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date: 29 October 2020

(p. 711) Index

(p. 711) Index

Introductory Note

References such as “178–9” indicate (not necessarily continuous) discussion of a topic across a range of pages. Wherever possible in the case of topics with many references, these have either been divided into sub-topics or only the most significant discussions of the topic are listed. Because the entire work is about “corporations,” the use of this term and certain others, which occur constantly throughout the book as entry points, has been minimized. Information will be found under the corresponding detailed topics.

3D printing 30, 525, 527, 652
abstractions 297, 508–9, 512
access 704
accommodation 263, 530
accountability 9, 11–12, 16–17, 93–4, 142, 565, 623, 676–7
public 97, 108, 312
social 567, 576
accountants 60, 437
accounting 27, 68, 70, 158, 264, 302, 305, 519
fraud 418, 447
standards 71, 601
accounts 58, 60–1, 67, 69–71, 111, 564
custodial 431–2, 438
ten-year 60, 62
trust 429, 438
accumulation 241, 468, 494, 569, 691
technological 460, 463, 468
Aceh 53, 56, 62
acquisitions 23, 25, 252, 261–2, 366, 370–1, 377–8, 571–3
actions
corporate 145, 181, 208, 575–6, 578
derivative 177–8, 203, 290
economic 144, 389
legal 179, 595
activist shareholders/investors 26, 177, 321, 353
adaptation 20, 468, 470, 473, 598, 602, 605–6, 641–2
administrative state 247, 280
affiliated companies 421, 435, 440
Africa 34, 53, 55, 57, 59, 66
agency, economic 396, 476
agency costs 133, 152, 391, 393, 689
agency problems 9, 51, 133, 198, 207–8, 258, 262, 275
agency theory 11–13, 139–42, 149–51, 153–7, 160–2, 391–2, 398–406, 697–700
agent of 396–406
anthropological critique 387–406
diffusion 155–8
economic vision 393–6
influence 155–6
limitations 698–701
overview 390–3
agent of agency theory 396–406
agents 149–54, 161–2, 287–8, 291, 390–3, 397, 399–403, 405
economic 154, 476, 701
free 398, 403
of shareholders 154, 205, 392
agility 465–6, 470
AGMs 444, 447
Airbnb 29, 520, 530
Alchian, Armen 4, 132–3, 147, 199–200, 539, 545, 547, 552–4
Alibaba 29, 32, 520
(p. 712) Alien Torts Claims Act (ATCA) 578
alienation 21, 688, 703–4
alliances 62, 247, 262, 343, 368, 370–1, 464, 526
allocation of capital 157
Alphabet 29, 75; see also Google
altruism 225–7, 286
Amazon 29, 32
ambidextrous organizations 518, 524
amendment of company law 440, 445–6
American Bar Association (ABA) 603–4, 607
American economy 243, 245, 247, 250, 255, 257, 259–60, 267–70
American exceptionalism 120, 251–60, 267
American regulatory state 243, 246, 250, 260, 269–70
American workers 23, 124, 129, 135
Amsterdam 52–3, 55–8, 66–9, 71, 614
Anglo-American corporation 4, 16, 24
Anglo-American countries 170, 174, 187–8
annual securities reports 427–8, 430–9, 444, 447
anthropological critique of agency theory 387–406
antitrust law 110, 144, 243
any-to-any platforms 29
Apple 26, 29, 321, 325–6, 331–3, 335–48, 350–4, 470
financialization 347–50
and Foxconn 338–43
as iconic corporation 334–5
as monopsony 335–8
products 333–4, 338, 340, 346, 348
suppliers 340–1, 344–5
supply chain 340, 344–5
appropriability 17, 458, 462, 470, 478–9
appropriable value 458, 480
arbitrage
intellectual 132
regulatory 3–4, 675–6, 678
Arctic ecosystems 599
artificial intelligence 30, 527–9
Asia 29–30, 34–6, 52–3, 55–9, 62–4, 66, 78, 80–3
East 15, 81, 297–8, 325
South 80, 82–3
South-East 574, 579
Asia Pacific 319, 322, 325, 327, 573, 616
Asian corporations 16–17, 21, 32, 35
assembly workers 331, 338, 340
asset augmentation 473–4
asset locks 670, 672, 678, 681
asset owners 324, 470, 609, 613, 644, 674
asset partitioning 197, 691, 705
asset pools 674, 692, 694–5, 702, 706
asset specificity 459, 461
assets 110–11, 201–3, 221–3, 284–5, 466–71, 545–6, 548–50, 691–7
aggregation 221–2
business 691–2, 696, 699, 706
complementary 17, 469–71, 477, 480, 482, 548
corporate 202–3, 222, 285, 700
co-specialized 469–70, 474
difficult-to-imitate 464
difficult-to-trade 463
financial 111, 350, 569, 604
firm-specific 460, 467, 473–4, 481, 549–50, 555–6
human 548, 688, 694
human knowledge 548–9
intangible 368–9, 466–8, 547–8
knowledge 540, 547–9
