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date: 26 May 2020

(p. 551) Subject Index

(p. 551) Subject Index

A
A-past clitics (past tense agent clitics) 74–5
abridged versions of texts 302, 304–5
academic performance 369
Accentual Phrase (AP) 156, 156n, 176, 178
accentual system, development 20n
accusative (active) construction 26, 36, 216, 216n, 229
accusative markers 67, 148, 153, 163n, 213, 275
acoustic phonetics 91, 94–110
ACTIVE Model 406
adjectives 79, 176–7, 183, 285
as adverbs 286, 297
agreement 280
bare adjectives 235, 240
case assignment 231
demonstrative pronouns as 282
Ezafe constructions 14, 42, 228–9, 228n, 230–1, 236–7, 285, 295, 381
inflections in Middle Persian 16, 23, 45, 143n, 258, 278, 294
of material 43n, 297
and non-verbal elements (NVEs) 170–1, 190, 267
in noun phrases 285, 381
in passive constructions 81
plural formation 280, 285
stress patterns 143
superlatives 144–5, 285
verbal 287, 293
word order 55, 56, 57–8, 63, 64–6, 69–71, 73, 208, 381
adpositional phrases 57, 63
adpositions 55, 56, 80, 207–8, 274–5. See also prepositions; postpositions
circumposition 40, 41, 56, 71, 208, 274
adverbial subordinators 59, 63, 65, 66, 70
Affectedness [+AFF] 256
affective communication 367, 396
affixes 276. See also inflectional affixes; prefixes; suffixes
Afghan Persian (Dari) 34, 473
aspect 60, 61, 63, 86–7, 200–1
cohering and non-cohering 146, 146n, 148, 149, 151n, 153, 154
derivational 144–6, 260, 276, 293–4, 296
interfixes 278–9
New Persian 277
orthography 473
phonological rules 469
phrasal 177, 223, 236, 237, 238
removal (stemming) 463, 467, 476
separable 473
tense-aspect 60
affricates 113, 114, 117, 118, 129
Afghan Persian (Dari) 34, 473
Classical New Persian 33–4
Contemporary New Persian 33
devoicing 120
Early New Persian 33–4, 92
as fricatives 117
Middle Persian 20
spirantization 128, 132, 140
VOT 99
Afghan Persian (Dari) 8, 302, 303, 336, 344, 477
affixation 34, 473
affricates 34, 473
contrast between /γ/ and /q/ 34
dialects 1, 2, 336
fricatives 34
majhul vowels, preservation of 34
orthography 473
social status 344–5
wh-phrases 166n
(p. 552) agent clitics, past tense (A-past clitics) 74–5
agents 169, 264, 266–7
agentive arguments of transitive verbs 214
agentive markers 293–4
agentive nouns 260, 287
with az, pad, and in oblique case 21–2, 26
causatives 192
in Ezafe constructions 227
in genitive-dative constructions 14
in passive constructions 188–9
suffixes 278
agglutinative morphology 53, 80, 82, 468
agrammatic features 447
agrammatic language 433, 457
agrammatism 447, 451, 457
agreement 53, 82, 86, 211–16, 219–21
adjectives 280
agreement phrases (AgrP) 178, 241
Agree relation 199, 200
and case 216, 216n
and clitics 74–80 (see also suffixes)
direct object 78, 84, 214
Iranian languages 53, 74n, 75, 80, 88, 214
perfect tense 76, 145n
phonological 131, 133, 139–41
singular agreement with plural inanimate 220
split agreement system 53, 75, 80
stress on agreement markers 145
subject 74, 75n, 78–9, 86
suffixes 74–7
Akkadian 73, 355
alignment 74, 143n, 211–16
ergative (see ergative construction)
alphabetical arrangement 10–11, 298, 301, 305, 310–11
Alzheimer’s disease 438–9, 441, 449
American Association of Teachers of Persian 394, 407
American Association of Teaching Foreign Languages (ACTFL) 399–400, 406
Americanization 366
analytic language 21, 53, 80–3, 208
analytic present passive 39
analyticity 82
Ancient Iranian 47, 64, 319
animacy 78, 183, 213, 242, 243, 244, 246
anthropological perspective 362, 365–7
Antioch patriarchate 18
antonyms 305, 310, 316. See also synonyms
aorist 12, 291
aphasia 431–4, 435, 437–41, 446–52, 457–8
Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) 437, 438, 440, 441, 442, 447–8, 451–2
Broca’s aphasia 447, 454–5, 456, 458
P-WAB-1 (Persian and Western aphasia battery) 439, 440–1, 449, 451
Persian Aphasia Battery (PAB) 437, 438, 447
primary progressive (P-83) 441
severity of 439, 440, 446, 449, 451
Wernike’s aphasia 447, 458
Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) 439, 440–1, 449
Aphasia Quotient (AQ) 439, 440–1, 449–50
appraisal theory 365
approaches
Cognitive Grammar 216–17
compositional 265, 267, 268, 413, 434
conceptual–functional 220
Construction Grammar (CG) 211–16, 217, 461
constructionist 264–6, 268, 412
Corpus Linguistics 54, 220–1, 312, 314–15, 465, 473–5, 475–6, 478
decompositional 413–14, 424–5, 426
descriptive 205–6
dynamical 413
featural 220
Functionalist 212, 216
generative 53–4, 161–204, 223, 230, 243, 251n, 255, 264
Government and Binding (GB) (Principles and Parameters) 54, 222–3, 222n, 461
lexicalist 223, 259, 412, 423
Minimalist 53, 80, 150n, 217, 222–4, 461
Optimality Theory (OT) 133–40, 141, 224
Project-based Language Learning (PBL) 404
(p. 553)
projectionist 264
Role and Reference Grammar (RRG) 220, 223
statistical vs. symbolic 462–3, 473–4
syntactic 259, 412
Transformational Grammar (TG) 162, 222, 222n
typological 52–88, 206–11
