- Oxford Handbooks in Linguistics
- The Oxford Handbook of Ergativity
- Notes on Contributors
- Grammaticalization of Ergative Case Marking
- Deconstructing Iranian Ergativity
- Intransitivity and the Development of Ergative Alignment
- Developments into and Out of Ergativity: Indo-Aryan Diachrony
- Ergativity and Language Change in Austronesian Languages
- Lexical Category and Alignment in Austronesian
- Correlates of Ergativity in Mayan
- Ergative Case in Burushaski: A Dependent Case Analysis
- Ergativity in Basque
- Hindi/Urdu and Related Languages
- Ergativity in Inuktitut
- Ergativity in Nakh–Daghestanian
- Ergativity in Neo-Aramaic
- Ergativity in Africa
- Ergativity in Tibeto-Burman
- The Ergative in Warlpiri: A Case Study
- Ergative–Absolutive Patterns in Tongan: An Overview
- Alignment across Tsimshianic
- What being a Syntactically Ergative Language means for Katukina-Kanamari
- Ergativity in Jê languages
- Interaction of Ergativity and Information Structure in Jaminjung (Australia)
- Alignment and orientation in Kartvelian (South Caucasian)
- Author Index
- Language Index
- Subject Index
- Oxford Handbooks in Linguistics
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter takes a close look at ergativity in Indo-Aryan, the only language family for which we have a continuous attested record for over three thousand years. Old Indo-Aryan did not have an over ergative case whereas many of the New Indo-Aryan languages do. It tracks the diachronic trajectory of a result-stative construction from Old Indo-Aryan to its reanalysis as an ergative construction in Middle Indo-Aryan and explore the variation found in further developments in New Indo-Aryan languages, wherein several languages lose aspects of the ergative system, or innovate morphological material to reinforce the structural pattern. We discuss the relationship of ergativity to various structural and semantic factors that have been adduced in the literature. This includes agreement patterns, possessors, aspect, evidentiality and various lexical semantic factors.
Miriam Butt is Professor of Theoretical and Computational Linguistics at the University of Konstanz. She works primarily on Urdu (syntax, morphology, semantics, some phonology) and is currently concentrating on the history and distribution of case. She is also working on building a computational grammar (parser/generator) and finite-state morphology for Urdu.
Ashwini Deo received a Master’s in Sanskrit grammar and linguistics from Pune, India, followed by a PhD in linguistics from Stanford University (2006). She is an associate professor at Yale University. Her main research interest is in systematic semantic change phenomena—particularly in the ways in which functional morphemes like tense–aspect, negation, possession markers change over time in the ways that they do. Within semantics–pragmatics she also works on phenomena in the domains of aspect, temporal reference, lexical semantics of verbs, and genericity. Her empirical focus is on the Indo-Aryan languages.
Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.
If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.