lock-in 13, 220, 222–3, 227–8, 230
long-lived 23, 203
personal 94, 691, 694, 696
physical 547–8, 702
productive 197, 284, 320, 655
specialized 201, 470, 554
trust 691, 693
asymmetric information 208, 392
asymmetric power relations 241, 246, 250, 260
ATCA (Alien Torts Claims Act) 578
auditors 69, 204, 212, 308, 435, 446, 577–8
corporate 435, 442, 446
autonomy 101, 121, 131, 152, 252, 263, 675, 683
managerial 398
private collective 675–8, 682–3
public collective 675–6, 678, 682–3
Bangladesh 326, 333, 579, 591
bank deregulation 111
(p. 713) Bank of Japan (BOJ) 428–32
bankers 209, 405
banking 31, 35–6, 84, 95, 97, 99–100, 421, 426–7
investment 100, 252
banks 98, 101, 423, 425–6, 428–9, 431–2, 438–40, 447–8
commercial 23, 101, 428, 438
investment 28, 101, 103, 108, 253, 335
too-big-to-fail 8
bargaining power 126–7, 255, 260, 325, 370, 470, 547
B-corporations 531, 608
behavior 144, 150, 154–5, 158–60, 287–8, 392–4, 396, 399
consumer 18, 518, 652, 654
corporate 157, 160, 591, 607, 629
managerial 133
opportunistic 15, 251, 288, 368, 392–3
organizational 607, 646
responsible business 19, 564
benefit corporations 136, 531, 658, 670–1, 677–9
big business 279, 491, 505
bilateral investment treaties 573–4, 579
biodiversity 599–600, 616, 628, 642
bioeconomics 625–6
biomimicry 626, 629, 651
B-Labs 531, 679
black box 391, 668–9, 683
blockchain 527–9
blue economy 648–9, 651
board governance 198, 201–2
and corporate law 202–5
board meetings 435–6, 440
board members 203, 205, 211, 285, 434, 436, 440–1, 445–7
supervisory 263, 445
board of directors, see boards
board structure 418, 447
board-controlled corporations 223, 225
boards 13, 198–9, 203–12, 214–15, 284–5, 289–91, 435–7, 439–40
independent 198, 203, 698
Japanese 434, 436–7, 451
legal structure and duties 13, 199
mediating role 205–12
primary function 13, 199
role 198, 612
supervisory 263, 439, 445
BOJ, see Bank of Japan
bonds 95, 102, 104–5, 108, 311, 399, 691
government 72–3, 104, 108
green 618
junk 348
borders 275, 460, 467
boundaries 15, 298–9, 311–13, 450, 468, 515–16, 521, 642
clear 15, 298, 606, 704–5
organizational 459, 467, 531
planetary 591, 642
Brandeis, Louis 121, 124–5, 267
Brazil 34, 66, 366–7, 373, 571, 573
breakthrough capitalism 650
Bretton Woods 252, 259–60, 567
British Empire 9, 81
brokerage houses 101, 103–4
bubble economy 426–7, 432, 437, 451–2
budget breakers 200, 202, 547, 554
bulk commodities 52
burdens 123, 332, 600
business as usual 603, 606, 611, 642, 658–9
business assets 691–2, 696, 699, 706
business cases 563, 596, 645, 649, 651, 657
business corporations 97–8, 107–8, 222, 228, 275–7, 291–2, 429, 433
non-financial 431–2, 448
business cycles 256, 277, 280, 517, 567, 571, 604
business ecosystems 17, 28–9, 458, 462, 470, 474, 477–80
creation and co-creation 17, 458, 463, 475, 477
business education 156, 404
business enterprises 304, 492–3, 509–12, 688, 690, 694, 696, 704–6
business environment 320, 465–7
business ethics 171, 321, 338
business imperatives 12, 188–9
business judgment rule 13, 122, 179, 205, 252, 263, 606
(p. 714) business models 465, 467, 517–18, 520–1, 528, 648–9, 651–3, 682
innovation 480, 517, 519–20
integrative sustainable 651, 657
signature 465, 482
sustainable 623, 627, 646
traditional 530, 595
business objectives 12, 170, 185–8
business opportunities 478, 623–4, 642
business practices 171, 184, 188, 333, 557, 623, 696
sustainable 20, 550, 624, 641
business relationships 331, 341, 390, 428, 436
business schools 8, 156, 387, 404
business strategy 258, 267, 462, 477, 529, 565, 567
buy-backs 25–6, 288, 292, 347, 350, 570, 572, 699
Canada 170, 174, 181–2, 225, 379, 622, 670–1, 679
courts 180–2
canals 98–100, 224, 693
capabilities 369–70, 375, 377, 379–80, 459–64, 468–9, 471–4, 480–2
competitive 372, 463
dynamic 463, 465, 470, 494
innovative 493, 512
leveraging 17, 458, 471
through horizontal expansion 467–9
and MNE performance 467
ordinary 464–5, 467, 471–2
organizational 462–3
perspectives 472–3, 475, 494
political 369, 371
productive 497, 500–1, 512
technological 460, 464
theories 458, 472
capability transfer 472, 482
capability upgrading 369–71
