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date: 24 January 2021

(p. xv) List of contributors

(p. xv) List of contributors

Vian Bakir is Professor in Political Communication and Journalism at Bangor University, Wales. Her research examines the interplay among journalism, political communication, and the security state, focusing on agenda-building, persuasion, influence, and public accountability. Her books include Intelligence Elites and Public Accountability (Routledge, 2018), Torture, Intelligence and Sousveillance in the War on Terror (Routledge, 2013) and Sousveillance, Media and Strategic Political Communication. Iraq, USA, UK (Bloomsbury Academic, 2010). Recent grants from the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) include DATA—PSST! Debating & Assessing Transparency Arrangements: Privacy, Security, Surveillance, Trust (2015–17); and Political-Intelligence Elites: Towards Better Public Accountability through a Co-created Benchmark for Civil Society (2016–17).

Maxim Baryshevtsev is a doctoral student at the University of Texas at Austin in the Department of Communication Studies. He focuses his research on deception, persuasion, dark side communication, and cybercrime. His recent publications and in-development studies involve the language used by sexual predators, how people perceive deception, and the strategies identity thieves use to manipulate and deceive their targets. His future research will focus on how practitioners can better educate vulnerable populations and how law enforcement can better identify and stop cybercriminals.

Kathi Beier is COFUND-Fellow at the Max Weber Centre for Advanced Cultural and Social Studies at the University of Erfurt, Germany. She has been Assistant Professor at the Department of Philosophy at the University of Vienna, Austria, and guest researcher at KU Leuven, Belgium. She received her PhD in Philosophy, with a thesis about self-deception (published as Selbsttäuschung by Walter de Gruyter, 2010). Her research interests also include virtue ethics old and new.

Matthew A. Benton is an Assistant Professor of Philosophy at Seattle Pacific University. Prior to that he held postdoctoral research fellowships at the University of Notre Dame and the University of Oxford. He writes mainly in Epistemology, Philosophy of Language, and Philosophy of Religion. He has published articles in The Philosophical Quarterly, Analysis, Noûs, Philosophy & Phenomenological Research, Synthese, Philosophical Studies, Philosophical Perspectives, Episteme, Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Religion, and Religious Studies, among other journals. He is co-editor of Knowledge, Belief, and God (Oxford University Press, 2018) and has a monograph on Knowledge and Language in preparation.

(p. xvi) Lewis Bott is a Reader at the School of Psychology, Cardiff University. His PhD on “Prior Knowledge and Statistical Models of Categorization” was completed at Warwick University and he undertook postdoctoral work at the Institut des Sciences Cognitives, Lyon, and New York University, New York. He works on psycholinguistics and (experimental) pragmatics, and specializes in implications.

Thomas L. Carson is Professor of Philosophy at Loyola University Chicago. He is the author of The Status of Morality (Reidel, 1984), Value and the Good Life (Notre Dame, 2000), Lying and Deception: Theory and Practice (Oxford University Press, 2010), and Lincoln’s Ethics (Cambridge University Press, 2015). In addition, he has co-edited two other books, Morality and the Good Life (Oxford University Press, 1997) and Moral Relativism (Oxford University Press, 2001), and authored more than ninety articles and reviews. He has written on a wide range of topics in ethical theory and applied ethics.

Claudia Claridge is Professor of English Linguistics at the University of Augsburg, Germany. Her research interests include the history of English (with a focus on Early and Late Modern English), diachronic and synchronic pragmatics (in particular figurative language), historical text linguistics, as well as corpus linguistics. She is a co-compiler of the Lampeter Corpus of Early Modern English (1640–1740). She has authored two monographs: Multi-word Verbs in Early Modern English (Brill Rodopi, 2000) and Hyperbole in English (Cambridge University Press, 2011). Currently she is working on intensifiers in the historical courtroom and the development of the register of historiography.

Brianna D’Elia has published on auditory perception in Drosophila melanogaster, demonstrating discriminatory patterns based on Pavlovian conditioning. In this work she parsed out the dissonance and consonance of frequency in sound waves and has discovered that certain sound intervals are associated with certain primary food resources. She is currently at The University of New England College of Dental Medicine.

