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date: 17 August 2019

(p. 607) Index

(p. 607) Index

A
A-15 superconductor, 4, 7
Abrikosov-Josephson vortices, 41
Abrikosov vortex cores, 134
Abrikosov vortex lines/vortex lattice, 21, 391, 45–47, 50, 81, 131, 133, 134
abrupt flux invasions (flux avalanches), 379
AC Josephson current flow, 270, 276, 285
AC Josephson oscillation, 274
AC Josephson relation, 268
AFM image of Nb slotted nanoSQUID, 503
AFM patterning, 229
amorphous state, lattice-like, 28
amorphous state, liquid-like, 28
amorphous superconducting thin films, 84–87
Anderson criterion/limit, 9, 10, 11, 156
for HTS cuprates, 11
for MgB2, 13
for pure elements, 11
Anderson theorem, 215
Andreev bound states (ABS), 469
Andreev quantum bits, 469
Andreev reflection, 25, 144–178, 469, 473
basic aspects, 144–149
BTK model, 152–155
at N/S interface, 150–152
anomalous quantum Hall effect, 185
antidot corners, 402
antidot geometry, 399
antidots (ADs), 380, 392–394, 396–402
antiparticle, 183
anti-proximity effect, 27–28
antivortex, 24
antivortices, 245
APCs in superconducting films, 391–399
enhancement of critical current density, 391–395
guidance and flux avalanches, 395–399
Ar ion milling, 227
ARPES spectra, 190, 210
artificial pinning centers (APC), 14, 245, 380
atomic force microscopy (AFM), 229, 297, 299, 404, 405, 502
avalanches in superconductors, 380–391
B
ballistic S/F/S devices, 422
barrier transmission and specific capacitance, 433
BCS fitting, 255
BCS gap coefficient, 212
BCS gap equation, 255
BCS superconducting gap, 282
BCS theory, 10, 11, 25, 208, 214, 339, 493
BCS type DOS, 464
Bell’s inequalities for Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs, 473
Bi2Se3/NbSe2 heterostructures, 185–187
Bi2Te3/NbSe2 heterostructures, 188–190
Bitter decoration technique, 383
BKT theory, 209
BKT transition, 19, 160, 162, 209
Boguliubov quasiparticles, 184
boron doped diamond (BDD), 297
Bose condensate of ultra-cold atoms, or superfluid helium, 41
C
Cabrera–Mott theory of oxidation, 444
carrier compensated system and mesoscopic structures, 359–362
changes in bond lengths within mesoscopic triangle, 363, 364
characteristic length scales of superconductors, 3–8
charge-conjugation hurdle, 184
charge coupled device, 365
charge reservoir block, 347
Chevrel phase superconductor, 4, 7
circle dots, 87–93
coherence length, 3–9, 14, 15, 19, 21, 40, 43, 54, 83, 129, 130, 156, 159, 215, 245, 247, 254, 266, 291, 294, 295, 301, 302, 307, 343, 392, 394, 441, 493, 494
cohesive energy, 350–357
columnar defects, 391
combinative energy, 347
in Bi based HTS, 353
in different LSCO based HTS, 356
in different YBCO based HTS, 355
in Hg based HTS, 354
and Tc, 353
In Tl based HTS, 354, 355
complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (C-MOS), 415
complex order parameter, 439
(p. 608) condensation energy density, 5
conductance spectra, 126–128, 133, 135, 186
conduction band minimum (CBM), 188
conventional C-MOS semiconductor technology, 417
conventional spin electronics (spintronics), 415, 416
conventional superconductivity, 418
Cooper pair density, 245, 246
Cooper pairs, 4, 8, 17, 18, 25, 42–44, 76, 77, 151, 152, 155, 184, 214, 215, 220, 221, 296, 394, 415, 418, 419, 433
Cooper pair splitter devices, 459
Cooper pair splitting process, 473–477
Cooper pair wave function inside a FM, 452
core pinning, 391
core-shell structures, 307–314, 462
Coulomb-blockaded QD couples to SC, 469
coupled charged device (CCD), 387
coupled S-QD system, 470
critical current density, 3, 380
critical field enhancement in ultra-small superconductors, 58–59
critical magnetic field, 3, 4, 6
critical penetration depth, 389
critical quantum electrodynamics, 553–557
dispersive qubit-state readout, 556–557
dispersive regime, 556