capital 25–7, 93–5, 100–4, 106–12, 347–8, 419–22, 691–2, 703–4
corporate 101–2, 105
financial 77, 109–10
formation, Dutch East India Company 59–62
human 201, 526, 541, 547–8, 554, 623
industrial 24, 109–10
inputs 133, 572
intellectual 221, 466
intensity 106
lock-in 690, 693, 703
natural 21, 36–7, 590, 608, 627–30, 646
patient 494, 678
private 13, 66, 221
socialized 93–112
socializing 93–112
capitalism 15–16, 110–11, 154–5, 263, 297, 564–6, 648, 650
breakthrough 650
classical 95, 109
Confucian 15, 298
conscious 648–9
constructive 650
cooperative 649
entrepreneurial 101–3, 112
finance, see finance capitalism
financial 139, 144, 154, 160–2, 398, 404
industrial 14, 144, 238, 240, 243, 249–50
laissez-faire 575
liberal, see liberal capitalism
managerial 5, 140–1, 143, 158, 160–2, 262, 280
market 280, 298
platform 530
post-war 144, 161
state 5, 242, 366, 421–2
capitalist economies 140, 143, 158, 394
capitalist system 127, 141, 517
capitalization, market 24, 26, 29–30, 32–3, 35, 335, 594–5, 618
carbon budget 603, 610
Carbon Disclosure Project, see CDP
carbon emissions 3, 37, 602, 605, 619
care, duty of 441, 606, 695
careers 159, 436, 438, 442, 450–1, 494, 496, 508
Carney, Mark 37, 576, 604–5, 607, 609–10
Carter Coal 245
casualty insurance 429, 431–2
cathedrals 220–2, 225
CDOs (collateralized debt obligations) 107
CDP (Carbon Disclosure Project) 603, 610, 614, 619, 621
Cemex 367, 377–8
(p. 715) centralization 104, 244, 248, 473
CERES (Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economics) 607, 614, 619
certification 431, 531, 577, 593, 658, 671, 679
third-party 593, 671
chairmen 287, 303, 435–6, 604
chambers 57–8, 71–2
Chandler, Alfred 11–12, 22–3, 106, 110, 152, 155, 160, 387
chaos 126, 376–7, 380
charities 226, 441, 540, 549, 553
chartered companies 79–80, 692, 696
Chicago economists 15, 279–81, 293, 566–7, 569
Chicago School 132, 146–7, 161, 566, 568
child labor 129, 322–3, 332, 579
children 124, 291, 309, 322–3, 340, 346, 579
China 29, 34–6, 302–3, 331–4, 338–9, 345, 476–7, 479–80
corporations 21, 35–6
economy 35, 325, 333
government 35, 332–3
late imperial 298
China Labor Watch 331, 334, 340, 344–6
circular economy 38, 530–1, 622, 624–6, 630, 648, 651–4, 656
circular flows 496, 652
cities 52, 55, 57–8, 65, 71, 96, 98–9, 626
civil law 311, 642, 674, 693
civil society 145, 607, 610, 614, 629, 648
bodies/organizations 19, 589, 601, 620
clan corporations 307–8
clans 95, 307–8, 542
classic entrepreneurs 122, 126, 133
classical capitalism 95, 109
classical liberals 274–6, 279, 286
criticism of corporation 274–6
climate change 19–21, 37–8, 589, 595–609, 616–17, 619, 628–9, 641–3; see also greening of the corporation
activism 575
anthropogenic 597, 606
and directors’ duties 603–7
effects/impacts 595–602, 604–6, 608–9
and fiduciary duties 607–11
opportunities 602, 607
Paris Agreement 600–2, 624
systemic risks 36, 599–600
cloud computing 28, 516
coal 421, 574, 601, 610
Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economics (CERES) 607, 614, 619
coalitions 576–8, 608, 611, 619
Coase, R. 133, 390–2, 475, 539–40, 544, 546, 689, 694
co-creation 17, 457–8, 461–2, 468, 475, 477–80, 482, 522
ecosystem 478
market 477–8
coercion 15, 286–7, 292, 325, 399
coherence 9, 265, 309, 690, 706
co-innovation 521–3, 529–30, 532, 673
community-based competition 522
competitive 522
collaboration 97, 472, 474, 476, 526, 529, 652, 658
collaborative consumption 530, 654, 656–7
collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) 107
collective bargaining 129, 257–9, 267
agreements 244, 257, 340
collective choice arrangements 704–5
collective entities 12, 300, 308, 398
collective learning 493–4
commercial banks 23, 101, 428, 438
commitments 11, 13–14, 293, 350–1, 591–2, 601, 611–13, 623
financial 18, 491–4, 511
stalled 334, 352
commodities 73, 81–2, 95, 503, 574, 577, 628
bulk 52
fungible 11, 110
common goods 224, 329, 682
common law 83, 175, 177, 674, 695, 699
commons 20–1, 604, 667–9, 673–9, 682–4, 687–8, 702–3, 705–6
cooperatives as operationalizing 675–7
corporation as 674–5, 702–6
(p. 716)
natural 629, 702–3
research 675, 703, 705
social enterprise as operationalizing 677–9