approximants 20, 33, 34, 93, 94, 99, 100–2, 118, 374
Arabic 302
adverbial suffixes 286
dictionaries 302
grammar 302
as learned language in Iran 340, 343, 355–6
loanwords 92, 106, 210
with infinitive 47, 296
in New Persian 1, 33–5, 43, 46–7, 81, 113–14, 133, 147n, 277, 296, 345, 415
orthography 47
nouns 47, 84
numbers 284–5
percentage 348, 352
pluralization 283, 364, 378
polymorphemic words 424
‘pre-literate Arabisms’ 46
social status 344
with tā marbūṭa 47
Arabic (Arabo-Persian/Perso-Arabic) script 1, 27, 29, 35, 39–42, 44, 466, 467n, 468, 472–3, 476, 478
New Persian 30, 45, 47
orthography 28, 45
aramaeograms 16, 18–19, 301
Aramaic 26, 73, 355
loanwords 15
Official Aramaic 11, 18
script 16, 19
areal features 208, 334
areal typology 53
argot 297, 310
articulatory phonetics 94–107, 112
aspect 38, 200–1, 264, 266, 291
affixation 60, 61, 63, 86–7, 200–1
aspect markers 57
aspect phrases (AspP) 199, 200
auxiliary verbs 58, 82, 200–1
incomplete aspect prefixes 57, 61, 82
progressive 82, 200
Asrār al-tawḥīd (AT) 10, 29, 42, 49, 50
assessment 398–400, 403, 407, 436, 440, 442
attitudes 359, 367–8
community 336, 343, 359, 383, 384–5
language 383
parental 368, 384–5
auxiliary verbs 81–2, 208–9, 292–3, 453–4
aspect 58, 82, 200–1
compound forms 470
in ergative constructions 36
future tense 58, 77, 82, 257–8, 261
modals 197, 293
in new perfect 13
in passives 81, 188
in periphrastic phrases 25, 39, 48, 77
pluperfect 13, 58
in progressives 49, 82
word order 58, 61, 63, 208
Avestā 301
translations in Middle Persian 18, 19n, 22, 24
Avestan 11–14, 64, 71–4, 301
awareness raising 363, 364, 386, 399, 407
Azari 347, 352, 356, 435, 437, 438, 441, 442
B
Babylonian 10, 15
bare adjectives 235, 240
bar-pressing paradigm 427
behavioural identity 365
bilabial assimilation 100, 374–5
bilabial consonants 92, 93, 94, 100, 117, 122, 374–5
bilingual aphasia 436–7, 438, 440–2, 446, 447–8, 451–2. See also bilingual brain
Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) 437, 438, 440, 441, 442, 447–8, 451–2
bilingual brain 436, 452, 454–6. See also bilingual aphasia
bilingual dictionaries 301–2, 304–7, 308–11, 313–14, 315, 389, 464, 475
Hebrew 309
Latin 306
Turkish 305–6
bilingual education 352, 357–8, 367–9
bilingual lexicography 309, 312, 475, 476
(p. 554) bilingualism 348–9, 362–3
in Iran 351–3, 354–8
lexicons 476
simultaneous vs. sequential 349
speech communities 350–1
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon 415
Turkish 352, 353
Younger Avestan and Greek 73
bin model of lexical access 418
Book Pahlavi. See Zoroastrian Middle Persian
Borrowing. See loanwords
bottom-up processing 428–31
boundary tones 156–7, 156n
brain activity experiments 428
brain-language model 436, 441, 458
brain lesion sites 448
Broca’s aphasia 447, 454–5, 458
C
canonical word order 53–4, 62, 246, 251–2, 442
cantillation 19n
case 194, 197, 229
adpositions 274–5
and agreement 216, 216n
assignment/marking 169, 176–7, 183–4, 186–7, 211–13, 216
Ezafe as a case marker 230–2
direct 21–2, 79, 212–13
disjunctive hierarchy 186
eight-case system 12
ergative 213, 216, 216n
Icelandic quirky case 186
Middle Persian two-case system 21–2, 71
nouns 283
Old Persian 12, 20–1, 26, 213
verbs 186–7, 194, 246
vocative 146n
casual style 75, 295, 335, 337–43
Catholic missionaries 32
causatives 84, 86, 191–3, 291
Middle Persian 81
New Persian 40
Old Persian 24–5
periphrastic 81, 192
suffixes 40, 81, 84, 86, 291
verbs 84, 191–3, 191n, 290–1
causative formation 81, 84
cerebral vascular accident (CVA) 441, 442, 446–7, 448–9
change in progress 342, 345
character encoding 466
Christian Middle Persian 18. See also Pahlavi Psalter
Christians 18, 28n, 348. See also ethnic-religious minorities
circumposition 40, 41, 56, 71, 208, 274
class management 367
‘classical model’ of brain and language 435, 457, 458
Classical New Persian 10, 27. See also -i
consonants 33–4
diphthongs 33–4, 35
35
future tense 48–9
indicatives 38
optative 38–9, 146n, 148n
phonological system 34–5
possessives 49
prefixes 38, 39, 44, 144
/q/ 34
subjunctive 38
vowels 33–4, 35
Classical Persian. See Classical New Persian
classification, dialectal 30–1
classifiers 180–3, 284, 477
clausal architecture 163–4, 179
clausal conjunctions 149, 149n, 157
clinical linguistic batteries 435, 436–41, 457
Clinical Linguistic Database 441
clinical linguistic profiles 438, 447, 454, 457–8
clitics and agreement 74–80. See also suffixes
clusters of productivity 218
Codex Cumanicus 29, 31–2, 33, 35
Codex Vindobonensis 29, 30
cognitive-linguistic predictors 365
cognitive neuroscience 435
cohering and non-cohering affixes 146, 146n, 148, 149, 151n, 153, 154
coins 28
Arab-Sasanian 44
of the rulers of Fars, legends 16
collocations 217–18
(p. 555) colloquial form 129, 280, 282, 310, 316, 345, 372
colloquial speech 79n, 117–18, 124, 126–33, 139, 148, 192n
spontaneous 54, 59n, 62n
colloquial variety 33, 33n, 49–50, 57, 59, 80, 95, 99, 106, 145n, 200–1, 200n, 205–6, 242, 273, 279, 282, 283, 285, 286, 288, 289, 293, 297, 297n, 336, 345