Jaynes-Cummings model, 553–555
critical state in mesoscopic pure Sn cuboid, 300–302
critical state model, 381, 383
critical temperature (superconducting), 3
cuprate superconductors, 265
current carrying capacity, 379
current distribution in a JJ in a magnetic field, 440
D
DCB junctions, 128
DCB theory, 128–130, 133
Debye-type screening, 267
decoherence, 528–530
dynamical decoupling, 535–537
fluctuation Hamiltonian, 530–532
longitudinal relaxation related to noise, 533–534
power spectral density and noise spectroscopy, 532–533
relaxation, 537–539
transverse relaxation and dephasing, 534–535
defects in vortex lattice, 90
defect structures with different dimensionality, 8
demagnetization factor, 292
dendritic morphology, 379
destabilization of superconductivity, 10, 156
detection of Majorana fermions, 451
diffusivity, magnetic, 384
diffusivity, thermal, 384
Dirac point, 187
direct imaging of proximity Josephson vortices, 131
domain wall and reverse domain superconductivity, 249–256
local probes, 249–251
STM/STS studies, 252–256
domain wall superconductivity (DWS), 248–252
DOS (density of states), 9, 10, 12, 16, 108, 126–128, 134, 186, 187, 208, 213, 255
DTA technique, 328
dynamical Coulomb blockade (DCB), 127
E
Edge pinning, 293
EDX measurements on nanowires, 324
effect of various factors on PCARS, 154
effects of antidote geometry and lattice symmetry on flux avalanches, 399–406
electrochemically prepared mesoscopic superconductors, 291–317
electrodeposition method, 297
electromagnetic pinning, 392
electron affinity energy, 350, 357
electron beam lithography (EBL), 501–502
electron mean free path effects, 12–16
electron phonon interaction and lattice dynamics, 369–371
electron phonon interaction strength, 12
electron-phonon spectral function, 157
electrospinning apparatus for Nanowire synthesis, 327
energy gap, 9
enhancement of the core Tc in Pb/Sn core shell structures, 311–314
epitaxial SC contacts to nanowires, 477–482
extended G-L theory, 133
F
fabrication parameters for BSCCO nanowires, 329
factors influencing small size effects, 12–16
Faraday rotation, 386
fault-tolerant quantum computation, 185
Fe-based superconductors (FBS), 4, 7
Fermi level, 10
Fermi wavelength, 5
ferromagnetic-superconductor heterostructures, 415
ferromagnetic superconductors, 241, 242
ferromagnet/nonmagnet multilayer, 416
FIB milled microbridge junction, 500
field effect devices (FED), 170, 209
field effect transistor (FET), 424
filamentary structures, 6, 7
filling up of vortex shells in dots of varying geometries, 87–101
first Josephson equation, 435
fixed mesoscopic triangle, 348, 350, 363–368, 375
flux avalanches as observed using MOI, 384
flux avalanches in MoGe, 395
(p. 609) flux avalanches in Nb films, 404
flux creep, 335
flux flow, 335
flux jump images, 383, 385
flux jumps, 383–386
flux line lattice, 392
flux pinning centers, 14
FM atomic chain on superconductors, 199–201
F/N/F multilayers, 425
focused ion beam (FIB) technique, 296, 340, 496, 498–500
frequency dependent effective pairing interaction, 223
F/S/F trilayers, 419
G
gap coefficient, 13
geometrical barrier, 293
giant magnetoresistance (GMR), 415–416, 422, 423
giant vortex cores, 61–66
giant vortex state (GVS), 21, 22, 61–66
giant vortices, 40, 245, 246
Ginzburg-Landau coefficients, 49
Ginzburg-Landau equations, 13, 15, 45, 46, 245, 247, 294, 296
Ginzburg-Landau parameter, 14, 15, 296
Ginzburg-Landau theory, 42, 88, 160, 245, 259, 439
graphite (HOPG), 297
growth and characterization of HTS nanowires and nanoribbons, 321–343
growth of epitaxial semiconductor-superconductor nanowire hybrid, 478–480
H
Hall microscopy, 21
Hall probe, 312, 314
heavy ion irradiation, 391
high temperature superconducting (HTS) cuprates, 4, 7
