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date: 21 November 2019

(p. 919) Subject Index

(p. 919) Subject Index

Note: page numbers followed by n indicate footnotes.

4E cognition 3–8, 95, 95n, 336, 805–6
arts and humanities 875–90
empathy and 595–602, 616–17
evolution of cognition and 721
historical roots 3–4
intentionality and 341–3
joint action 266–73
key concepts 4–8
language 636
material things 761–3
mindshaping hypothesis 737, 750
origin of term 4n
predictive processing and 130–1, 136–43, 218–21, 321, 508–9
social understanding 483–8
three more “Es” 637, 709–10
A
abstract concepts 103–4
embodiment 631–2, 637, 709, 864–6
representation 649
abstract features, learning to discriminate 828–33
abstract fictional models 741–2, 747
abstract movements 370, 372, 381–2, 409
acceptance principle 895
action
approach-avoidance effects 534–6
body in 243–57
causal theory 263
embodied cognition 247–9, 362
engagement without 436
epistemic 22, 35, 335
experiences 424–7
frames, executing schemas 633
goals 418, 422–4, 425, 515
imagining 420, 425
intentions 676, 677
joint see joint action
mirroring 420, 421–2, 424, 425, 530, 543, 544
philosophical concept 263
predictive processing hypothesis 134–6, 137, 140, 247–9
primary need for 249–50
relationship to perception 221, 248, 248n, 250, 251–2
theory of 675, 713
understanding 422–3
action-observation network see mirror neuron system
action readiness 43, 44, 55–6
affordance-related states of 44, 51, 56
anticipation and 57–8, 63–4
interacting states 56, 56n, 62–4
active-helping false-belief test 498, 502–3, 506, 507
active inference
affordances and 221
body in action 247–8, 253, 254
false-belief understanding 506–7, 517–18
predictive processing hypothesis 134–6, 137, 140, 203, 205n, 505
actor-network theory (ANT) 269
adaptations 201
adaptivity/adaptive regulation 80–1, 90–1
autopoietic system 84, 85–6, 86n, 87–9
definition 87, 87n
aesthetics
embodied 891–907
extended-embodied 900–6
(p. 920) affect
thinking and 554–5
as a type of modality 537
use of term 571n
see also emotion(s)
affective matching 590, 591–5, 602–3
affective prediction hypothesis 253
affectivity
defined 571n
distributed 615–16
dynamical systems approach 578–81
embodiment of tools 394–5, 396
embodiment thesis 252–4, 363
empathy and 593, 599, 617
enactive approach 571, 573–84, 613–15
engagement 441, 442–4, 519
environmental scaffolds 610–13
extended 583–4, 610–13
inherent to enactive cognition 574–6
situated 607–17
skilled intentionality framework 53, 54–6
affect programs 571n, 579–80, 579n
affordances 34–5, 42–4, 65
action readiness and 44, 51, 56
context-sensitive engagement 42
definitions 42, 45–7
false-belief understanding 502–3
field of relevant 45, 52, 56–9
for higher cognition 47, 48–51
image-schematic 628–9
landscape of see landscape of affordances
meaning arising from 626–7
place 58, 63
predictive processing hypothesis vs. 138, 139, 220–1, 221n
relevance to a situated individual 45, 51–9
solicitations vs. 52
of things 758
agency
enactive approach 74, 75, 77
joint 269–70
material engagement theory 269, 766
motor intentionality 382–3
predictive processing hypothesis 134–6, 137, 139–40, 142
social 456
agent-based modeling, social cognition 174–8
amodal processing 530–1, 648–9
amputees 391, 395, 399, 900
analytic philosophy of language 623–6, 708–9
anger
cross-cultural variations 579, 580
direct social perception 303, 305–6, 309, 312, 313
empathic understanding 591
inter-bodily resonance 167–8, 225–6
metaphors 865
animals
intuitive rationality 828–9, 830–3, 834, 835, 837
joint action 264, 273, 274
material engagement 798
meaningful interactions 626–7
mindshaping 740, 741, 748
representational cognition 729–30, 795
social cognition 685–6, 698
anthropofabulation 834
anthropogenic approach 719, 721, 794
anthropology 762–3