communicative language teaching 398–9
community attitude 336, 343, 359, 383, 384–5
community language 347, 350–3, 356, 358, 362–3, 367–8
community language learning 369–70, 385
comparative constructions 56, 144–5
suffixes 43, 43n, 285, 467
compensatory lengthening (CL) 99, 104–6, 124–6, 133
Competency-Based Instruction 398
competing alternatives 422, 426
complementation 226
complementizers 54n, 61–2, 66, 70, 148, 163, 196, 276, 283
complex predicates (CPrs) 47, 62, 75, 77, 81, 84, 162, 189, 223–4, 249–50, 280–1, 288, 290, 293, 295–7, 375, 417, 419–20, 422–3, 425–6, 433, 434, 472, 478–9
Impersonal Complex Predicates 172–4
Iranian languages 168, 191n
Pronominal Complex Predicates 215
complex tokens 467–8
complex verbs 150, 153, 168, 168n, 295
complex vowels. See diphthongs
compositional approach 265, 267, 268, 413, 434
compositionality 217–18, 257, 263–9, 412–13, 429, 434, 470–1
compound verbs. See complex predicates (CPrs)
compounding 294–6, 423
compression 155
computational linguistics (CL) 314, 461–79
computational model 413
computer methods 313
computer techniques 312, 313, 316
computerized concordances 313, 315
computerized lexical-learning programme 457
computing 313–14
concatenative (linear) languages 419
conceptual level 219–20
concordance(s) 300, 311, 313–15, 475
conjectural mood 85
conjunctions 45, 66, 117, 175, 275–6, 279, 284, 298, 395
clausal 149, 149n, 157
connected speech 436, 437, 438–9, 447, 451, 452, 453–4, 458–60
consonants 93–102, 111–14, 115, 118–19, 125, 131–2, 397
Classical New Persian 33–4
Contemporary New Persian 32–3, 33n
clusters 133, 138, 139
dephonologization of /q/ and /γ/ 48
Early New Persian 19, 34, 45, 91–2
and Ezafe constructions 86, 431
final 12, 121, 126, 133, 138, 286, 469
gemination 113, 121, 132–3
manner of articulation 117
affricates (see affricates)
approximants 20, 33, 34, 93, 94, 99, 100–2, 118, 374
fricative (see fricatives)
glides 126
lateral 93, 100, 118
nasal 75n, 100, 122, 192
non-sibilant 97
plosive (see plosives (stops))
rhotic 101–2
sibilant 97
sonorant (see approximants; nasals)
stop (see plosives (stops))
tap/flap 101–2, 118
trill 95–6, 101, 102
orthography 470
(p. 556)
place of articulation 139
alveolar 33, 34, 92, 93, 94, 97, 100, 101–2, 111–14, 117–18, 122, 123, 128
bilabial 92, 93, 94, 100, 117, 122, 374–5
coronal 123–4
dental 60
dorsal 93–5, 97, 118, 123, 132, 139
glottal 104, 106, 124, 129–3
labial 45, 92, 94, 97, 111, 112, 114, 117, 131
labio-dental 33, 34, 92, 94, 117, 122
laryngeal 134
post-alveolar 92, 94, 97, 113, 123
palatal 11, 20, 33, 35, 92, 93, 94, 112, 113–14, 117–18, 122, 123
uvular 32, 33, 34, 92, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98, 101, 112, 113, 114, 117–18, 122, 128–9, 374
velar 20, 34, 92, 93, 94, 95, 98, 112, 113–14, 117–18, 122, 123, 374
syllable structure 115–16, 133, 136–8
voiceless 19, 44, 45, 94–100, 102, 112–14, 117, 120, 134, 141
conspiracy 111, 134–6
constituent order 54, 237–8
constructionist theories 264–6, 268, 412
contact linguistics 53
Contemporary New Persian 8, 9, 27, 28, 49–50
-e < -a 34
literary 33, 54
phonological system 32–3, 33n, 34, 35–6
Contemporary Persian. See Contemporary New Persian
Content-Based Language Instruction (CBI) 370, 398, 403, 405
contrastive analysis 402
control 193–4, 195–7, 197n, 223. See also raising
conversational language 364, 469
and Natural Language Processing (NLP) 472, 478
cooperative learning 403
coordination 157, 209, 252, 255, 262, 310
and ellipsis 210–11
and extraposition 210
copula (‘to be’) 77, 289, 292
copyists 28
coronal assimilation 123–4
Corpus Linguistics 54, 220–1, 312, 314–15, 465, 473–5, 476–7, 478
correlation pairs 55–6, 63, 207
Cortical Quotient (CQ) 439, 440
criticism 27n, 305
Cross-Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) 464, 477
cross-linguistic studies 224, 226
asymmetry 177
DOM 243
Ezafe construction 241–2
negation 199
neurolinguistics 435, 447, 451, 453, 457
stress 154
cross-referencing 53. See also agreement; indexation
enclitics 74–5, 84, 213–14, 248
cultural diversity 368
cultural heritage 366, 368
Cuman 32. See also Codex Cumanicus
curriculum development 1, 348, 357–8, 363, 369–71, 382, 385, 391, 399, 402–3, 407
D
dari (Early New/Middle Persian) 26, 30–1, 40, 44, 45
Dasātir words 305
data collection 314, 316, 337, 341, 371
data processing 314, 316
databases 221, 314–15, 438, 456, 463–4. See also Corpus Linguistics
Farsi Speech Database (Farsdat) 475
Persian Clinical Linguistic Database (PCLD) 441
Persian Linguistic Database (PLDB) 315
PersPred 478–9
UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database (UPSID) 113
deaccentuation 155–7
deaspiration 117, 120, 132, 134–6, 141
declarative sentences 54, 156
decompositional approach 413–14, 424–5, 426
defining dictionaries 300, 304
defining words 316
definite article 50, 59, 283
definitions (p. 557)
correlation pairs 55
