601 (fn13), 749, 896, 902, 920
(P-) incorporation, see incorporation
presentative 435
Primary Actant Immunity Principle (PAIP) 270–3
privative clause 981–3
Probe-Goal relation 173, 297, 791
processing
cost 712
load 717
pronominal clitic 28, 220, 472, 481, 489, 495–6, 498, 666, 669; see also clitic
nominative 669
prosodic detatchment 1109
proximate/obviate distinction 223
pseudo-cleft 198, 608, 994
pseudo-noun incorporation, see incorporation
pseudo-progressive 1095, 1097
psych-predicate 63–4, 66, 72, 77, 799–800
purposive clause 970–4
(p. 1260) quantity constraint 32–4, 42, 49
raising 867, 1045, 1047, 1057
-to-ergative 160, 170–1, 341
modal 168–70
of object 749
of subject 414
verb 803–4
realis mood 155–7
reciprocal construction 862–3, 956
reduced transitivity, see transitivity
referential address 409–13
referentiality 265, 271
reflexive 314, 319, 330, 746–7, 751–2, 756, 860–2, 868–70, 956, 1071, 1093
-implicit argument marker (RIAM) 179 (fn2), 188–9, 191
relative case 399–400
relative clause 302, 304, 391, 516–19, 522–9, 623, 627, 850, 1001, 1041, 1080–1
object 697, 700–2, 706; see also object, gap
prenominal 94–108
subject 697, 700–2, 706; see also subject, gap
Relativized Minimality 338, 513
Relevance Principle 271–2
response structure 433, 436–41; see also speech act, structure
restructuring 177, 186–7
resultative participle 884–5, 887, 895
resultative perfect 883–4, 886, 896, 898
resultative semantics 531
resumptive pronoun 455, 567–8, 878, 994, 1001
reversed case marking 861–3
right-lateralized anterior negativity (RAN) 703, 706, 728
role constraint 32, 34, 42; see also Preferred Argument Structure
Romanian supine 366 (fn4), 370
rule-based linguistic knowledge 698, 706
S/A agreement 826
sampling 637
scale
-based differential object marking 283
-driven impoverishment 284
scope 324–5, 840, 959
ambiguity 325
economy 408 (fn19)
narrow 324, 408, 411
wide 324, 399, 406–8, 410, 840
scrumbling 1000
secondary predicate 192, 461, 960
self-paced reading 693–4, 700–1, 713, 718, 721
semantic bootstrapping 633–4
semantic control 177, 186
semantic cue 703, 727; see also cueing
semantic processing 703–4
semantic role 260, 547, 854, 862, 1008, 1028, 1044–5, 1057–8, 1063
semantic split 793
semi-transitive 954–5
short object movement 236, 240–1, 244, 248; see also object, shift
Silverstein hierarchy 254, 880, 882–3, 890–1, 897
small clause 164–5, 169,
social context 215, 634, 639
soft constraint 32
spatial case 852, 857–8, 860–1, 867
specificity 235–8, 245–6, 599–601; see also definiteness
speech act 424, 428
modification 430
participant 457–8, 1105
phrase 427
(SA) structure 419, 426, 428–32, 436
spell out 120, 369, 767–8, 1001 (fn15)
split-alignment language 711, 714, 727
split ergative
alignment 503, 507, 635
case pattern 205
language 90, 128, 205–6, 219, 223, 760, 809, 823, 906, 910, 1032
orientation 1132
system 639, 1101–02, 1105
split ergativity 160–1, 176, 206, 217–21, 223–4, 226, 228–9, 248, 250–1, 253, 397, 463, 533, 547, 895, 941, 993, 1017, 1022
definition of 206, 218–19
tense-aspect governed 777
split intransitivity 275–6
(p. 1261) split-S 161, 206, 219, 340, 792, 875, 877, 887, 890, 895–6, 898; see also active
splits, universal directionality of 227, 251
spurious antipassive, see antipassive
stage level
predicate 213–14, 216