anticipation 57–8, 60, 63–4
anticipatory-looking false-belief test 497, 503, 506
anti-computational approach 8
anti-realist approach 108–9
anti-representational approach see nonrepresentational approach
apes, great 676–8, 679–80, 698
aplasia, congenital 426
appraisal, cognitive 576–8, 614
approach-avoidance effects 534–6, 609
architects, expert 42, 48–9, 55, 62
artifact extension (AE) 202–6, 208
artifacts
interactions with 881–2, 885
thingness 757–9
artificial intelligence 828–9, 841
good old-fashioned 843
artist and sketchpad 206
artists 389, 894, 899, 907
Asian cultures, interdependent self 486
Asperger’s syndrome 480
associative learning 823, 825, 828–9, 833–4
associative networks 530
(p. 921) A.T. (Jeannerod et al.’s patient) 373
attention 98, 136
directing infant pointing 665, 666, 667, 669, 671
intention-guided 383
joint see joint attention
attentional blink (AB) paradigm 539–40
attitudes, identifying with others’ see identifying-with
attribution theory 482–3, 743, 806
audition 131, 133, 134, 284, 289–90, 891
autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
communication deficits 563, 564, 813–15
congenitally blind children 565
empathy 617n
enactive approach 460
engagement 443, 444, 445, 563
identifying-with 563–4
symbolic play 564–5
thinking and feeling 562–5, 566–7, 611
autonomy 572–3
extended 89
precarious adaptive 80–1, 574–5
robots 858
autopoiesis 73, 78–90, 230–1
dynamical systems theory 149n, 230
enactive conception 80–1, 84–6, 572–3
primordial tension of life 83–6
projecting a world 86–90
self-distinction condition 79, 83–4, 85
self-production condition 79, 83–4, 85
B
bartender, expert 22–3, 25
baseball outfielder’s problem 249, 250
basic cognition 21, 105, 123–4
basic emotions 473–4, 579–80
basic minds 729, 730, 795
Bayesian inference
hierarchical 138, 139, 140
predictive processing and 131–2, 133, 134, 219, 652–3
self-evidencing 141, 247
unconscious perceptual inference 130
behavior
absent 310–12
cognition vs. 117–18, 123–5, 310–12
expressive 304–9, 323
flexible 410, 727–8
matching or synchrony 267–8
settings (place-affordances) 58, 63
through interaction 842–3
behavior-based robotics 843
behaviorism 3, 309–10
beliefs
intentionality 348
mindshaping 736, 739, 743, 744
normativity 688, 714–15
Otto’s 27, 348
social cognition 164–5, 226, 228
B-formatted representations see body-formatted representations
bimodal neurons 255
biogenic approach 721–2, 794
biological interactions 195–6
biomedical model of disease 811
birds 653, 654, 728, 830–2, 833
blindness, congenital 565
blind person 189, 281
blind person’s cane 341–2, 393, 410, 411, 487, 583, 780–1
bodily awareness 412
effects of tool use 392
extending 396–400, 411
bodily ownership, sense of 395–6
body
in action 243–57
embedded vs. extended cognition 24
role of touch in experiencing 294–6, 297
what is a 72–3
body-formatted representations 354, 355–7
embodied simulation 358, 420–2, 425–6
stronger embodiment vs. 358–60, 363–4, 407–8
body-in-the-brain concept 354–5
body-part projections 627–8
body schemas 191–2, 230, 255, 855–6
Botox injections 308, 538
bottlenecks, computational 138, 139
boundaries, cognitive system 155–9, 229–30, 231–2, 234–5
(p. 922) brain
black box view 246
central importance 234
embodied cognition 355
evolution with body 360, 361–2
internalist predictive processing viewpoint 246–7
lesion studies 234, 370–2, 373, 648
plasticity 254–5
in vitro 156
brain-body-environment systems 121, 405–14
nonrepresentational thesis 249
robotics 846–50, 857
social cognition 174–5
stronger embodiment 358, 362–3, 407
brain in a vat 156, 183, 263n, 625
C
canonical neurons 358
Capgras syndrome 483–4
Cartesianism 21, 124, 223–4, 863
categorization 641, 644, 710, 827
causal-constitutive fallacy see coupling-constitution fallacy
causation 6
affectivity 610–11
anti-realist explanations 109