derivational prefixes 276–7
heritage language 362–3
historical 27n
Persian words 303, 304, 305, 308, 309, 310, 313, 316, 397
specificity 244
degemination 121
deletion
bound morphemes 433, 452
glottal consonants 124
/t/ and /d/ 117, 139–40, 335, 337–8, 340, 342–3
verb 202–3, 453, 460
vowel 137
word final 127–8, 132, 335
denominal verbs 84
denominatives 25
dependent variables 416
derivational affixes 144–6, 260, 276, 293–4, 296
derived causatives 84
descriptive approaches 205–6
determinate referents 50
devoicing 120–1, 132, 134–6. See also consonants: voiceless
/l/ 100
spoken vs. written language 373
stops 97, 112
diacritics 46n, 468–9
for short vowels 104, 305, 466
dialects 1, 2, 27, 41n, 49, 83–7, 228, 329–30, 331–4, 435, 472–3. See also Afghan Persian (Dari); Farsi (Modern Standard Persian in Iran); Gha’eni Persian; Isfahani Persian; Tajiki Persian
Awroman 214
Badrudi 447
Kurdish 177, 208n, 213
vs. languages 347, 347n
pārsi and dari 30–1, 40
Suleimani 213
Turkish 48, 348, 354
dialectology 322–3, 324, 332–3, 334
dictionary making 300, 315. See also dictionaries; lexicography
dictionary slips 308
dictionaries 9, 256–7, 300, 302–8, 320, 324, 475
Arabic 302
developments 312–17
dialects 333
mental lexicon 412, 415
Middle Persian 301
Differential Object Marking (DOM) 162, 183, 213, 221, 224, 226, 242–56, 262–3
differential pattern of recovery 441, 446
differentiated instruction 370
diglossia 28, 336, 350, 352–3, 466, 472
diphthongs 12n, 106–7, 115, 125, 341
Classical New Persian 33–4, 35
Contemporary New Persian 33
contracted in Middle Persian 19
Early New Persian 19
direct case 21–2, 79, 212–13
direct object 22, 188–9, 262
agreement 78, 84, 214
Early Judaeo-Persian 40–1
English vs. Persian 402
indexing 220
marked with -rā 41, 178, 183–4, 186, 221, 242–3, 247–8, 250, 251–2, 275, 281, 380–1
with prepositions and circumpositions 41, 56
reciprocal pronouns 283
relativized function 228
word order 54, 62, 62n, 163–5, 206–7, 221, 379
discourse-based approach 386
distinctive features 113, 116–19
distributional-connectionist model 414
ditransitive constructions 221, 252
dorsal consonants 93–5, 97, 118, 139
dorsal place assimilation (DPA) 123, 132
drift 73, 211
dual-access theories 414, 424–5
dual number, lost in Middle Persian 20
Dual-Route Cascade (DRC) 426
duration 169–70, 290
of syllables 108, 154, 155, 155n
of vowels 105–6, 114, 124, 398
durative markers 149
E
(p. 558) Early Middle Persian 16
Early New Persian (ENP) 27, 28–30, 39–40
[δ] 35
comparative and superlative 43
direct object marking 242
Ezafe construction 42, 45
grammaticalization 82
indefinite article 50
pārsi and dari 30–1
phonological changes 19, 43–4
phonological system 33–6, 91–3, 104
plural endings 42
educational resources 321–2, 351, 464
Egyptian 10, 11
Elamite 10, 11, 26, 73, 73n, 88, 355
ellipsis 201–3, 235, 240
non-verbal elements (NVEs) 170
verbs 210
enclitic pronominals 22n, 39n, 74–5, 79, 84–5, 213, 215, 220, 236, 279, 280–1
enclitics 61, 86, 127, 209–10
direct object marking 226, 242, 275
Ezafe construction 227–8, 230, 232, 236–8
personal 281
possessive 145n, 279
‘to be’ 289, 292
encyclopedias 300, 309, 311–12, 324, 325. See also dictionaries
encyclopedic work 308–9, 311. See also lexicography
endangered languages 330, 332, 350, 351, 353–4, 353n, 358–9, 362
English
ambiguity 468
bilingual dictionaries 304, 306, 309, 313
dative alternation 246
education 358n, 394, 404
influence on New Persian 27, 321
loanwords 1, 114, 138, 297, 297n, 331, 375–6
native speakers learning Persian 395–7, 401–2
raising and control 194
resultatives 193
simplex and complex predicates 259, 268
spoken in Iran 335, 337–8, 345, 348, 352, 356–8
stress 108, 154
translations 476–7
verbs 167
entities 80, 115, 249
entry selection 316
epenthesis 126–7, 137
epic poetry 16, 46
equivalents 307, 309, 313–14, 323, 331, 333, 334
ergative case 213, 216, 216n
ergative construction 25–6, 211–12, 214, 215
Middle Persian 14, 36–7, 80
and split systems 26, 80
esm-e jens 50
ethnic communities 329, 330, 363
ethnic identity 350, 354, 365–7, 369, 383–4
ethnic-religious minorities 27, 28, 28n, 336, 367, 369. See also Zoroastrians
Christians 18, 28n, 348
Manichaeans 16–17
etiology 441, 442, 449
European influence on Persian literature 27
European travelers 32, 47
Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) 426, 428
evidentiality 208–9
Experiencer Subject Construction 215–16
experimental fMRI studies 4, 435
experimental techniques 416–28
explicit instruction 369–70, 397
expressions 45, 47, 48, 147n, 219
dictionary 310–11, 316
high frequency 382
idiomatic 266, 268, 304, 390, 413, 422–3, 426, 429–30
multiword (MWEs) 261, 466, 470–2
periphrastic 256
possessive 49–50
External Possessor Construction 212, 216
eye-movement experiments 427, 434
Ezafe construction 12n, 14–15, 49, 145n, 174–8, 226, 227–42
adjectives 14, 42, 228–9, 228n, 230–1, 236–7, 285, 295, 381
in garden-path sentences 431
for heritage speakers 381