Alexa Decker is trained in both molecular biology and cognitive psychology. Her graduate work focused on behavior genetics and Pavlovian conditioning in Drosophila melanogaster. She has reported evolutionary choice strategies in Drosophila such that ovipositioning is influenced by available food resources for offspring. Her previous work involved Drosophila genetic transmission of auditory learning across multiple generations and she developed a force-choice paradigm in flies that serves as an analogue to similar devices in mammals. She is currently in the private sector.

Bella M. DePaulo, PhD (Harvard), is an Academic Affiliate, Psychological and Brain Sciences at the University of California, Santa Barbara. She has published extensively on deception and the psychology of single life and has received federal funding for her work. Dr. DePaulo has lectured nationally and internationally and has been honoured with a variety of awards, including a James McKeen Cattell Award and a Research Scientist Development Award. Her website is

Simone Dietz is Professor of Philosophy at the Heinrich Heine University of Düsseldorf. Her research interest are in ethics and social and cultural philosophy. (p. xvii) Besides several papers on lying and deception, she has published two monographs on lying: Der Wert der Lüge. Über das Verhältnis von Sprache und Moral (The value of lying. On the relation between language and moral) (Mentis, 2003) and Die Kunst des Lügens (The art of lying) (Reclam, 2017).

Amanda Disney has focused on both humans and Drosophila. In humans, she is investigating the role peer-pressure plays on deception in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex. She has also worked on issues of choice using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation testing Libet’s notion of free will. In Drosophila, Amanda investigated auditory discrimination in adults and larvae. She is currently at Indiana University School of Dentistry.

Marta Dynel is Associate Professor in the Department of Pragmatics at the University of Łódź. Her research interests are primarily in pragmatic and cognitive mechanisms of humour, neo-Gricean pragmatics, the pragmatics of interaction, (im)politeness theory, the philosophy of irony and deception, as well as the methodology of research on film discourse. She has devoted to these topics over eighty papers, two monographs, as well as ten co-edited volumes and special issues in journals. Her latest monograph is Irony, Deception and Humour: Seeking the Truth about Overt and Covert Untruthfulness (De Gruyter Mouton, 2018).

Paul Egré is Directeur de recherche at CNRS, Institut Jean Nicod, and Associate Professor in the Department of Philosophy of Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris. His work over the last decade has focused mostly on the phenomenon of vagueness in natural language, with contributions in logic, semantics, and cognitive psychology. Paul Egré is also Editor-in-Chief of the Review of Philosophy and Psychology (Springer), and co-leader of an ANR-funded project on applications of trivalent logics to natural language (with Benjamin Spector).

Don Fallis is a Professor in the School of Information and an adjunct professor in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Arizona. His research interests include epistemology, philosophy of information, and philosophy of mathematics. His articles on lying and deception have appeared in the Journal of Philosophy, Philosophical Studies, and the Australasian Journal of Philosophy. He has also discussed lying on Philosophy TV and in several volumes of the Philosophy and Popular Culture series.

Dariusz Galasiński is Professor of Discourse and Cultural Studies at the University of Wolverhampton, UK and Visiting Professor at the University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Warsaw, Poland. As a discourse analyst, he specializes in discursively constructed experience of mental illness, organ donation, suicide attempts, and suicide notes. He is the author of The Language of Deception. A Discourse Analytic Study (Sage, 2000). His latest book is Discourses of Men’s Suicide Notes (Bloomsbury, 2017).

Matthias Gamer is a Professor in Experimental Clinical Psychology at the University of Würzburg, Germany. Using a variety of approaches ranging from behavioural and psychophysiological to neuroimaging methods, his research is devoted to basic as well (p. xviii) as applied issues in deception detection. He has published numerous journal articles on deception and co-edited the eBook Basic and Applied Research on Deception and its Detection (2014) for Frontiers.

Giorgio Ganis is currently Associate Professor/Reader in Cognitive Neuroscience at the School of Psychology at Plymouth University (UK). His research interests include the neural basis of cognitive control processes in social and visual cognition, with an emphasis on deception production and perception processes. For nearly two decades, he has been pursuing these interests using the tools of psychology and cognitive neuroscience (behaviour, ERPs, TMS, fMRI, NIRS). His work has been published in several tens of international journals, book chapters, and media articles.