theory 702–3
commons-based governance 667, 673–5, 677–9, 683
communication technology 9, 28, 36, 327, 348, 541
Community Interest Companies (CICs) 670–1, 677–9
community-based competition co-innovation 522
community-owned renewable energy cooperatives 672, 676–7
company directors, see directors
company reports 31, 335–6, 621
compensation 135, 203–4, 212, 264, 292–3, 439, 494, 570
executive 156, 159, 213, 263–4, 267
incentive 135, 265, 267
managerial 260, 263–4, 266–7
stock 264, 288, 443
competing interests 1, 13, 153, 199, 205, 209–10, 215, 543
competition 161, 277–8, 280–1, 464–6, 469–70, 479, 522, 649
excessive 245, 422
global 36, 372–3, 466, 469
law 247, 252, 674
market 144, 243, 251, 347, 447
perfect, see perfect competition
regulatory 679, 705
competitive advantage (CA) 370–1, 461, 463–4, 469–71, 475–6, 492–3, 500–1, 503–4
competitive capabilities 372, 463
competitive co-innovation 522
competitive conditions 279, 505–6
competitive disadvantage 369, 498, 500, 504, 608
competitive firms 491, 505–6
competitive markets 249, 373, 671
competitive uncertainties 493, 499, 510
competitors 335, 337, 375–6, 470, 497, 499–501, 503, 505
perfect 492, 506
complacency, managerial 259
complementary assets 17, 469–71, 477, 480, 482, 548
complete contracts 199, 549–50, 556
complex organizations 126, 201, 262
compliance 331, 341, 344, 351, 353, 441, 449, 647
comply or explain rule 440, 449–50
component suppliers 332, 345
conceptualizations 18–19, 147, 149, 516, 518, 668, 694, 698
conflict-resolution mechanisms 704–5
conflicts of interest 199, 203, 205, 207, 209, 212, 263, 554
Confucian capitalism 15, 298
Confucian kinship relations 301, 308
Confucianism 298, 300–4, 307–8, 312
kinship theories of the firm 307–8
Connecticut 176, 179, 678
conscious capitalism 648–9
constituencies 176, 179–80, 182, 290, 672, 674, 676, 704
corporate 178, 252, 290, 674, 677, 698–700, 702–3
economic 14, 238, 249
non-shareholder 176, 178–9, 209
constituency statutes 176, 179, 608
constituent units 239, 246–7
constituents 160, 175, 212, 616
constructive capitalism 650
consumer behavior 18, 518, 652, 654
consumer boycotts 76, 333
consumers 126–9, 168–9, 333, 506–7, 520, 522, 527, 592–3
affluent 333, 424
middle-class 627, 653
consumption 128, 504, 512, 625–6, 630, 649, 654, 656
collaborative 530, 654, 656–7
contracting 134, 200, 275, 305, 472, 689, 694
bilateral 276, 701
individual 149, 305
relationships 133, 149
contractors 16, 320, 330, 338, 351
(p. 717) contracts 133–4, 149–52, 200–1, 307–9, 391, 400–1, 545–51, 556–7
complete 199, 549–50, 556
employment 305, 475, 546, 548
explicit 207, 546, 550, 552
implicit 206, 540, 546, 549–53, 684
incomplete 150, 549–50, 552, 556–7
relational 19, 546, 548, 552, 557
contractual freedom 12, 140, 147, 151, 154, 160
contractual hazards 459, 482
contractual incompleteness 392, 550, 552, 700
contractual theories 14, 146, 162, 543
contractualist approach 12, 104, 140, 150
control 102–4, 119–22, 124–30, 140–6, 251–2, 261, 265–8, 555–7
corporate 17, 157, 179, 251–2, 261, 567, 570–1, 698–9
effective 122–3, 418
entrepreneurial 257–8, 267
internal 431, 445
loss 495, 497–8
managerial 267, 694
separation of ownership and control 119–21, 124–6, 239–40, 251–2, 261, 266–7, 274–5, 555–6
strategic 18, 491–5, 511
transactions 261, 263, 571
controlling shareholders 142, 204, 223, 451
cooperative tradition 669, 671–3
cooperatives 667–9, 671–4, 676–9
community-owned renewable energy 672, 676–7
as operationalizing the commons 675–7
cooperativism 669, 671–3, 683
new 668, 672
coordination, economic 12, 140, 706
co-owners 691–2
core business 28, 158, 323, 350, 591–2, 645, 647
co-regulatory measures 353–4
corporate actions 145, 181, 208, 575–6, 578
corporate activity 5, 21, 38, 674, 705
corporate assets 202–3, 222, 285, 700
corporate auditors 435, 442, 446
corporate behavior 157, 160, 591, 607, 629
corporate capital 101–2, 105
corporate capitalism 112, 246, 262, 267, 280
corporate citizenship 5, 25, 31, 181, 186, 566, 623, 646
corporate constituencies 178, 252, 290, 674, 677, 698–700, 702–3
corporate control 17, 157, 179, 251–2, 261, 567, 570–1, 698–9