markers 279, 280, 282
(p. 559)
New Persian 23, 49
non-verbal elements (NVEs) 170, 171
noun phrases (NPs) 174–8, 226, 227–42, 279, 281, 381
nouns 42, 145n, 174n, 177, 230–1
numerals 178, 285
possession 83, 176, 177, 227, 229, 232, 234–5, 242
prepositions 176–7, 231, 232, 381
pronouns 281, 282, 285
as relative pronoun in Early New Persian 42, 45
suffixes 235, 237, 285, 469
vowels 223, 228n, 234, 381, 469
written language 45
Ezafe morphemes 56–7, 86, 161, 232, 235, 469, 473
F
Farhangs 278, 301, 303, 304–5, 306, 308, 310–11, 313, 389
Farhangestān 307, 311, 313, 314, 319, 321
Farsi (Modern Standard Persian in Iran) 1, 52–64, 83, 86–7, 161, 207, 210, 215, 217, 219, 347, 360, 437, 448, 475
loanwords in 331
features
phonological 116–19, 122, 123, 134–5, 181
prosodic 155n
suprasegmental 107–9
syntactic 226–69
typological 52–83
unary 119
Fihrist 26
first language transfer 401–2
fixation durations 424
fMRI connectivity study 435, 454–8
focus 155, 164, 203
stress 151n
subject and object 153, 248, 249, 251
form priming 418
formal forms 129, 373, 377
formal linguistics 53, 88, 461
formal style 181n, 335, 341, 342–3
formality 335
fossilized form 374, 382
four-field paradigm 418
frame prepositions. See circumposition
French, influence on New Persian 1, 27, 147n, 319, 323, 331, 357n
frequency effect 415, 416, 424–5, 432–3
fricatives 32, 93, 95, 97–9, 112–14. See also affricates
affricates as 117
Afghan Persian 34
approximants as 100
Classical New Persian 33, 34
in consonantal clusters 133, 139
Contemporary New Persian 33
Early New Persian 33, 34, 35, 92
nasal assimilation 100
stops as 118, 128
functional anatomy 454, 457
functional under-specification of the classical model 458
future tense 24, 289
auxiliary 58, 77, 82, 257–8, 261
heritage speakers 377
Old Persian 20n
passive 291
periphrastic 48–9, 77, 286, 287, 288, 290
synthetic, lost in Middle Persian 20
G
/g/ 35, 48, 92, 374–5
Contemporary New Persian 33
garden-path sentences 430–1
Gatha Avestan (Old Avestan) 71–3. See also Avestan
gender
lack of marking 279, 283
lost in Middle Persian 20
gender differences
in learners 396
in speakers 108, 337–8, 340
generative framework 53–4, 161–204, 223, 230, 243, 251n, 255, 264
generic nouns 50, 277, 283, 378, 380
genre-based approach 386
geopolitical issues 366, 384, 389
Gha’eni Persian 2, 52, 83, 86–7, 88
ghost words 303–4
glossaries 10, 300, 301, 307, 308–9, 311, 331, 390, 475
glottal consonants 104, 106, 124, 129–30
Government and Binding (GB) theory (Principles and Parameters) 54, 222–3, 222n, 461
grammar 430
Arabic 302
checkers 463, 476
learning and teaching 376, 386, 404
Middle Persian 15
studies 8–9
traditional 50, 59, 282
grammar translation method 404
grammars 161–2, 162n, 205–6, 221, 389–90, 389n, 392, 461–2, 474, 479
Cognitive Grammar 216–17
Construction Grammar (CG) 211–16, 217, 461
Head Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) 223, 238n, 461, 476
Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG) 223, 461
Optimality Theory (OT) 133–40, 141, 224
Role and Reference Grammar (RRG) 220, 223
Transformational Grammar (TG) 162, 222, 222n
grammaticality judgements 224, 255–6, 431, 440
grammaticalization 38, 48, 50–1, 53, 57–8, 63, 71, 75, 77, 80–2, 88, 177, 198n, 220, 226, 236, 261
Greek 7, 11, 16, 17, 73, 273, 306, 336, 355
H
head marker linkers 56, 57, 81, 319
head dependency 55
headedness effect 432
headwords 303, 304, 305–6, 308, 310, 313, 316
Hebrew 46n, 306, 419, 423
bilingual dictionaries 309
Hebrew script. See Judaeo-Persian
heritage language 361–87
heritage language learners 362, 364–5, 366–7, 369–71, 385–6
heritage language speakers 362–3, 364–6, 367–9, 371–85
heterograms. See aramaeograms
high-frequency words 422, 424, 456
historical spellings 19, 44, 45
history of teaching Persian 388–91
honorific form 13, 373–4, 373n, 402
hortative 12n, 39–40
hostage crisis (1979–81) 366
I
-i 35, 260
of abstraction ( in Classical New Persian) 35, 44
adjectival (-ī in Classical New Persian) 35, 43, 43n, 121, 143n, 258, 278, 294, 297
determiner 177
diminutive ( in Classical New Persian) 35
gerundive ending ( in Classical New Persian) 35
indefinite ( in Classical New Persian) 35, 59, 82, 148, 170, 185–7, 203, 221, 279
nominalizing 144, 277, 293
ordinals 285
relative ( in Classical New Persian) 35, 50–1, 178–9, 207
second singular ending ( in Classical New Persian) 35, 62, 145, 150–1, 166n, 167, 186, 196–7, 219, 243, 289
for unreal or habitual action ( in Classical New Persian) 35, 39
identity 383–4
community 350, 369
ethnic 365, 366–7, 369, 392
individual 354
ideological issues 370
Idiom List Hypothesis 429
idiomatic expressions 260, 263, 268, 390, 422–3, 426, 471
dictionaries of 305, 311
processing 429–30
Idiomatically Combining Expressions 266–7, 268, 413
idiomaticity 269
illustrations 316
immigrant languages 362, 367
imperatives 131, 287–9, 291, 292, 381–2
Middle Persian 24
(p. 561) imperfect 214, 287–8, 290–1, 470
Middle Persian 20, 25