Rachel Giora is Professor of Linguistics at Tel Aviv University. Her research areas include cognitive aspects of coherence and women and language. As of 1997, her work has focused on experimentally testing the Graded Salience Hypothesis and the Defaultness Hypothesis (2017), featuring the psycholinguistics and neurolinguistics of non-/default, non-/figurative language, context effects, optimal innovations, aesthetic pleasure, and discourse negation. She has published over 130 articles, a book—On Our Mind (Oxford University Press, 2003)—co-edited a six-volume series with Patrick Hanks on figurative language (2011) and also co-edited a volume with Michael Haugh, entitled Doing Intercultural Pragmatics: Cognitive, Linguistic, and Sociopragmatic Perspectives on Language Use (De Gruyter Mouton, 2017). Her website is

Stuart P. Green is Distinguished Professor of Law at Rutgers University. His books include Lying, Cheating, and Stealing: A Moral Theory of White Collar Crime (Oxford University Press, 2006); Thirteen Ways to Steal a Bicycle: Theft Law in the Information Age (Harvard University Press, 2012); Philosophical Foundations of Criminal Law (co-edited with Antony Duff) (Oxford University Press, 2011), and the forthcoming Criminalizing Sex: A Unified Theory. The recipient of fellowships from the Leverhulme Trust, the US-UK Fulbright Commission, and Corpus Christi College, Oxford, Green has served as visiting professor or fellow at the Universities of Glasgow, Melbourne, Michigan, Oxford, and Tel Aviv, the ANU, and the LSE.

Swati Gupta is a principal research scientist at Callaghan Innovation, New Zealand government’s Crow Entity. She took her PhD at the University of Sheffield, UK, in Natural Language Generation for Spoken Dialogue Systems. Inspired by theories in Cognitive Science, Social Psychology, and Linguistics, her research focuses on Human–Computer Interaction, especially as it can be applied to the solution of social, environmental, and health problems. Before joining Callaghan Innovation, she worked as a Scientist at A*STAR in Singapore.

Karol J. Hardin is Associate Professor of Spanish at Baylor University, where she teaches linguistics and coordinates Spanish for Health Professions. Her PhD is in Hispanic Linguistics, from the University of Texas at Austin. Combining pragmatics as (p. xix) well as Spanish in health-care contexts, her recent publications include articles on the pragmatics of dialogue in a health setting, the pragmatics of persuasion in sermons, a critical review of medical Spanish programs in the US, and a co-authored textbook entitled Español conversacional para profesiones médicas: Manual de actividades (Stipes Publishing, 2016). Her current research interests include miscommunication between physicians and Spanish-speaking patients.

Eric Herring is Professor of World Politics in the School of Sociology, Politics and International Studies at the University of Bristol. His books include Iraq in Fragments: The Occupation and its Legacy (Cornell University Press, 2006) with Glen Rangwala; The Arms Dynamic in World Politics (Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1998) with Barry Buzan; and Danger and Opportunity: Explaining International Crisis Outcomes (Manchester University Press, 1995). His research has been published in journals such as Political Science Quarterly, Review of International Studies, Millennium, and Globalizations. His current research has two main strands: promoting locally led development in Somalia and organized persuasive communication, including propaganda.

Benjamin Icard is pursuing a PhD in Philosophy under the supervision of Prof. Paul Égré at Institut Jean Nicod in Paris. His research interests concern the definition and evaluation of information quality, using resources from epistemology, logic, and conversational pragmatics. His doctoral project, funded by the French Ministry of Defence, aims at understanding the dynamics of complex unreliable attitudes (such as lying, deceiving, misinforming), and at solving some of the issues they raise through conceptual and experimental investigations.

Mark Jary is Professor of Linguistics and Philosophy at the University of Roehampton, UK. He has a strong interest in sentence types and the speech acts they are used to perform. He is the author of Assertion (Palgrave, 2010) and, with Mikhail Kissine, Imperatives (Cambridge University Press, 2014). He has published a number of papers relating to linguistic mood and illocutionary force in journals such as Linguistics and Philosophy, Mind and Language, Linguistics, and Journal of Pragmatics.

Julian Paul Keenan, PhD is a Professor in the Department of Biology at Montclair State University. He previously worked at Harvard Medical School in the Department of Neurology, where he examined the neural and evolutionary correlates of self-awareness and deception. He co-edited the collection The Lost Self. Pathologies of the Brain and Identity (Oxford University Press, 2005). His current work is focused on the molecular and genetic factors related to deception, self-deception, and human cognition.