constitution vs. 7–8, 218, 246, 325
continuous reciprocal 121–2, 124, 246
embedded cognition (EMT) 21–2, 24, 26–7, 37, 336
emotion understanding 533, 538–40
empathy 593, 599
extended cognition 22–4, 28, 31–2, 35, 37, 398
joint action 263–4
predictive processing hypothesis 244–5, 246, 324–5
children
concept acquisition 646–8, 864–5
false-belief understanding 494–509, 517–19
joint action 264, 273–4
mindshaping 740–1, 747–8
normativity 688–98
overimitation 694, 741
social understanding 479–80
circular causality 251
closed systems 147–8
co-action 273, 274
coercion 687
cognition
basic 21, 105, 123–4
behavior vs. 117–18, 123–5, 310–12
= brain 720–1, 793–4
classical conception 345–6, 347
concepts 117–19
= coordination 722–5, 793–5
definitions 192, 719, 722, 794
evolution 719–31, 793–801
higher see higher cognition
individuation 4–5
localization 119, 721, 794
minimum criteria 722–5, 794–5
strategies for individuating 4–5
Cognition in the Wild (Hutchins) 4, 270
cognitive-affective inseparability thesis 244, 252–4
cognitive appraisal 576–8, 614
cognitive ecologies 765, 883–4
cognitive integration (CI) 23n, 187–210
critique 219, 233–4, 235
defense 202–10
dimensional analysis 192–3, 193n
joint action 271
motivations 197–202
motor representations 379–80
cognitive linguistics 529, 623, 634, 876–7, 880
cognitive practices (CPs) 191–2, 193, 194
acquisition 190–1
critiques 203, 204, 208, 233
types 194–7
cognitive science
embodied cognition and 353–4
stages in history 171
traditional 5–7, 182–3, 530–1
cognitive systems 229–35
autopoietic 230–1
core 228, 229, 470, 646
embodied 156–7
extended 23n, 121, 157–8
integrated (ICS) 192–3, 200–2, 205, 233, 272
(p. 923) interaction and openness 148–60, 230
joint action 272–3
persistence 205–7, 272
self-control 322, 327–9
softly assembled 23, 23n
solipsistic vs. collective 325–7
cognitive threshold 193
cognitive transformation 193, 193n, 194, 204
cognitive unconscious 166, 174
cognitivism
conception of cognition 117–19
concept representation 648, 649
continuing debates within 3, 4, 5–7
explanatory value 102–4
learning and memory 99–102, 103–4
limitations of contemporary 96, 124
theory of emotions 607–8
view of content 109–11, 118
weak embodiment vs. 358–9
collective behavior 264
collective cognitive systems 325–7
collective emotions 615–16
collective intelligence 784–5, 788
collective intentionality 164
collective nature of life 89–90, 90n, 91
communication
basis of psychopathology 805–17
closed loop 807–8, 809
deficits in autism 563, 564, 813–15
development of thinking 555–6, 558–62
digital and analogical 809, 810
disturbances 812–15
great apes 676–8, 679–80
infant pointing as 663, 664, 665–7
representational 675–6
communities 89–90, 91
complementarity
empathy 601–2
principle of 612n
complex systems 32, 63, 81n
evolution of cognitive 189–90
joint action 267
computationalism 8, 171, 841
body-formatted representations 72n
comparative perspective 721, 729, 730
content-free cognition 111
extended functionalism vs. 20
wide 8, 119, 120
concepts
abstract see abstract concepts
acquisition 641, 642, 646–8, 653
acquisition by robots 850–1
concrete 609, 649
context-dependent processing 650
defined 643–4
function 645, 654
heterogeneity hypothesis 644, 653–4
hybrid view 650, 710
metaphors 631–2, 709, 864–6
perceptual 629–30
predictive coding and 652–5
relation with language 644–5, 654
representation 641–2, 648–51
conceptual metaphor theory (CMT) 631–2, 864–6
arts and humanities 876–7
empirical studies 866–8
juridical legitimacy and 868–71
concrete concepts 609, 649
concrete movements 370, 372, 381, 409
connectionism 171, 217, 830
consciousness 224n
unity of 223
constitution 6, 244, 336
affectivity 610–11
causation vs. 7–8, 218, 246, 325
direct social perception 306–7, 309, 311, 311n, 323–4
extended vs. embedded cognition 24, 37