Old Persian 12, 13–14
imperfective [IPFV] 85, 131, 291, 293
Impersonal Complex Predicates 172–4
inalienable possessor constructions 172–3, 215
inchoatives 25, 188–9, 222
incomplete acquirers 363
incomplete aspect prefixes 57, 61, 82
indefinite markers 148, 279
indexation 53, 78
indicatives 209, 274, 287, 289, 291–2, 291n, 293
Early and Classical New Persian 38
Middle Persian 24, 25
indigenous languages 208–9, 330, 360, 362
indirect object 221, 402
markers of 41, 41n, 242, 395
Middle Persian 22, 184
word order 54, 164–5, 167, 221, 252, 379
Indo-European languages 1, 12, 83, 332, 423
infinitive 194, 197, 286, 292, 453–4
adjectival derivation 294, 297
with Arabic loanwords 47, 296
causatives 86
as future tense 48
long infinitive form 143n
short infinitive form 58, 77, 287, 290
inflectional affixes 145–6, 149, 223, 237, 242, 257, 276. See also affixes
Ezafe construction as 145n, 238
Information Retrieval (IR) 464, 477
information structure 220, 223, 244, 248, 251
information technology 300, 312
innovations 209, 305, 307, 309
Middle Persian 19–26
Old Persian 11–15
Inscriptional Middle Persian 17, 22
intensity (loudness) 95, 107–8, 154–5, 155n, 398
interfixes 278–9
interpersonal meaning 364–5
interrogative pronouns 23, 282
intonation 108–9, 155–8, 210. See also suprasegmentals
Intonational Phrase (IP) 133, 156
intransitive verbs 74, 86, 187, 192–3, 214
Early New Persian 36n
Middle Persian 37
Old Persian 25–6
Iranian academies 3, 307, 309, 311, 313, 318–26
Iranian-American diaspora 365, 367–8
Iranian diaspora 365, 370
Iranian languages 31, 207, 330
agreement 53, 74n, 75, 80, 88, 214
alignment 211–12, 214
Ancient 47, 64, 319
chronological division 7
complex predicates 168, 191n
Differential Object Marking (DOM) 242
enclitic pronouns 279
Ezafe construction 174n, 228, 228n, 230, 231, 241–2
first writings 10
vs. Old Persian 11
studies of 206, 307, 314, 333
subgroups 332
word order 64, 208
Iranian Survey (2007) 367
irregulars 389
comparatives 43, 43n
past tense 60, 286–7, 423
polymorphemic words 423–4
Isfahani Persian 2, 83, 86, 88, 310
Islam, spread of 7, 17, 27, 355
Italian 306, 336, 362, 379, 432–3
J
jargon 297, 310
Judaeo-Persian 28–9, 39
distinction of kʾ, ky and kw 44
Early Judaeo-Persian 10, 28, 35, 39–41, 42, 43–4
Ezafe construction 42
orthography 45–6, 46n
prepositions 41–2
K
/k/ 45, 46n, 48, 92
Contemporary New Persian 33
Kaʿbe-ye Zardošt 17
Kabul Persian. See Afghan Persian (Dari)
knowledge-based systems 462, 476, 477
Koran 32, 46
Kurdish 74, 177, 206, 208, 213, 216, 348, 352–3
L
language acquisition 384, 434, 442. See also second language acquisition
variables 446
(p. 562) language attitudes 383
language change 341
language chunks 382
language comprehension 416–28, 454
language contact 73, 88, 348–51, 354–8
language endangerment 351
language impairments 436–46, 449, 451–4
language loss 353, 366, 367, 370
language maintenance 358–60, 366, 367, 368, 385
language model 462
language-particular features 435, 447, 451
language planning 331
language policy 358–60, 367–9
Language Quotient (LQ) 439, 440
language reform 318n, 319, 321, 324
language of science 326, 357
‘Late Old Persian’ 16
Latin 231
bilingual dictionaries 306
script 29, 31–2, 33, 48, 472, 476, 478
transcriptions 35
learner attrition 369
learner’s dictionaries 313
left hemisphere 446, 447
left subcortical lesions 441
lemma level 432, 465, 475, 476
lesion studies 435
lexeme formation 226, 256, 257, 261, 297, 298
lexical access 375, 418, 438–9
lexical categories 142, 231n, 467–8
lexical decisions 416–17
lexical innovations 307
Lexical Representation Hypothesis 429
lexicalist theories 223, 259, 412, 423
lexicality 416, 419
lexicographers 304, 306, 314, 316
lexicography 300–17
lexicology 304, 307
lexicons 32, 46, 116, 217, 223, 226, 259, 301, 305–9, 314, 429, 467, 471–2, 478. See also dictionaries
bilingual 476
and code-switching 375–6
domain 475
mental 401, 411, 412–14, 415, 416, 425, 428, 432, 434
sentiment 475
valency 475
light verb constructions. See complex predicates (CPrs)
light verbs (LV) 62, 188, 257, 259
clusters of productivity 218
in complex predicates 167–70, 190, 190n, 192–3, 201–2, 264
compounding 295–6
prefixation 288
suffixation 75
lingua franca 32, 344, 348
linguistic competence 404–5
linguistic diversity 330
linguistic typology 206–11
listening comprehension 365
literacy 349, 365, 373, 384
literary Contemporary New Persian 33, 54
literary texts 28, 36n, 50, 308, 314, 405
loanwords 268
Arabic (see Arabic: loanwords)
Aramaic 15
consonantal clusters 133, 138
English 1, 114, 138, 297, 297n, 331, 375–6
European 43, 106, 138, 331, 345
French 147n, 319
in Modern Standard Persian 331
in Old Persian 10, 11–12, 15
other Iranian languages 31, 473
Parthian 18
Russian 331, 345
Sogdian 13, 31n
suffixes 15, 16, 46
syntactic borrowing 73
Turkish 33, 34, 47–8, 278, 298
logical subject 26
Lori (Luri) 53, 208, 332, 348, 354, 360
low-frequency words 422, 424
M
machine-learning approaches 462–3, 473, 477