H-T phase diagram, 242, 248–250, 380, 396
HTS nanowires as building blocks, 341–342
HTS nanowires in long lengths, 321
HTS nanowires prepared by electrospinning, 326–327
Bi-2212 system, 328
electrospinning technique, 327
LSCO system, 328
HTS nanowires prepared by template method, 321–326
characterization of wires, 324–326
synthesis and templates, 323–324
hybrid superconducting devices using quantum wires, 459–483
experimental aspects, 460–463
I
induced superconductivity in epitaxial hybrid, 481–482
ink jet printing of superconducting circuits, 341
in situ fabricated hybrid nanostructures, 108–139
insulator-metal transition, 216
interaction between flux vortices and pinning center arrays, 395
intermediate state, 303
interplay between antidote geometry and lattice symmetry, 404
interplay between superconductivity and ferromagnetism, 241
intrinsic Josephson junction (IJJ), 265–267
inverse spin Hall effect, 422
irreversibility field, 338
irreversibility line, 338
irreversible surface barrier, 14
isothermal avalanches, 383
I-V curves, 266, 282–283, 497
of Josephson junctions, 438
multiply branched, 267
J
Johnson spin switch/transistor, 417
Josephson critical current, 418, 436
Josephson effect, 433–443
magnetic field dependence, 439–441
resistively and capacitively shunted junction model, 437–439
superconducting electrodes, 441–443
Josephson energy, 436
Josephson field effect transistor (JFET), 451
Josephson junction barriers, 432–454
Josephson junction fabrication, 494–503
electron beam lithography, 500
focused ion beam milling, 498–500
tri-layer junctions, 495–497
unusual fabrication method, 502–503
Josephson junctions, 84, 266, 272
spin-valve, 423
Josephson vortex cores, 133, 134
Josephson vortices, 131, 134, 212
K
kinetic inductance detector, 519
Kubo gap, 9, 156
L
LAMH theory, 16
LC oscillator, 437
length scales in mesoscopic systems, 155–165
lithographically defined S/F hybrids, 245
lithography technique to prepare HTS nanowires, 321
Little-Parks effect, 61, 314
Little-Parks-like oscillations in the Pb shell, 314–317
local density of states (LDOS), 40, 50, 193, 194
localization of superconductivity, 247–249
local mesoscopic structure and superconductivity, 371–375
London phenomenology, 5
Lorentz-like force, 381
lower critical field Hc 1, 7, 14, 305
(p. 610) low temperature scanning laser microscopy (LT-SLM), 249–251, 273
low wave number evidence of mesoscopic structure, 368–369
M
Madelung energy, 349–351, 357
magic numbers, 23
magnetic and electric characterization of nanowires, 333–340
magnetic barriers, 451–453
magnetic cryogenic random access memory (cMRAM), 423
magnetic dots, 245–246
magnetic field distribution in superconducting layer, 250
magnetic flux avalanches in superconducting films with mesoscopic artificial patterns, 379–407
magnetic flux quantum, 21, 247, 433, 495
magnetic force microscopy (MFM), 249, 255, 257, 260
magnetic random access memory (MRAM), 416
magnetization curve for a large Sn-Pb core-shell sample, 312
magnetization curve for a small triangle, 306, 315
magnetization jumps, 316
magnetization of LSCO as a function of T, 334–335
magneto-optical imaging (MOI), 379, 386–388, 397–400, 405
experimental set-up, 386, 387
magneto-optical measurements, 244
Majorana bound states (MBS), 184, 232
Majorana fermions, 108, 183–202
Majorana-like excitation, 184
Majorana mode within a vortex, 188, 192–195
Majorana quasiparticles, 459
manipulations of multivortex states with artificial pinning centers, 101–103
materials and device structures, 425–427
McMillan formula, 157
measurement techniques for mesoscopic superconducting samples, 300–317
measurement techniques using NanoSQUIDs, 590–592
dispersive readout, 591
flux to voltage transducer, 590
switching current detector, 590
threshold sensor, 591
