Abstract and Keywords
This article discusses recent developments relating to the so-called topological superconductors (TSCs), which have a full pairing gap in the bulk and gapless surface states consisting of Majorana fermions (MFs). It first provides a background on topological superconductivity as a novel quantum state of matter before turning to topological insulators (TIs) and superconducting heterostructures, with particular emphasis on the vortices of such materials and the Majorana mode within a vortex. It also considers proposals for realizing TSCs by proximity effects through TI/SC heterostructures as well as experimental efforts to fabricate artificial TSCs using nanowires, superconducting junctions, and ferromagnetic atomic chains on superconductors.
Keywords: topological superconductors, Majorana fermions, topological superconductivity, topological insulators, superconducting heterostructures, proximity effect, nanowires, superconducting junctions, ferromagnetic atomic chains
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