predictive processing 245–9, 324–5
social cognition 181, 485
weaker sense 309, 311
constitutive norms 688, 690–1, 692
container schema 629, 877
(p. 924) content
cognitive integration framework 192, 208–9
cognitivist view 109–11, 118
comparative perspective 729–31
hard problem of (HPC) 101, 104, 105, 106–12
motor representations 376–7, 408
naturalized theory of 106–7, 108, 110, 118–19
representations 376, 420–1
vehicles of 341
content-involving cognition (CIC) 208–9
context sensitivity
concept processing 650
emotional embodiment 535–6
engagement with affordances 42
normativity 687, 690
social understanding 480–1, 487
continuous reciprocal causation (CRC) 121–2, 124, 246
control parameter 35–6
conventional norms 688, 689, 690–2
conversation 268
cooperation 157–8, 786–7
coordinated interactions
cognitive integration 193, 194
enactivist approach 227–8
social understanding 475–6, 477, 479
see also joint action
coordination, cognition as 722–5, 793–5
core cognitive systems 228, 229, 470, 646
coupling
affectivity 583, 610, 615, 616
cognitive integration 201, 202–3
dynamical systems theory 32–4, 151–2, 158
ecological approach 34–5
enactive approach 82, 86, 87–9, 227, 228
extended cognition 22–3, 23n, 24, 121
radical embodied cognitive systems 32–6
strong embodiment 363, 406–8
structural 81–2, 88, 89
coupling (or causal)-constitution fallacy 7, 23n, 121, 234, 327
embodiment thesis 246
predictive processing approach 246, 324, 325
cultural evolution 188, 190, 204–5
cultural group selection 745–6
cultural learning 361, 407–8, 787–8
cultural practices 191, 255–6, 257
culture 201, 360–1
expression of emotion and 579–80, 579n
infant communication and 679
material see material culture
mother–infant interaction and 459
psychopathology and 811, 812
D
deception 743–4
decision theory 823, 836–7
declarative pointing 668–9, 670, 673
dementia 461, 649
dependence relations 151–2, 153–4, 153n, 231
depression 57, 58
desires
direct social perception 301
infant communication 672
mindshaping 736, 739, 744
predictive processing hypothesis 137
self-control and 322, 328
social cognition 165, 226
development
action goal understanding 423–4
concept acquisition 646–8
empathy 598–9
enactive approach 74
false-belief understanding 479–80, 495, 497, 500
infant communication 678–80, 712–13
joint action and 273–5
language 662
normativity 690–8
scaffolded affectivity 611–13
social cognition 433–4, 438–48, 519–21
social understanding 479–80
thinking and feeling 553–67, 611
developmental robotics 854
developmental systems theory 205–6
deviant behavior 749
D.F. (Milner & Goodale’s patient) 373
(p. 925) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) 811
direct social perception (DSP) 301–16, 322
embodied mind and 304–9
empirical support 307–9
infancy 479
objections to 309–15
part-whole objection 312–13, 322–4
phenomenology 302–3, 304–7, 309–10
disclosure
4E cognition and 341–3
intentionality as 340–1, 410
disequilibrium 45, 52–4, 60–2
disgust 470, 471, 538, 592
distance
aesthetic 897–9
ape communication and 676–7
estimation 357, 845
infant pointing and 673–4
optimal 53–4, 59, 64
psychological 541
distributed affectivity 615–16
distributed cognition 4, 781–8, 799–800
extended cognition vs. 325–7, 612n
joint action and 270, 272
dual component transformation 198–200, 204, 208
dualism 124, 165
Duplo test 499, 503
dynamical systems theory 32–4, 148–60
affective phenomena 578–81
art of acting 883
boundaries of cognitive systems 155–9, 230, 231–2
constraints-led approach 97–8
embodied and extended cognition 154–8
enactive approach to social cognition 174–8
interaction and openness hypotheses 149–60, 230, 232
joint action 267
sensorimotor contingencies 846
skilled intentionality framework 54, 62–3
dynamic singularity thesis 243–4, 246
E
Ebbinghaus illusion 374
echolocation 189
ecological approach 4