Meissner and single vortex states, 55–58
Meissner and vortex currents, 55, 59, 68, 73
their interplay, 59–61
Meissner effect, 4, 5, 7
Meissner state (phase), 21, 23, 51, 56, 57, 87, 292, 293
Meissner supercurrents, 42, 43
Mermin-Wagner theorem, 209
mesa-structured Bi-2212, 271–272
mesoscopic structures and high temperature superconductivity, 347–375
mesoscopic superconductors for STM studies, 52–54
mesoscopic triangle and Raman spectroscopy, 365–368
mesoscopic type-I superconductors, 291–295
metallic barriers, 449–450
methods of generating triplet pairs, 420–421
MFM measurements, 257
MgB 2, 7
micro-Hall probes, 300, 305
micromagnetic measurements, 291–317
microscopic approaches, 222–225
microstructures of nanowires and nanoribbons, 329–332
Bi-2212 system, 331–332
LSCO system, 329–331
minigap in SNS, 130
minigap state, 28
monolayers (MLs), 126–128
MRAM data, 417
MRAM data cells, 417
MRAM storage node, 419
multiple vortices, 246
multi-quanta vortex (Giant vortex) state, 246, 392
multi-vortex states, 22, 81–104
N
nanoparticles, 5
NanoSQUID applications, 506–515, 596–600
induced superconducting transition edge detector, 512–513
magnetic nanoparticle and small magnetic system (SMM) detection, 508–510, 596–599
massive particle detection, 510–511
NanoSQUIDs and nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) resonators, 511–512
nanowire SSPD, 507–508
scanning SQUID microscopy, 513–514
SQUID array amplifiers, 514–515
susceptibility measurement, 598–599
NanoSQUID future developments in superconducting electronics, 516–520
advanced readout methods for high frequencies, 518
kinetic inductance, 518–519
nanothermometry, 516–517
superconducting qubits, 516
unconventional superconductors, 519–520
NanoSQUIDs, 450, 492, 567–590
basics, 573–575
constriction like junctions, 578–581
design considerations, 575–577
sandwich-like junctions, 578–581
YBCO grain boundary junctions, 588–590
NanoSQUID sensor, 515
NanoSQUID with higher energy sensitivity, 503–506
other nano-superconducting structures, 505–506
single Josephson tunnel junction, 505
(p. 611) superconducting nanowire detector, 506
technology requirements, 504–505
thin superconducting ring, 505–506
nano-superconducting structures, 505–506
single Josephson tunnel junction, 505
superconducting nanowire detector, 506
thin superconducting ring, 505–506
nanowires, 5, 16–18
nanowires fabric material, 342
negative surface energy superconductor, 4
N-nanowire(NW)-S device, 196–197
non-Abelian statistics, 183
non-local geometry, 417
non-local S/F devices, 326
non-local signals in hybrid double quantum dots, 472–477
nonmagnetic disorder, 215
N/S interface, 146, 291, 293
O
observation of multi-vortex states, 87–103
organic superconductors, 7
oxidation techniques for making tunnel barriers, 445–446
P
parity and shell effects, 9–11
particle positioning for NanoSQUID measurements, 592–596
chemical functionalization, 595–596
in situ nanoparticle growth and grafting, 593
scanning probe based techniques, 593–598
Pauli limit (Chandrasekhar limit), 214
Pauli susceptibility, 214
Pearl’s penetration depth, 15, 49, 212
Pearl vortices, 85, 212
in thin films, 134
penetration depth, 3–9, 14, 15, 21, 42, 43–48, 51, 52, 83, 85, 86, 156, 244, 257, 291, 294, 295, 301, 302, 307, 343, 392, 394, 442
two dimensional, 85
penetration field, 293
perovskite block, 347
phase battery in quantum circuits, 418
phonon frequency, 12
pinning centers, 84, 380
pinning interaction, 85
point contact Andreev reflection spectroscopy (PCARS), 144
basic aspects, 145–149
conduction regimes, ballistic or not?, 148–150
for quasi-0D superconductors, 173–177
for quasi-1D superconductors, 169–173
for quasi-2D superconductors, 165–169
suitability for small superconductors, 161–165