corporate culture 450–1, 475
corporate directors, see directors
corporate entities 11, 14, 220–7, 231, 275–6, 282, 284–5, 307
unique characteristics 14, 223
corporate environmentalism 590–1
corporate form 20–1, 279–80, 672–4, 676–7, 692–4, 696, 700–1, 706
evolution 687–706
standard 676–7, 679
corporate governance 14–17, 173–5, 238, 251–3, 260–1, 267–8, 667–8, 673–6
codes 418, 449, 697, 699
culture 199, 595
Japan 418, 421, 437, 447–8
practices 239, 241, 243, 419, 450, 697–8
principles 155, 157
corporate hierarchy 419, 435–6
corporate innovation 1, 520, 523–4
conceptions 516–17
corporate interests 160, 168, 330, 611
corporate law 11–13, 104, 144, 173–4, 180, 289–90, 305, 675
and board governance 202–5
Delaware 203, 288–9
and shareholders 212–15
and team production 197–215
corporate managers, see managers
corporate performance 1, 6, 214–15
corporate personality 221, 310, 688, 690, 693, 701
emergence 690–8
corporate power 5, 11–12, 24, 143–6, 161–2, 238–9, 270, 279
corporate profits, see profits
corporate purpose 2, 4–9, 11–12, 17, 19, 168–90, 291, 589
corporate raiders 253, 261–2
(p. 718) corporate resilience 20, 641–2
corporate responsibility 6, 19, 168, 171, 563–80, 611, 617, 702
appraisal 577–9
initiatives 563, 576, 579
movement 564, 574–5, 577
origins of theory 564–7
corporate securities 102, 111, 350, 692
corporate social responsibility, see CSR
corporate takeovers, see takeovers
corporations, evolving 1–39
corporatism 242–5, 247
corruption 2, 76, 99–100, 270, 612, 620
co-specialization 17, 458, 462, 469–70, 476–7
cross-border 476–7
co-specialized assets 469–70, 474
cost structures 491–2, 498, 505–6
counter-powers 145–6, 161
countervailing power 14, 145, 161–2, 237–71
dynamics 241, 260, 263
Galbraith’s 238, 240
self-generating 251
theory 14, 247, 257
cross-border activities 367, 476, 478–9
cross-border co-specialization 476–7
cross-border expansion 468, 479–80
cross-border integration 458, 476
cross-border markets 17, 458, 462–3, 471, 477–8, 480, 482
CSR (corporate social responsibility) 170, 172–3, 540, 542–4, 550–3, 556–7, 590–1, 646–9
disclosures 330, 543–4, 551
literature 172, 542–3, 549–50, 553, 557
and stakeholder theory 172–3
culture 29, 120, 129, 299, 371–2, 399–401, 465, 472
corporate 450–1, 475
corporate governance 199, 595
custodial accounts 431–2, 438
Dai-ichi Life Insurance 420, 425–6
DCs (dynamic capabilities) 17, 457–82, 494, 504, 518
role of complementary and co-specialized assets 469–70
and SCA (sustained competitive advantage) 470–1
theoretical building blocks 463–6
and theory of the MNE 466–7
decision-making power 83, 151–2, 673
decoupling 37, 189, 567, 590, 646
Delaware
corporate law 289–92
courts 182, 204, 206, 445, 698
democracy 14, 65, 111, 224, 237–8, 250, 278, 681
electoral 303, 312
industrial 177, 244, 258
Jacksonian 98, 100
political 2, 224
democratization 422–3, 657
Demsetz, Harold 4, 132–3, 147, 150, 199–200, 545, 547, 552–4
depressions 98, 100, 136, 242, 245, 248, 252
deregulation 5, 23, 96, 111, 154, 259, 269, 353
derivative actions 177–8, 203, 290
derivatives 107, 109, 259, 350, 568
design 334, 336, 462, 516, 518, 520, 522, 532
innovative 20, 641
institutional 240, 244
organizational/institutional 240, 244, 541, 682
principles 675, 703–5
product 378, 519, 625, 652
regenerative 651–2
design thinking 525–6, 529
development, economic 17–18, 225, 320, 323–5, 490, 492, 496, 579
difficult-to-imitate assets 464
difficult-to-trade assets 463
digital economy 20, 621, 667, 672
digital hegemony 28–32
digital platforms 28, 530, 672
directors 64–72, 168–70, 173–90, 198–9, 201–9, 211–15, 434–47, 606–12
background 437–8
duties 19, 173–86, 206, 441, 445, 608
and climate change 603–7
fiduciary duties 252, 261, 451, 564, 580
(p. 719)
incumbent 64, 70–1
independent 209–12, 287, 437, 440, 444, 447
Japanese 184, 440
managing 435–6, 596
representative 435, 442, 444–5
roles 174, 435, 439
disaggregation 16, 319–20, 330–1
disclosure 67, 592, 606–7, 614, 617–18, 620, 628, 670–1
CSR (corporate social responsibility) 330, 543–4, 551
discretion 151, 173, 175, 179, 206, 252, 282, 291
managerial 179, 258, 668
discretionary power 142, 145, 671