joint action 267–8, 269
stage performance 884
ecological-enactive cognition 41–66
ecological inheritance 780
ecological psychology 34–5
cognition without concepts 645n
constraints-led approach to skill acquisition 97
interaction dynamics research 459
skilled intentionality 43, 44, 45–51, 55–6
ecological theory of perception 722
Einfühlung 589, 591 (see empathy)
eliminativism 110–11, 112, 897
embedded affectivity 610–13
embedded cognition 6, 19
cognitive integration vs. 203–7
debate with extended theories 19–20, 21–5
empathy and 600–1
joint action 266–70
perceptual crossing experiments 522–3
predictive processing hypothesis 137–8
robots 842, 844, 857
scaffolded cognition vs. 22n, 29n
social cognition 484–6, 523–4
embodied aesthetics 891–907
dancer’s experience 892–5
defined 892
reliability of first-person reports 895
sensory nature of proprioception 896–7
embodied appraisals 608
embodied cognition (EC) 336, 353–64, 531–2, 863–4
arts and humanities 876–90
comparative perspective 728
direct social perception and 304–9
dynamical systems theory 154–5, 156–7, 230
historical roots 3–4, 353
hybrid view 306–7, 312
joint action 266–70
mirror neuron system and 356, 358, 360, 362, 543–5
predictive processing approach 137–8, 243–57, 324–5, 508–9
range of concepts 6–7, 353–4, 412–13
robots 843, 844–50, 857
weak 6, 354–61
embodied cognitive science 626
conservative (CEC) 728–9
embodied engagements 193, 194
Embodied Mind, The (Varela, Thompson & Rosch) 3–4, 353
embodied neurodynamics 43, 44, 45, 59–64
embodied resonance 417–27
embodied simulation (ES) 417–27, 515, 531
action experience and 424–7
action understanding and 422–3
body-formatted representations and 358, 420–2
emotion recognition 532
empathy and 595–7
language understanding 630–1
mirror neurons and 419–20
situated, in emotional embodiment 537–43
social cognition 423–4, 515
embodiment 805
abstract concepts 631–2, 637, 709
of concepts 641–55, 710–12, 864–8
constraints on 396–8
cultural practices 191–2
empathy for pain 594
person model theory 483–4
social understanding 483–4, 485
tools 390–6, 411
embodiment theories 529, 531–2
cognition see embodied cognition
language 623, 626–37, 707–10
embodiment thesis (ET) 243–57, 324–5
emotion(s)
behavioral expression 307–9, 311–12, 323
cognitive theories 576–7
collective 615–16
component process model 577n, 609, 614
co-presence thesis 305–6
cultural variations in expression 579–80, 579n
Damasio’s theory 253, 635
direct perception 301, 303, 323, 473–4
dynamical systems approach 578–81
embodiment 529, 531, 532–43, 609–10
empathy 592
enactive approach 576–8, 577n, 578n
face-based recognition 470, 480, 483
inference 323–4
meaning and 635–6
metaphors 865
mimicry of expression 483, 485, 533
mixed 56, 56n
skilled action 43, 44, 54–6
social interaction 434, 435, 438
emotional contagion 593, 598, 600
emotional language, embodiment 537–43
empathy 168, 589–603
4E approaches 595–602, 616–17
affective matching and 591–5, 602–3
complementarity and reciprocity 601–2
conditions 593–4, 599, 617
embodied simulation 595–7
intentional alignment 599–601
morality and 589–90
other-centeredness 597–9
empiricism
conceptual cognition 645, 646–8, 652, 711–12
interaction and openness 149–50, 155
enactive approach 6–7, 571–3, 805–6
affectivity 571, 573–84, 613–15
applications 72n
cognitive integration vs. 209
empathy 600–1
extended mind hypothesis and 581–4, 614–15
historical roots 3–4
intentionality and 336
intersubjectivity 454–62, 521–3
joint action 266–70
predictive processing and 253–4
radical 217–18, 225–9, 236, 573
robotics 857–8
social cognition 170–83, 274–5, 522–3
social understanding 484–6
touch 282, 282n, 289
enculturation 709–10
(p. 927) engagement 433–48, 519–21, 556–7
in autism 443, 444, 445, 563
concepts 434–6
infant openness to 440
joint 442–6, 447, 560
with objects 435–6, 519