what is a point contact?, 146–148
polarity of vortices, 254
polygonal dots, 82
polygonal patterns, 88
positive surface energy superconductor, 4
pre-reacted YBCO powder, 324
processing conditions for nanowire synthesis, 330
properties of quantum vortices, 41–51
proximity (superconducting) effect, 25, 108–139, 160, 164, 185, 307, 415, 418, 449
in correlated 2D disordered metal, 126–129
in Pb/Sn core-shell structures, 307–311
between two different superconductors, 135–138
proximity behavior of nanowires, 27–28
proximity density of states, 117–122
proximity effect, giant, 26–27
proximity effect, inverse, 26
proximity effect and Andreev reflection, 25
proximity effect behaviors, 25–28
in different metals, 112–115
proximity effect in diffusive SNS junctions, 129–131
proximity effect in SN and SNS geometries, 131
proximity Josephson vortices, 131–134
proximity related phenomena, 108
proximity superconductivity, 108
pseudo-four-probe configuration of PCARS, 161
Q
quantization of magnetic flux, 451–453
quantized supercurrents in 1D wires, 459
quantized vortices in superfluids, 82
quantum computing, 183, 213
quantum confinement effects, 5
quantum detection process, 493
quantum dot (QD), 197, 459
quantum dot singlet states, 470
quantum dot spectroscopy, 459
quantum dot transport experiments, 468
quantum fluctuations, 9–11, 16
quantum flux vortices, 41
quantum information processing (QIP), 493
quantum melting transition, 103
quantum memory and qubits, 184
quantum phase slip (QPS), 16–20, 494
quantum resistance, 17, 160
quantum size effects (QSE), 8, 9–11, 19, 156, 160, 177
quantum vortex lattice, 41
quantum wires coupled to SC electrodes, 459
quasi-0D material/superconductor, 3, 7, 8, 9, 19
quasi-1D material/superconductor, 3, 7, 19
quasi-2D material/superconductor, 3, 7, 18–20
quasi-classical theory of superconductivity, 115–117
quasi-low dimensional superlattices, 7
(p. 612) quasiparticle spin accumulation, 422
quasiparticle spin decay time and length, 421
quintuple layers (QLs), 185
R
radiation pattern, 278–281
Raman spectroscopic studies, 347, 365–368
rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ), 449
rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) logic, 418
Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling, 184, 207
ratchet effect, 103, 214
reactive ion etching, 227
reverse domain wall superconductivity (RDS), 247, 250–254, 256
RKKY interaction, 423
rock salt block, 347
RSFQ logic, 424
S
scanning electron microscope (SEM), 297
scanning Hall microscopy, 23, 83
scanning SQUID microscopy, 23, 83–84, 86, 103
scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS), 54, 73, 109, 125–126, 135, 139, 185, 202
second generation of superconducting qubits, 557–561
capacitively shunted flux qubits, 561
dispersive readout, 558
fluxonium, 560–561
surface losses, 559–560
second Josephson equation, 435
semiconducting barriers, 450–451
semiconducting nanowire based JJs, 451
semiconductor-superconductor nanowire hybrids, 479
SEM image of nanoSQUID, 503
S/F bilayers, 418
S/F core shell structure, 300
S/F/F triplet spin switches, 422
S/F hybrid structures, 241
S/F proximity effect and Josephson junction, 418–421
S/F/S junction, 418
S/F thermoelectric devices, 424
shape resonance effect, 10
SIFS type junctions, 453
single flux quantum (SFQ), 423
single-qubit Hamiltonians and reference frames, 526–529
laboratory frames, 526–527
qubit frame (eigenbasis), 527–528
rotating frame, 528–529
unitary rotations and Bloch-sphere, 527
SIS and SNS type sandwiches, 434
SIS junction, 495
SIS mixer, 448
size effect behavior of Tc, 13
size effects–basic considerations, 51–52
size effects in superconductors, 8–9
smallest superconductor, 494
small size effects, 8
S-nanowire(NW)-quantum dot(QD)-S device, 197–199