Anita E. Kelly, PhD is a Professor of Psychology at the University of Notre Dame. She is author of the books, The Clever Student: A Guide to Getting the Most from Your Professor (Corby Publication, 2010) and The Psychology of Secrets (Springer, 2002), and has written a number of scientific articles on secrecy, self-presentation, and self-concept change. Her work on secrecy has been featured in the Chicago Tribune, (p. xx) New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Newsday, and Glamour and Health magazines. Professor Kelly became a licensed psychotherapist in 1993 while serving as an assistant professor at Iowa State University, where she was awarded Outstanding Faculty Member for teaching. She has taught at Notre Dame since 1994 and became a Kaneb Teaching Fellow in 2008.

Bettina Kümmerling-Meibauer is a Professor in the German Department at the University of Tübingen, Germany. She has been a guest professor at the University of Växjö, Sweden, and the University of Vienna. She is the author of four books, including an encyclopedia of international children’s classics (Metzler, 1999) and a monograph on canon processes in children’s literature (Metzler, 2003). Her recent co-edited books include Children’s Literature and the Avant-Garde (John Benjamins, 2015), Canon Constitution and Canon Change in Children’s Literature (Routledge, 2017), Maps and Mapping in Children’s Literature (John Benjamins, 2017), and The Routledge Companion to Picturebooks (Routledge, 2018).

Jennifer Lackey is the Wayne and Elizabeth Jones Professor of Philosophy at Northwestern University. Most of her research is in social epistemology, where she focuses on testimony, disagreement, group states, credibility, and applied epistemology. She is the author of Learning from Words: Testimony as a Source of Knowledge (Oxford University Press, 2010) and the editor of several volumes, including Essays in Collective Epistemology (Oxford University Press, 2017) and The Epistemology of Disagreement: New Essays (Oxford University Press, 2016).

James Edwin Mahon is Professor of Philosophy and Chair of the Department of Philosophy at The City University of New York–Lehman College. He is the author of the entry The Definition of Lies and Deception for the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, as well as a number of articles and book chapters on Kant on lies. He regularly teaches an undergraduate seminar on lies and deception for the Program on Ethics, Politics and Economics at Yale Summer Session.

Emar Maier is Assistant Professor at the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, affiliated with both the Philosophy and Linguistics Departments. He received his PhD in Philosophy from the University of Nijmegen (2006), held several postdoctoral positions, and led an ERC Starting Grant project. He is currently leading an NWO VIDI project, investigating the semantics of imagination and fiction, combining insights from philosophy, linguistics, and literary studies. His research interests include: narrativity, quotation, indexicality, and attitudes. He has published on these topics in a range of journals including Theoretical Linguistics, Linguistics and Philosophy, Journal of Philosophical Logic, Mind and Language, and Journal of Literary Semantics.

Samantha Mann is a Senior Research Fellow at the University of Portsmouth, with over nineteen years of experience in researching lie detection. Since her PhD examining the behaviour of high-stakes, real-life liars in their police interviews and police officers’ ability to detect those lies, she has conducted research into designing interview (p. xxi) protocols to enhance ability to detect deceit in cooperation with governments and police, and has over eighty publications on the topic of deception. Recently, Samantha’s deception research has focused on the behaviour of, and devising methods to detect, smugglers, or any person posing a threat in a crowd.

Neri Marsili is a Juan de la Cierva Postdoctoral Fellow at the University of Barcelona (Logos Research Group). He obtained his PhD at the University of Sheffield with a dissertation on lying, assertion, and insincerity. His publications include “Assertion and Truth: rules versus aims (Analysis), “Lying by promising,” (International Review of Pragmatics) and “Lying as a scalar phenomenon” (in the volume Certainty-Uncertainty—and the Attitudinal Space in Between (John Benjamins)).

Matthew S. McGlone, PhD (Princeton University) is Professor of Communication Studies and Associate Director of the Center for Health Communication at The University of Texas at Austin. He has edited two books (The Interplay of Truth and Deception, Routledge 2010, with Mark Knapp; Work Pressures, Routledge 2016, with Dawna Ballard) and co-authored a textbook (Lying and Deception in Human Interaction, Kendall Hunt, 2nd edn 2015, with Mark Knapp, Darrin Griffin, and Billy Earnest). His research explores persuasion and social influence, deception, and communication technologies for promoting health and wellness.