second-person relations 436–42
third-person relations 436–9
environment
cognitive integration 188, 189–90
development of infants’ relations 554
manipulations 194–8, 200–2
mutuality of animal and 32
organisms as models of their 253
scaffolding see scaffolding
structuring to enhance willpower 328–9
epistemic action 22, 35, 335
epistemic norms 688, 688n
epistemic practices 195–6, 197
epistemic strategies 478, 479–81, 516
epistemic tools 195–6, 197
equal partner principle 97, 124
equilibrium 53–4
evolution
cognition 719–31, 793–801
cognitive integration 188, 189–90, 200–2, 205–6
extended synthesis 201
language 634, 636–7
material culture and human cognition 773–88, 798–801
material engagement 756
neural reuse hypothesis 359–61
skin-brain thesis 725–7
evolutionary continuity 201–2, 209n
evolutionary robotics 169n
exaptation 358, 359–60, 634, 637, 709
existential neuroscience 596
exosomesthesia 396, 411
experience
aesthetic, of dancers 892–5
asymmetry of self- and other- 313
concept acquisition 646–8
lived 54–5, 572
phenomenal conscious 20n
explanatory gaps 109, 148, 341
exploratory feature-binding 286, 289–91
expressive pointing 669, 674
extended affectivity 583–4, 610–13
extended body hypothesis 389–401, 411
extended cognition 6, 19–37, 230, 336, 805 (see extended mind hypothesis)
critique 120–2
delineating boundaries 234
distributed cognition vs. 325–7, 612n
dynamical systems theory 154–5, 157–8, 230, 231–2
embedded theories vs. 19–20, 21–5
extended cognitive systems vs. 23n
material culture and 774–5, 780–1, 799
parity-based defense 25–7
perceptual crossing experiments 522–3
predictive processing hypothesis 141–2
radical theories (REX) 20–1, 30n, 32–6, 37
robots 857
second wave 29, 29n
social understanding 484–6, 487
extended cognitive systems 23n, 121, 157–8
persistence 205–7
vs. distributed 325–7
extended functionalism (FEX) 8, 20, 24–5, 120
localization of cognition 119
robotics 857
varieties of 27–32
Extended Mind, The” (Clark & Chalmers) 4, 25, 270
extended mind hypothesis (EMH)
artifact extension version 202–5
cognitive integration and 202–3, 208–9, 233–4
enactivism and 581–4, 614–15
joint action and 270–3
extended phenotype 773–8, 799
extended mind hypothesis vs. 774–5
niche construction vs. 779–80, 781
external representational systems 195–6, 197, 198–200, 207–8
exteroception 137, 356
eye movements 268, 342, 418, 673
(p. 928) F
facial expressions
constituting experience of emotion 307–9
cultural influences 580
deficits 307–8, 480, 533, 538
direct perception 474
embodied recognition 483, 485, 488, 532–3
memory for 540
mother-infant interactions 470, 479
person model theory 479–80
facial muscles
EMG studies 535, 539
paralysis 307–8, 532, 538
false-belief understanding 493–509, 517–19
behavior-rule accounts 502
development 479–80, 495, 497, 500
dual-system accounts 500–1
elicited-response tests 494–6, 517–18
infant communication and 672–3
interactionist accounts 502–3
predictive processing framework 504–9, 517–19
spontaneous-response tests 496–9, 517–18
fictionalism 108–9, 109n, 110
fictional models 741–2, 747
finger gnosis 188, 191
finger pointing see pointing
first-person perspective 170, 222–3, 226–7, 229
first-person reports, reliability 895
Fitt’s law 379
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) 742, 742n
folk psychology 27–8, 28n, 31, 469, 470
force, perception 292–3
form of life 45–6, 46n, 47, 49–50
forward models 844
free energy minimization 137, 251
free energy principle (FEP) 60–1, 138, 203, 231, 652
Fregean senses/thoughts 337–8, 624–5, 708, 824, 834–6
functionalism 5
amodal theories 530–1
cognitive integration vs. 202–3
common sense 27, 31–2
empirical 29–32, 37
enactive theory vs. 75–8, 86
G
Gage, Phineas 760
Galileo 405–6, 407
gating, neuronal 136
gaze
alternation 665, 671
behavior in autism 814–15
