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date: 23 January 2022

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter espouses an engineering perspective on lying, showing how various departures from the truth arise naturally when computers talk about data. We start by explaining how Natural Language Generation (NLG) systems work when they talk about data. Then we discuss how, perhaps surprisingly, such systems cannot help deviating from the truth in two different ways, namely, by omitting information, and by generating statements whose truth is questionable; we illustrate our account with examples from practical NLG systems. Next, we discuss briefly why NLG systems should arguably deviate from the truth in other, more deliberate ways as well, after which we sketch a simple game-theoretical model that can help to explain our observations. We conclude by summing up what the engineering view tells us about lying, whether it is people or computers that take the floor.

Keywords: Natural Language Generation, data-to-text generation, Game Theory, avoidable deviations from the truth, vagueness, health communication, unavoidable deviations from the truth, benign deceit

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