Jörg Meibauer is Professor of German Language and Linguistics at the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany. He is the author of the monograph Lying at the Semantics-Pragmatics Interface (De Gruyter Mouton, 2014), as well as a number of articles and book chapters dealing with lying and deception. Other monographs concern rhetorical questions, modal particles, and pragmatics. He has co-edited several collections, e.g., Understanding Quotation (De Gruyter Mouton, 2011), Experimental Semantics/Pragmatics (John Benjamins, 2011), What is a Context? (John Benjamins, 2012), Satztypen des Deutschen [Sentence Types in German] (De Gruyter, 2013), Pejoration (John Benjamins, 2016), and Satztypen und Konstruktionen im Deutschen [Sentence Types and Constructions in German] (De Gruyter, 2016).

Eliot Michaelson is a Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at King’s College London. He completed his PhD on “This and That: A Theory of Reference for Names Demonstratives and Things in Between” at UCLA in 2013, and was a Mellon Postdoctoral Fellow at McGill University before joining the department at King’s. He works primarily in the philosophy of language and occasionally makes the mistake of trying to do public philosophy. Together with Andreas Stokke, he is the editor of the forthcoming collection “Lying: Language, Knowledge, Ethics, Politics” (Oxford University Press).

David Miller is Professor of Sociology in the Department of Social & Policy Sciences at the University of Bath in England. From 2013 to 2016 he was RCUK Global Uncertainties Leadership Fellow, leading a project on understanding and explaining terrorism expertise in practice. Amongst his recent publications is What is Islamophobia? Racism, Social Movements and the State (Pluto Press, 2017). He is also the co-editor of Impact of (p. xxii) Market Forces on Addictive Substances and Behaviours: The Web of Influence of Addictive Industries (Pluto Press, 2017) and co-author of The Israel Lobby and the European Union (Spinwatch & Europal, 2016) and The New Governance of Addictive Substances and Behaviours (Oxford University Press, 2017).

Fumiko Nishimura is the convener of the Japanese Programme in the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences at the University of Waikato, New Zealand. Her main research interests include sociolinguistics, cross-cultural communication, and Japanese language pedagogy. She is interested in everyday communication from cross-cultural perspectives and has published some of her findings in Ibunka to komyunikēshon [Different cultures and communication] (Hituzi Shobo, 2005) and Japanese-Language Education around the Globe (2007). Her recent research on Japanese learners’ communication can be found in Creating New Synergies: Approaches of Tertiary Japanese Programmes in New Zealand (Massey University Press, 2016).

Andrew Ortony Professor Emeritus at Northwestern University, is a cognitive scientist best known for his research on metaphor and on emotions. His edited volume, Metaphor and Thought (Cambridge University Press, 2nd edn 1993) is a landmark interdisciplinary work in the field of metaphor, and the analysis of emotions described in his co-authored book, The Cognitive Structure of Emotions (Cambridge University Press, 1990), is used as the basis for most emotion-modelling efforts in Artificial Intelligence. Ortony’s current interests centre on emotions in relation to social and linguistic behaviour.

Jennifer Perillo is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Among her research topics is the psychology of bluffing and false confessions. Previously, she was an assistant professor at Winston-Salem State University. She received her PhD in Forensic Psychology from the City University of New York and her MA in Forensic Psychology from John Jay College of Criminal Justice. She has a BA in Psychology and Political, Legal, & Economic Analysis from Mills College in Oakland, CA.

Ehud Reiter is a professor of Computing Science at the University of Aberdeen. He is one of the most respected and cited researchers in the world in Natural Language Generation (with a Google Scholar h-index of 37), and founded the NLG research group at the University of Aberdeen. He also co-authored what has become the standard NLG textbook, Building Natural Language Generation Systems (Cambridge University Press, 2003). He currently spends most of his time working in a spin-out company, Arria NLG, which he helped to found. Professor Reiter’s core research interests are building real-world NLG systems (such as the Babytalk system described in the chapter), evaluation of NLG systems, narrative generation, and lexical (word) choice. Several of his projects have involved generating texts which potentially have an emotional impact on the recipient, and working on these projects has highlighted the fact that there are cases in real-world applied NLG systems where it may be in the user’s interest for the NLG system to “be economical” with the truth.