SN bilayer, 117–118
SN junction, 118, 132, 135, 126
SNS junction, 118–120, 133, 497
in magnetic field, 120–122
SNS proximity junctions, 76
spin accumulation, 416, 417
spin diffusion length, 417
spin filter Josephson junctions, 422
spin-orbit effects at S/F interface, 421
spin-orbit-split band structure, 224
spin polarized STM studies, 199, 200
spin selective Andreev reflection, 202
spin transfer torque (SIT), 416, 417
spin transport in superconducting state, 421–422
spin triplet superconductivity, 26
spintronics, conventional, 416–417
spin-valve barrier, 419
spin-valve geometry, 416
split date device, 230
S-QD-N device, 468
square dots, 98–99
SQUID basics, 567–572
DC SQUID, 569–570
DC SQUID noise, 570–571
DC SQUID readout, 72
RCSJ model, 567–572
SQUID detection loop, 493
SQUID magnetometry, 333
SQUID sensor, 84
SQUID series array amplifier, 515
Stewart-McCumber parameter, 443
STM, 23, 40, 50, 52, 55, 60, 61, 63, 67, 73, 173, 186, 210, 252–254, 257, 502
STM images of vortex configurations, 261
strain between neighboring blocks and effect on superconductivity, 356–359
Stranski-Krastanow growth, 53
striped incommensurate phase, 210
STS, 40, 50, 211, 212, 252
sub-gap states, 459, 470–472
sub-gap states in hybrid quantum dots, 467–468
substrate-free nanowires of HTS, 321
superconducting-ferromagnetic hybrid structure, 26
superconducting gap, 55, 126, 208, 209
superconducting junctions based on nanowires, 462
superconducting junctions with normal quantum dots, 463–466
(p. 613) superconducting nanodevices, 3, 492–520
superconducting order parameter, 16–17, 21, 42, 208, 294
superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), 23, 84, 231
superconducting qubits, 524–536, 539–553
charge qubit, 544–547
dissipative readout, 553
first generation of qubits, 543–544
Josephson junction, 540–541
phase qubit, 551–553
quantronium, 547–548
quantum behavior of SC phase and charge, 541–543
superconducting single photon detector (SSPD), 502
superconducting spin switches, 423
superconducting spintronic logic, 424
superconducting spintronic memory, 421–422
superconducting spintronics and devices, 415–427
rationale for, 417–418
superconducting weak links, 131
superconductivity as macroscopic quantum coherent phenomenon, 42
superconductivity at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, 215–231
AFM studies, 229
direct patterning, 226–229
electronic structure, 217–220
electrostatic gating, 229–231
LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, 215–217
properties, 225–226
superconductivity enhanced spectroscopy of quantum dots, 467–468
superconductivity in 2D limit, 207
superconductivity in dielectric material KTaO3, 209
superconductivity of oxide interfaces, 220–225
superconductivity in ultra-thin metals, 210–215
beyond the Pauli limit in single atom thick Pb layers, 214–215
experimental evidence, 211–213
Pb layers at the atomic limit, 213–214
superconductivity of bulk materials, 42–46
superconductor-ferromagnet (S/F) hybrids, 241–262
theories of S/F hybrids, 242–249
vortex nucleation behavior, 242–246
superconductor-ferromagnet bilayer, 248
superconductors in close contacts, 296
supercurrent densities, 6
surface and interface superconductivity, 207–232
surface effects, 12–14
surface phonon modes, 14
surface sheath (superconducting), 247, 294
surface sheath critical field Hc3, 14, 247, 294–296, 301
surface superconductivity, 306
symmetry induced antivortex formation, 24
synthesis of small superconductors, 28–32
inert gas condensation technique, 28–29
lithography technique, 30–32
porous template technique, 29–30
sol-gel method, 32
suspended molecular template technique, 29–30
vapor deposition technique, 32
T
Tc variation with bond length, 361–362
Tc variation with Ca and La content in 3D perspective, 360