disequilibrium condition 496
dispersed shareholdings 9, 34, 51, 73, 253, 255, 450
dispersion of knowledge 541, 545, 547–8, 554
disputes 13, 80, 199, 203–5, 215, 332, 339, 366
disruptive innovations 18, 378, 515–32
disruptive technologies 18, 517–18, 524, 527
distributed knowledge 521, 541
distribution 58, 61, 64, 428–9, 431, 520, 522, 658
channels 378–9, 519
collaborative 682
diversified skills 149, 152
diversity 16–17, 20, 187, 297, 353, 466–7, 642, 646–7
dividends 25–6, 60, 64, 72, 229–30, 282, 670, 681
policy 72, 184–5
special 184–5, 572
division of labor 15, 18, 152, 298, 325, 494, 541
domestic markets 325, 370, 471
dormitories 339–41, 343
Dow Jones Sustainability Indices (DJSI) 616–17
drones 527–8
Dutch East India Company 9, 51–73, 75, 77, 81, 85, 97, 291
governance improvements 71–2
government involvement 69–71
institutional frame 51–5
market drivers for cooperation 56–9
market ordering by government 54–5
shareholder activism 65–9
strategic failure 62–4
strategy and capital formation 59–62
duties 3–6, 168–70, 173–8, 180–3, 185–90, 289–91, 439–41, 606–8
of care 441, 606, 695
directors 19, 173, 186, 206, 441, 445, 603, 608
legal 168, 183, 307, 671, 674, 699
of loyalty 289, 441
dynamic capabilities, see DCs
early modernity 85–6
East Asia 15, 81, 297–8, 325
East India Company
eco-efficiency 619, 624, 647
eco-innovation 623–4
ecology 37–8, 590, 597, 607, 623, 683
industrial 590, 651, 653
economic action 144, 389
economic actors 248, 253, 300, 509
economic agency 396, 476
economic agents 154, 476, 701
economic analysis 15, 134, 155, 197, 256, 309–11, 313
economic benefits 169, 652, 691
economic constituencies 14, 238, 249
economic coordination 12, 140, 706
economic development 17–18, 225, 320, 323–5, 490, 492, 496, 579
economic efficiency 93, 153, 157, 402, 492
economic enterprise 15, 297–8, 300, 302–3, 309–12
economic entities 20, 37, 107, 304, 308
economic forces 125, 226, 241, 252, 330, 679
economic functions 229, 231, 688
economic goals 353, 674
economic governance 238, 243, 245
economic growth 37, 39, 275–6, 320–1, 325, 327, 590–1, 618–19
stable 18, 492, 504, 507, 512–13
economic impacts 596, 642, 646, 654
economic inequality 241, 249, 260, 570, 572
(p. 720) economic institutions 197, 237, 302, 510–12, 689, 701
economic interests 14, 237, 244, 252–3, 257, 572
economic liberalism 146, 278
economic logic 245, 247, 299
economic modernity 239, 249, 251
economic objectives 651, 657, 667–9, 673–4
economic order 146, 154, 246
political 242, 250, 259, 269
economic organization 14–15, 128, 132–3, 238, 243, 245, 248, 297–8
economic performance 353, 491, 506, 509, 648
economic policy 491, 512, 567, 572
economic power 14, 32, 143, 238, 241, 244, 246, 249–51
political 239, 243, 249
economic relations 140, 324, 400, 679
economic resources 126, 265, 312
economic systems 126, 144, 146, 152, 157, 239, 248, 251
economic theories 297, 304–5, 402, 458, 460–3, 475–7, 539–40, 544
of the firm 304–7, 539–58
of the MNE and FDI 458–63
economic value 158, 228, 651, 657, 670
economics 132, 154, 156, 389–91, 539–40, 548–9, 552–5, 568–9
financial 156–8
institutional 240–1, 305, 313, 459, 687
Keynesian 14, 238, 240, 568
mainstream 121, 146, 156, 508
organizational 539, 551–2, 557
economics-based approaches 457, 477–8
economies of scale 23, 105, 503–4
economists 109, 197–200, 297–8, 311, 350, 388–91, 491–2, 508–10
institutional 305, 313
liberal 249, 510
neoclassical 16, 132, 263, 390, 490–1, 497, 504, 508
economy
American 243, 245, 247, 250, 255, 257, 259–60, 267–70
blue 648–9, 651
Chinese 35, 325, 333
digital 20, 621, 667, 672
global 32, 36, 38, 366–7, 372, 374, 376, 378–9
human 37, 590
industrial 38, 240, 693, 696
knowledge-based 466–7, 477
linear 38, 590, 625–6, 630, 652
market 17, 38, 140, 147, 242–3, 394, 402, 688–90
moral 310
national 129, 308, 327
sharing 20, 530–1, 624, 648, 651, 654–6
sustainable 611, 621, 648
Western 27, 445, 567
ecosystem co-creation 478
ecosystem goods 599–600
ecosystem services 628
ecosystems 477–9, 482, 594, 596–7, 599, 625, 627–8, 630
Arctic 599
business 17, 28–9, 458, 462, 470, 474, 477–80
education 323, 325, 442, 623, 643
business 156, 404