predication 826
status suffix 744
stem syncretism 786–7
stranding 521–3
Strict Cycle Condition 767–8
structural case 60, 80–3, 88, 93, 99–102, 111–13, 135, 160, 189, 196, 280–2, 313, 322, 502, 512, 515, 620, 731–2, 820, 839, 849, 999
subject 29, 41
control 711
grammatical 124, 413, 420–2
morphological 1117
-in-situ generalization 370–1
notion of 1053
-object asymmetry 715
obligatorily controlled 983–4
syntactic 309, 878, 1117, 1126, 1132–3
thematic 114, 157, 421–2
voice 377, 381, 383, 388–9
Subject Processing Advantage (SPA) 715–18, 721, 724–6
subjecthood 473, 1052–4, 1117
subjunctive 183–4, 448, 833
Subset Principle 288, 660
subset problem 83
Superset Principle 337, 339
SVO order 332–3
TP-internal SVO order 334–5
switch-reference 840, 1099–100
syntactic accusativity 870–1
syntactic cue 703, 727; see also cueing
syntactic ergative case 340
syntactic ergativity, see ergativity
syntactic and morphological case, distinction between 951
syntactic split 904
syntactically ergative language 76–7, 80, 529, 717, 748–9, 1047
TAM split 163, 210, 229 (fn3), 233, 299
telicity 416, 817
telic event 362
tense 128, 154, 160, 170–1, 177–9, 193, 197–8, 210, 371, 497, 778–80, 839–40, 1105
/aspect processing 702
ergative 178, 184–190; see also aorist; perfective aspect
invariance 402
nominative 178, 184–5, 188–9; see also imperfective
thematic role 420–1, 611, 633
thematic suffix (TS) 185–7
theta- (θ-)
position 138–9, 144, 149, 157, 195
Theta Theory 160
three-way system 281–4, 288, 293, 295, 297–8, 306
three-way systems, morphological reanalysis of 283
tone 901, 919
topic 405, 409–14, 417–18, 756, 931, 934–5, 937–8, 1107–9
changing construction 301–2
/comment structure 414
construction 912
continuity 41–2, 1099
contrastive 412, 931, 933–5, 937
grammaticization of 41
movement 413
sentential 398, 407, 409–14
topicalization 391, 452, 594, 621, 623, 626
topicalized constituent 567–8
topicalized object 930
TotalErg hypothesis 159, 173
TP 366
transimpersonal construction 275–6
transitive split 1049
transitivity 60, 121, 126, 138, 244 (fn15), 376–8, 719, 726, 884, 924–5, 939–42
condition 123–4, 345
parameter 271
requirement 322
scale 284–6, 290, 293, 295, 297, 299
tripartite languages 336–7, 340
tripartite system 65 (fn8), 572; see also three-way system
unaccusative 137, 365, 367, 422, 648, 764–5, 769, 817, 836, 845, 875, 877, 881, 888
Unaccusative Hypothesis 817
undergoer 45, 452, 455–6, 458–9, 462, 563–4, 583, 1093
unergative 137, 191, 648, 764–5, 810, 816–17, 826, 836, 845, 888
nominalization 356 (fn1), 372
predicate 191, 792, 796–7
unexpressed object alternation 330
Unique Checking Constraint (UCC) 668–9
universal processing strategies 700
v (little v) 59. 62, 65, 67–8, 72, 74, 81, 88–9, 93, 100, 105–6, 113, 175, 189, 280–2, 341, 502–3, 608, 617, 621
valency 328, 593, 611, 616, 858–9, 913
verb serialization 479, 940 (fn13)
verbal agreement and case marking, relation between 654
vocabulary insertion 285, 287–9, 652, 732
voice
alternation 273, 602
morphology 374–8, 382, 386, 596, 601, 611
paradigm 590
volition 68–9
volitionality 259, 268, 928, 943, 1095
VP 369
Wackernagel clitic 574
Wackernagel position 471, 481
wh-extraction, see extraction
word order 42, 222, 315, 452, 554, 562, 566, 569, 573, 639–40, 713–14, 834–5, 951
change 562, 569, 572