Machine Translation (MT) 464–5, 468, 476–7
macro approaches 386
majhul vowels 34–5
(p. 563) Manichaean Middle Persian 17, 22, 23, 24, 41n
literature 18, 46
in Sogdian script 19n
Manichaean New Persian 29–30, 32, 32n, 39, 42, 46
distinction of kʾ, ky, kw 44
Manichaean script 16–17, 18–19, 20n
orthography 19, 32n, 43–4, 46n
plural endings 22
manner adverbs 57, 150, 150n, 152
Masked Onset Priming Effect (MOPE) 425–6, 428
masked priming technique 416, 417, 418–25, 434
material development 401, 402–4
Mazandarani 53, 208, 228n, 332, 347n, 348, 352–3, 352n, 360
Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) 437, 447, 458
meaning discrimination 316
measure adverbs 150, 150n, 152
measure of fluency 440
Median 15
mental lexicon. See lexicons: mental
methodologies 306, 333, 391, 398, 402–3, 404, 462, 478
middle diathesis 13, 20
Middle Persian (Pahlavi) 15–16, 41n, 68–71, 343. See also Early Middle Persian; Manichaean Middle Persian; Zoroastrian Middle Persian
dictionaries 301
documents (papyri and ostraka) 16–17
Ezafe construction 229
future tense 48
inscriptions 17, 22
modals 199n, 293
object marking 242
as official language 1, 7
pārsi 26, 30–1, 40
past tense 25
phonological changes 19–21, 43
plural marking 42
present stems 23–4
relativity 23
research on 8–9
scripts (see Manichaean script)
social status 344
suffixation 43, 81
two-case system 21–2, 71
verbs 81, 188, 295
vowel system 104, 115
word order 70–1, 74, 88
minimalist approach 53, 80, 150n, 217, 222–4, 461
mixed-type languages 70, 74
modality 197–9
Modern Standard Persian in Iran (Farsi) 1, 52–64, 83, 86–7, 161, 207, 210, 215, 217, 219, 347, 360
loanwords in 331
modification 10, 175, 226
modifiers
of classifiers 182
in Ezafe construction 14, 145n, 175, 177–8, 227, 229–32, 235–40, 279–80
phrasal 207
temporal 247, 250
word order 48, 69, 70
Mongol incursions on Iran 27, 344
monolingual dictionaries 303, 304, 307–8, 313, 315
monolingualism 348, 351, 365, 433, 435, 436–7, 440–7, 449, 452–4, 456–7
morphemes 81–2, 183–7, 273–9, 423, 467
bound 433
classifiers 180
Ezafe 56–7, 86, 161, 232, 235, 469, 473 (see also Ezafe construction)
free grammatical 433, 452
functional 274–9
imperative 338
lexical 274, 294
negation 199–200
passive 81
phonological rules 119
plural 467, 469
possessive 61
progressive 127, 467
specific direct object marker 178
switching 415
vowel harmony 129–31
morphological analysis 476
(p. 564) morphological priming 418
morphological regression 451–4, 457, 460
morphological richness 419, 423
morphological subject 79
morphological typology 80–3
morphology 273–99
morphosyntactic typological features 52–83
mother tongues 336, 352, 366, 384, 446
motivation 366–7, 384, 392
moving-window paradigm 427
Multi-Word Expressions (MWEs) 466, 470–1, 478
multilingualism 330, 331–2
in Achaemenid empire 11
communities 334
in Iran 347, 348–9, 350–3, 435
multiple spell-out 150n
N
naming impairments 453
narrow localization models 458
Nasal place assimilation (NPA) 122
nasals 75n, 100, 122, 192
Natural Language Processing (NLP) 434, 461–2, 476–8
applications 463–5, 474
challenges 466–73
in the classroom 464
knowledge-based 462
rule-based 462
statistical 473
symbolic 474
negation 131, 199–200, 201
copula 292
markers 149, 151n, 287, 292
prefixation 62–3, 87, 288, 289, 290, 293
neologism 331, 432–3, 472
neuroimaging studies 454–6, 458
neuroimaging tasks 456
neurolinguistics 435–57
neuropsychological double dissociation 447, 458
neuropsychological studies 448, 453
neutral order of constituents 54
new perfect 13–14, 26
New Persian 7, 26, 27–8, 48, 81, 83. See also Classical New Persian; Contemporary New Persian; Early New Persian; Judaeo-Persian; Manichaean New Persian; Modern Standard Persian in Iran (Farsi)
adpositions 274–5
affixation 277
Arabic loanwords (see Arabic: loanwords)
in Arabic script 30, 45, 47
in Armenian script 31
clipping 297
ergative construction 36
Ezafe construction 23, 49
in Latin script 31–2
as lingua franca 32, 344, 348
literary (dari) 7, 9–10, 31, 40, 43, 44–5, 344
orthography 32n, 45
research on the history of 9–10, 91
in Syriac script (see Syriac script)
new pluperfect 13, 26. See also pluperfect
nominal constituent 232, 412, 420–3, 433
nominative-accusative system 53, 74, 80, 88
non-canonical subject construction 79, 215
non-cohering affixes 146, 148, 149
non-concatenative languages 419, 423
non-decompositional approach 414, 424
non-linguistic factors 335, 341, 424–5
non-narrow localization brain-language models 457
‘non-past’ 38, 48, 48n
non-specific objects 151–2, 152n, 164, 171–2, 185, 203, 251n
normative data 435, 436, 438, 440, 457
not-obligatory-initial-wh-language 62
Noun Incorporation (NI) 183
noun phrases (NP) 207
adjectives in 285, 381
bare 184n
Ezafe construction 174–8, 226, 227–42, 279, 281, 381
phrasal boundaries 469
stress rules 151n
nouns 283
adjectival derivation 143n
(p. 565)
adverbial derivation 285–6
agentive 260, 287
Arabic 47, 84