efficacy 400, 578–9
efficiency 106, 110, 153, 220–1, 226–7, 491–2, 619, 623–6
economic 93, 153, 157, 402, 492
efficient markets 155, 157–8, 220, 227–30
EICC (Electronics Industry Citizenship Coalition) 343
electoral democracy 303, 312
Electronics Industry Citizenship Coalition, see EICC
elites, managerial 240, 251, 265, 572
embedded firm 563–80
embedded liberalism 251, 260, 262, 574
emerging economies 16, 32–5, 319–21, 366–7, 369, 375, 380, 620
emerging markets 3, 33–4, 353, 370, 375, 524, 616
emerging-market multinationals 366–7, 370, 372–4, 376–7, 379–80
(p. 721) emissions 2, 37–8, 596–7, 601, 605–6, 609, 622, 655–6
carbon 3, 37, 602, 605, 619
greenhouse gas 593, 596–8, 602, 607, 614, 621–2
zero 3, 592, 603, 621, 626–7
empires 9, 75, 81, 84–5, 301
empirical studies 214, 353, 401, 521
employees 132–3, 168–9, 178–9, 184–5, 187–9, 504, 694–5, 704–5
Foxconn 340–1, 345
interests 176, 179
employers 107, 109, 133, 282, 284, 546–7, 557, 694–5
employment 8, 18, 25–6, 131, 344, 347, 511–12, 693–4
conditions 321, 339, 347
contracts 305, 475, 546, 548
law 305, 684, 687, 702
lifetime 424, 441, 448, 450–1
relations 145, 320, 695
empowerment 128, 229, 239, 698
energy 30, 37–8, 593, 595–6, 621, 625–7, 642, 652–3
renewable 38, 226, 334, 590, 596, 617, 622, 624–5
enforceable rights 178, 180, 190
English East India Company 59, 62, 66, 69, 75–6, 79–81, 276, 291
Company-State 75–86
early modernity 85–6
and Google 75–6
English law 83, 688, 691, 693–4
enterprise organization 279, 304, 309
theories 298, 300, 302, 304–9
entity shielding 688, 690–3, 701, 706
entrenchment, managerial 261, 265
entrepreneur primacy 120–1, 123, 131–2, 136
entrepreneurial capital 101, 103
entrepreneurial capitalism 101–3, 112
entrepreneurial control 257–8, 267
entrepreneurial managements 17, 458, 468, 476–7, 481
entrepreneurial managers 462, 471, 477–9
entrepreneurial theory 462–3
entrepreneurs 120–5, 133–4, 209–11, 305, 478–80, 482, 495–7, 525–6
classic 122, 126, 133
founding 210, 267
social 658, 683
entrepreneurship 9, 28, 460–1, 466, 478–80, 523, 669
scholarship 17, 458, 476, 481
environment 37–8, 171, 187, 466–8, 481–2, 600–1, 608–9, 611–12
changing 419, 464
institutional 324, 369, 380, 510, 532
environmental impacts 343, 352–3, 590–3, 605, 607, 619, 621, 644
environmental performance 351–2, 531, 592, 613, 615–16, 645, 647
environmental protection 566, 573, 590, 599, 603, 606, 647
environmental responsibility 6, 8, 326, 330, 352–4, 589–92, 595, 610–12
environmental standards 354, 576, 595, 645
environmental sustainability 171, 621
environmental uncertainty 550, 628
environmental value 617, 657
environmentally friendly buildings 626
equity 106, 109, 134, 441, 443, 449, 649, 654
intergenerational 220–1, 224, 231, 629
intra-generational 629
investors 208, 222–3, 229
private 109, 159, 212, 253, 262, 572, 620
European Union 31, 75, 322, 574, 672
evolution of corporate form 687–706
excellence 373, 474, 482
exceptionalism, American 120, 251–60, 267
excesses 2, 26, 76, 84, 212, 251, 255, 261
exclusion 21, 212, 248, 688, 703–4
exclusive privileges 93, 97, 274
executive compensation 156, 159, 213, 263–4, 267
expansion 82–4, 368, 374, 379, 459, 467, 566, 573–6
cross-border 468, 479–80
horizontal 368, 467
international 16, 367, 369–70, 380
rapid 82, 472, 566
vertical 368
expectations 208, 212, 328, 341, 347, 578–9, 650, 653–4
stakeholder 186, 328, 591
(p. 722) explicit contracts 207, 546, 550, 552
external growth 370–1, 378, 380
extractive industries 576, 579, 620
ExxonMobil 22, 29, 85, 197, 205
Facebook 21, 23, 29, 32, 76, 136
factor prices 496–7, 499, 501, 506
factories 56–7, 79, 81, 325, 333, 335, 338–42, 351
garment 326, 333
factory workers 344–5
failures 22–4, 96, 98, 126, 242, 245, 606, 609
Dutch East India Company 62–4
Fair Labor Association, see FLA
fair trade 576–7, 579, 673
FairShares model 673
Fama, Eugene 101, 132–4, 149–52, 157, 698
families 15, 204, 298–303, 305, 308–9, 312, 419, 422
founding 419, 421–2
FDI (foreign direct investment) 367, 369, 457–61, 463, 471, 475, 477, 480–1
Federal Reserve 8, 26, 132, 256, 268, 568
federal securities law 252–3, 267
fictions, legal 149, 297, 300, 305, 307, 309–10, 391, 398