Tc variation with number of CuO planes, 358–359
terahertz gap, 265
TGA technique, 328, 332
thermal diffusion equation, 282
thermally activated phase slip (TAPS), 16–18
thermodynamic critical field, 294
thermomagnetic instability (TMI), 384
thermomagnetic model, 388–391
Thomson model (plum-pudding model), 82
THz emission from HTS cuprates, 265–287
THz emitter using IJJs, 271–273
emission as a function of temperature inhomogeneity, 274–281
high power emission with local heating, 281–286
temperature inhomogeneity, 273
THz waves, 265
TI/SC heterostructures, 185–195
TMR devices, 416
topological Dirac states, 185
topological insulator (TI), 168, 183
topological order, 183
topological superconductivity–a novel quantum state of matter, 183
topological superconductors, 108, 183–202
by proximity effect, 183
transition from TAPS to QPS, 17, 18
transmission electron microscopy (TEM), 28
transmission electron microscopy of nanowires, 330
transverse Josephson plasma wave, 270
triangle dots, 97–100
triplet pairs at S/F interfaces, 419, 420
triplet supercurrent densities, 421
tunable barriers, 443–448
Al-AlOx-Al junctions, 446–447
AlN barrier, 448
amorphous Si:H barrier, 447
MgO barrier, 447–448
Nb-Al-AlOx-Nb, 448
tunable N-S junction based on a single crystal nanowire channel, 461
tunneling conductance spectrum, 66
tunneling spectroscopy of in-situ fabricated hybrid nanostructures, 123–126
(p. 614) tunnel magneto resistance (TMR), 416
2D electron gas (2DEG), 168
2D free electron model, 210
2D mesoscopic Wigner clusters, 93
Two-D superconductivity, 208–210
two/or multi energy gaps, 216
type-I superconductor, 4, 15, 16, 21–23, 156, 291–293
type-II superconductor, 4, 7, 14, 15–23, 156, 259, 293, 296, 307, 384, 391
U
ultimate vortex confinement, 54–55
ultra-dense vortex configuration, 40, 61–66
ultra-small superconducting systems, 40
ultra-thin superconducting films, 18–20
upper critical field Hc 2, 14, 249
V
valence band maximum (VBM), 188
various steps of template technique for making nanowires, 322
Volmer-Weber mechanism, 297
vortex-antivortex annihilation, 262
vortex-antivortex molecule, 24
vortex-antivortex state, 103
vortex avalanches, 380–386
vortex based applications, 82–83
vortex cells, 103
vortex confinement phenomena, 51, 68
experimental requirements, 51–54
observations, 54–77
vortex core, 40, 54, 74, 133
vortex(fluxon) based computers, 103
vortex lattice in bulk superconductors, 21, 380
vortex matter in bulk superconductors, 50–51
vortex matter in type-II superconductors, 379
vortex observations in mesoscopic Pb triangles, 305–307
vortex observations in mesoscopic Sn triangles, 302–305
vortex organization and pinning, 40
vortex organization in mesoscopic superconductors, 41–76
vortex organization under moderate confinement, 66–73
experimental observations, 66–71
modeling and numerical solutions, 71–73
vortex penetration, 379
vortex shells, 81
vortex states of small superconductors, 20–24
vortex-vortex interaction, 244
vortices in mesoscopic superconductors, 40
vortices in monolayer superconductors, 73–76
vortices in planar S/F hybrids, 256–261
equilibrium configurations, 259–261
nucleation thresholds, 256–259
vortices in TI/SC heterostructures, 190–192
vortices per pinning center, 380
vorticity (Winding number), 22, 23, 24, 48, 81, 82, 87–101, 245, 304
W
ways of creating point contacts, 146–147
weak links, 168
wetting layer (WL), 126–128
Wexler’s formula, 162
X
X-ray diffraction (XRD), 28, 60, 65
Y
YSR molecule, 477
Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) states, 468
Z
zero bias anomaly (ZBA), 127–129
zero bias conductance (ZBC), 59, 60, 65, 253, 254, 258
zero bias peak (ZBP), 194, 196, 197, 199–202
zero-D superconductor, 17, 18, 19
zero field cooling (ZFC), 339