articles 283
bare 50, 253
case marking 283
with classifiers 180–3
compound 295–6, 417, 422, 432, 470
conversion 296–7
with the copula 292
countable vs. mass 47, 180, 182–3, 219–20
definiteness 283, 285
distributive 284
Empty Noun Construction 235, 240
eventive 266–8
in Ezafe constructions 42, 145n, 174n, 177, 230–1 (see also noun phrases: Ezafe construction)
gender marking 20, 283
generic 380
inflection, in Middle Persian 20, 22, 23
language impairments 433, 451, 453, 457
language processing 456
modified 14–15, 207
nominal suffixes 277–8
non-projecting 232, 233
numerical suffixes 278, 284
phonological rules 469–70
plural marking 22, 42–3, 86, 126, 219–20, 283
predicative 264
as prepositions 81, 176
reduplication 177
of relationship 22
and relative clauses 178–9
specificity marking 243, 258, 275
stress rules 143, 143n, 146n, 297
thematically opaque 264
verbal derivation 81, 84, 256–7, 259, 268, 286, 293–4, 422
word order 55–63, 177, 208, 232, 381
Avestan 71–3
Middle Persian 66–71
Old Persian 64–6
Turkish influence 48
numerals 284–5
as adjectives 285
with classifiers 180, 183
and Ezafe construction 178, 285
suffixation 39, 43, 43n, 277, 284
tree structure 241
word order 60, 69, 70
O
object and action naming 439, 440, 453, 456
object markers 84, 213, 281, 433
direct object 178, 184, 186, 242, 279, 380–1
indirect object 242
object patterner 55
occlusives. See plosives (stops)
Official Aramaic. See Aramaic
Old Avestan 71–3
Old Persian 1, 7, 64–8, 71, 273, 355
future tense 20n
grammar and spelling mistakes 15–16
inscriptions 10, 12n, 68
late features 16
lexical innovations 12–13, 14n
loanwords in 10, 11–12, 15
manā kr̥tam construction’ 26
modals 199n
phonological changes 11–12
‘potential construction’ 14
as prestige language 11
research on 8
script 10–11
verbal system (see verbs: Old Persian)
online dictionaries 314
operand-operator 55
optative
Early and Classical New Persian 38–9, 146n, 148n
Middle Persian 24, 25
Old Persian 13
Optimality Theory (OT) 133–40, 141, 224
oral skills 365, 400
order of objects 62
orthographically overlapping relatedness 417, 419, 420–2
orthography 206, 298, 473. See also dictionaries
Arabic loanwords 47
Arabo-Persian 28, 45
(p. 566)
heritage speakers 375
Judaeo-Persian 28, 45–6
Manichaean New Persian 32n, 43–4, 46
normalizing aim in Early New Persian 45
and pronunciation 472
overt subject 202, 281, 379
P
P-WAB-1 (Persian and Western aphasia battery) 439, 440–1, 449, 451
Pahlavi 81, 301, 302, 311, 330
Book Pahlavi (see Zoroastrian Middle Persian)
Middle Persian 18–19, 19n, 44, 64, 68–70, 318n, 343
New Persian 28, 28n, 36
Pahlavi. See Parthian
Pahlavi Psalter 18, 18n, 22, 24
Pahlavi rulers 7
parallel corpus 314, 315, 475, 476
parental attitudes 368, 384–5
parsers 422, 424, 427–31, 465, 469, 475, 476, 478
pārsi 26, 30–1, 40
Pārsī 19n. See also Manichaean script
pārsi-e dari. See dari (Early New/Middle Persian)
part-of-speech (POS) tagging 253n, 316, 468, 474
Parthian 7, 16, 17, 20n, 26, 31, 211
inscriptions 18
loanwords in Middle Persian 18
as Manichaean church language 32n
in the Šāhnāme 31n
Pashto 8, 306
passive 14, 187–91, 222, 287, 290–1
bav-/baw- ‘to become’ 14, 26
heritage learners 377
Middle Persian
periphrastic 26
suffix -īh 25–6
New Persian 36, 81
periphrastic 39
suffix -ih 39
Old Persian 13n, 26
suffix -ya, lost in Middle Persian 20, 81
past conjectural 85
past participle 145n, 277, 289–90
compound imperfect 470
in ergative constructions 36
Middle Persian 20, 25–6
with modal verbs 86
new perfect 13–14
Old Persian 13n
passive constructions 39, 81, 189, 290
periphrastic 25
pluperfect 84
in potential construction 14
past perfect. See pluperfect
past preterite, Middle Persian 25
past stem 211–12, 214, 286, 287–9, 291n, 423, 453
New Persian 36, 39
and short infinitives 58, 77, 287
stress 376–7
suffixes 40, 76, 86, 277, 293
past tenses 198n, 212, 254, 287, 289, 423. See also individual tenses
A-past clitics 74–5
continuous 376
copula 77
double compound (see pluperfect)
formation 60–1
periphrastic, in Middle Persian 25–6
past progressive 293
patholinguistic studies 435, 437, 441–54, 457, 458
patterns of activation 456
Pāzand 19n. See also Manichaean script
pedagogical challenges 363, 385–6
pedagogy 3–4, 370, 398–400, 434
perfect tense 209, 289–91, 376–7
agreement 76, 145n
auxiliary 58
durative 290
Middle Persian 25, 37
Old Persian 13–14, 26
past perfect (see pluperfect)
subjunctive 289–90
periphrastic causative 81, 192
periphrastic passive 26, 39, 81
(p. 567) Persian Aphasia Battery (PAB) 437, 438, 447
Persian Clinical Linguistic Database (PCLD) 441, 458
Persian dialects. See dialects
Persian lexicography 116, 300, 303, 305, 307, 312–15
Persian neurolinguistics data 435–6
Persianate dynasties 7
Persianization process 303–4
personal pronouns 243
enclitic 22n, 39n, 279–80
phases 95, 96, 150n
phonemes 92, 98, 111–15, 121
assimilation 374–5
Classical and Early New Persian 33–6
Contemporary New Persian 32–3,