fiduciary duties 222, 262–3, 284, 289–91, 449, 451, 563–5, 608–10
and climate change 607–11
directors 252, 261, 451, 564, 580
Japan 440–1
fiduciary logic 301, 310
finance capitalism 237–71
contemporary 14, 241, 246, 249–50, 260, 262, 265, 269
emergence 252–3
era of 257, 260
neoliberal 241, 254
financial assets 111, 350, 569, 604
financial capital 77, 109–10
financial capitalism 139, 144, 154, 160–2, 398, 404
financial commitment 18, 491–4, 511
financial crisis 4–5, 7, 246, 268–70, 568, 572–3, 602, 698–700
financial economics 156–8
financial institutions 8, 11, 109–10, 241–2, 262, 428–9, 431–2, 444–5
financial interests 157–8, 173, 175, 247, 252, 254, 259, 270
financial markets 3, 5, 11–12, 23, 27–8, 37, 157, 160
financial performance 12, 347, 449, 461, 467, 551, 616, 618
financial power 160, 239, 572, 673
financial resources 371, 376, 472, 494, 503–4, 512
financial risks 602, 604, 609
financial sector 252–3, 259–63, 265, 268–9, 405, 504, 604, 650
Financial Stability Board 602, 604, 610
financial strategies 268, 431
financial systems 27, 157, 159–61, 252, 268, 602, 604
financialization 9, 11, 24–8, 110–11, 260–2, 270, 347, 569–70
financialized firm 567, 569–73
financiers 102, 110, 130, 250–1, 262, 423, 512
firm-specific assets 460, 467, 473–4, 481, 549–50, 555–6
firm-specific knowledge 545, 547–8
first wave neoliberalism 279–80
fiscal law 684, 687, 693
fixed costs 494, 496–501, 504–6, 510
FLA (Fair Labor Association) 345–6, 577
flows, circular 496, 652
forces
economic 125, 226, 241, 252, 330, 679
market 243, 324
foreign direct investment, see FDI
foreign markets 128, 368, 373–5, 471
foreign shareholders 429, 431–2
foreign subsidiaries 337, 472, 474
foreignness, liability of 367–70, 468
for-profit corporations 13, 220, 223, 225–7, 530, 655, 670, 682
fossil fuels 2, 30, 595–6, 601, 610, 616–17, 624, 627
Foundation for Economic Education (FEE) 566, 568
founding entrepreneurs 210, 267
founding families 419, 421–2
Foxconn 36, 338–46, 352–3, 519
and Apple 338–43
employees 340–1, 345
responses 341–3
(p. 723) France 31, 52, 62, 66, 174, 387, 576, 672
fraud 9, 51, 76, 199, 205, 252, 281, 393
accounting 418, 447
financial-reporting 572
securities 253
free agents 398, 403
free enterprise 14, 121, 238, 293, 676
Free Market Study 280–1
free markets 125, 131, 136, 140, 146–7, 154, 566, 568
freedom 4, 7, 72, 77, 121, 127, 293, 302
contractual 4, 7, 12, 140, 147, 151, 154, 160
Friedman, Milton 146, 279, 282, 284, 286–7, 293, 508–9, 566–9
functions, economic 229, 231, 688
fund managers 404, 444, 618
fundamentalism, market 279, 575
future 20–1
game theory 286–7, 469
garment factories 326, 333
genesis 11
genesis of the corporation 9–11
geographic markets 471–2
Germany 30–1, 209, 259, 263, 446, 595
Gilded Age 238, 260, 265, 271, 277
global competition 36, 372–3, 466, 469
global economy 32, 36, 38, 366–7, 372, 374, 376, 378–9
global inequality chains 323–4
global markets 2, 8, 19, 336, 375, 380, 611, 653
Global Reporting Initiative, see GRI
global supply chains 322, 328–9, 331, 333, 338, 353, 574, 651
global trade 320, 573–4
global value chains 15–16, 38, 319–54, 462
disaggregation 330–4
responsibility in 326
theoretical analysis 327–30
globalization 3, 5, 28, 35, 107, 131, 162, 573–5
neoliberal 241, 249
good faith 174, 176–7, 205, 263, 606
Google 29, 31–2, 225, 228, 326, 329, 342, 658
and English East India Company 75–6
governance 84–5, 151–5, 239, 243–7, 253, 261–2, 267, 615–16
board, see board governance
commons-based 667, 673, 675, 677–9, 683
corporate, see corporate governance
Dutch East India Company 71–2
economic 238, 243, 245
experimentation 20, 667
experiments in food initiatives 680–3
of global value chains 320–1
internal 7, 104, 160, 240, 253, 671–2, 678, 683
multi-stakeholder 675–9, 681–3, 705
processes 245, 254, 677
structuring 18, 492
government bonds 72–3, 104, 108
government intervention 121, 224, 247, 257, 277, 510, 568
Government Pension Investment Fund (GPIF) 427, 448
government policies 73, 448–9, 491, 512, 669
government regulation 101, 129, 131–2, 516, 530, 623
government support 4, 98, 579
governments 36–7, 58–9, 98–9,