(p. xxiii) Piers Robinson is Chair in Politics, Society and Political Journalism at the Department of Journalism Studies, University of Sheffield. He researches organized persuasive communication and contemporary propaganda and is co-director of the Organisation for Propaganda Studies. Recent publications include The Routledge Handbook of Media, Conflict and Security (co-editors Philip Seib and Romy Fröhlich, Routledge, 2017) and Learning from the Chilcot Report: Propaganda, Deception and the “War on Terror”, in International Journal of Contemporary Iraqi Studies 11(1–2).

Marta Serra-Garcia completed her PhD in 2011 at Tilburg University and is currently Assistant Professor in Economics at the Rady School of Management, University of California San Diego. Her main research interests lie in the areas of behavioural and experimental economics. She focuses on the importance of morals and social norms in economic decision-making. Among other methods, she uses theory and experiments to study morality, with a focus on deception and self-deception.

Julia Staffel is an Assistant Professor of Philosophy at the University of Colorado at Boulder. She received her PhD in philosophy from the University of Southern California in 2013. She mainly works in the areas of traditional and formal epistemology, with a focus on questions about rationality and reasoning. Her book Unsettled Thoughts: A Theory of Degrees of Rationality will appear at Oxford University Press.

Andreas Stokke is a Pro Futura Scientia fellow at the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study and a senior lecturer in the Department of Philosophy at Uppsala University. His research is mainly in the fields of philosophy of language and epistemology, but he has also worked on ethics and philosophy of action. He has worked extensively on lying, deception, and insincere speech more generally. He is the author of Lying and Insincerity (Oxford University Press, 2018) and co-editor of the collection Lying: Language, Knowledge, Ethics, Politics (with Eliot Michaelson, at Oxford University Press).

Kristina Suchotzki completed her PhD in 2014 at Ghent University in Belgium and is currently a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Würzburg in Germany. Her main research interests include the psychological mechanisms underlying deception and information concealment and how those may be used to improve deception detection methods. She mainly uses different behavioural, autonomic, and neural measures and recently published a meta-analysis on the validity of reaction times as measures of deception.

Victoria Talwar is a Professor and a Canada Research Chair (II) in Forensic Developmental Psychology in the Department of Educational and Counselling Psychology at McGill University. Her research is in the area of developmental psychology, with an emphasis on social–cognitive development and the Theory of Mind. She has published numerous articles on the development of lying in children, children’s honesty and lie-telling behaviour, as well as child witness testimony.

Marina Terkourafi is a Professor and Chair of sociolinguistics at Leiden University, the Netherlands. Her main research interests lie in socio-pragmatics, with a focus (p. xxiv) on im/politeness and indirect speech, pragmatic variation, and how language resources are used to constitute various (ethnic, gender, social) identities in discourse. She has published over fifty journal articles and book chapters on these topics and sits on various editorial boards, including serving as co-editor in chief of the Journal of Pragmatics (Elsevier).

Kees van Deemter a Professor in Computing Science at Utrecht University, works in Computational Linguistics, a research area that belongs to both Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science. Kees’ main areas of expertise are Computational Semantics and Natural Language Generation. He has long taken an interest in logical and philosophical issues arising from this work, and he has collaborated extensively with psycholinguists interested in algorithmic models of human language production. His research centres around computational models of human communication, and around applications of these models to practical problems (e.g., automatically explaining “big data” in human language). He is intrigued by situations in which communication is or appears to be flawed, as when we use expressions that are ambiguous or vague. Ambiguity was the topic of the collection Semantic Ambiguity and Underspecification (CSLI Publications, 1996). Vagueness is the focus of the book Not Exactly: In Praise of Vagueness (Oxford University Press, 2010). His latest book is Computational Models of Referring: A Study in Cognitive Science (MIT Press, 2016).

Emma Williams (CPsychol, AFBPsS) is a research associate at the University of Bath. She completed her PhD at Cardiff University in the area of lie detection and undertakes research on deception and influence across a range of contexts, with a particular focus on the interaction among individual differences, situational constraints, and message-based factors. Her current research examines human aspects of cyber security, in both work and home contexts.

Stephen Wright received his PhD in Philosophy from the University of Sheffield and is currently a lecturer in Philosophy at Trinity College, Oxford. His book Knowledge Transmission (Routledge, 2018) investigates the role that the concept of transmission should play in the epistemology of testimony. More generally, he has research interests in various issues of epistemology as well as issues related to testimony in moral philosophy and the philosophy of language. His most recent work explores the relationship between testimony and memory as sources of knowledge.