communicative role 809–10, 816
mutual 440, 442–3
genetics 774, 779, 782, 783
gestures 544, 675–6
goals
action 418, 422–4, 425, 515
ascription 422–3
shared 262, 263, 264
good old-fashioned artificial intelligence 843
grammar 118, 632–43
grasping
motor intentionality 370–1, 373, 374–5
motor representations 378–9
observation 418, 420
simulation 361
tool use 391
grip
motor intentionality 379
optimal 52–5, 59–64
grounded cognition 359n, 412–13, 529
grounding problem 648
group cognition 270–2
H
haptic perception see touch
hard problem of content (HPC) 101, 104, 105, 106–12
hearing see audition
heat perception 283–4, 289, 295n
hedonic fluency model 535
hermeneutics 879–80
heterophenomenology 224n
hidden minds assumption 165
hierarchical model
predictive error minimization 133–4, 135, 140, 505
self-control and 327–8
higher-order cognition 43
affordances for 47–51
joint action 262, 264
hippocampus 99
hollow-face illusion 375
homeostasis 253, 362, 407
hominins
extended phenotype 775–8
tool use 198, 200, 774–5, 776–7
Homo heidelbergensis 783, 787
Homo sapiens 201, 782, 783, 788
humanoid robots 850–3
Hume’s law 693–4
hunger 362–3
hybrid cognitive systems 29, 31, 36
hypoglycemia 362–3
hypothalamus 362–3
I
iCub baby humanoid robot 851ff
idiosyncrasies, individual 478, 481
illocutionary forces 663, 668, 713n
illusions, visual 374–5, 906
image schemas 628–9, 877
imitation
embodied cognition 543, 544
emotional embodiment 533
empathy 591, 595, 616–17
mindshaping hypothesis 740–2, 746, 796
neonatal 440, 470, 479
inattentional blindness 760, 760n
individualism 779, 780, 799
individuality/individuation 74, 75, 76–7, 90, 152
infant communication 661–80, 712–13
ape communication vs. 676–8, 679–80
limits 675–6
origins 676–80
infant pointing 662–75, 712–13
communicative intentions 663, 664, 665–7
development 679–80
non-communicative 665–6
referential intentions 663, 664, 667
social cognition 671–5
social intentions 663, 664, 668–70
infants
communication see infant communication
compliance with directives 445–6
engagement with objects 435–6
interaction dynamics 459
intuitive understanding of others 470–2
mindshaping 740, 747–8
openness to engagement with others 440
pointing behavior see infant pointing
predicting others’ actions 423–4, 445
relations with the world 554
shyness or coy smiles 443
social cognition 433–4, 438–48, 519–21, 661–80
social understanding 479–80
thinking 558–62
inference 118–19
active see active inference
Bayesian see Bayesian inference
Fregean 835
intuitive 824–7, 828, 837
mental states of others 323–4
predictive processing and 131–4, 219–21
unconscious perceptual see perceptual inference, unconscious
information
as control 107
as covariance 100, 107
open vs. closed systems 154
as structural similarity 107
information-bearing structures 344, 345
person models as 481–3
information processing 100–2, 105, 343–6
external 346–7
information theory 844–5, 846–9
informative pointing 666–7, 669, 671–2, 674
inheritance
ecological 780
extra-genetic 201, 205–6
insects 723, 843, 844, 845
integrated cognitive systems (ICS) 192–3, 200–2, 205, 233–4, 272–3
intelligence 722–3, 756
collective 784–5, 788
radical approaches 96–7, 103, 124
sensorimotor 843
(p. 930) intensionality 108
intentional alignment 599–601
intentionality 335–51, 409–10
4E cognition and 341–3
collective 164
contentless notion of 111–12
derived 347–8
as disclosure 340–1, 410
norm psychology and 691–2, 697
original 347–51
standard tripartite model 337
intentional stance (Dennett) 164–5, 224, 226
intentions
individual 263
infant awareness of others’ 444–6
infant pointing 663–70
shared 262, 263, 264, 697–8
interaction
cognitive integration 188, 189–90
false-belief understanding 502–3
persons vs. things 806–7
robotic behavior 842–3
second person see second-person interaction
subjectivity and 455–7
third person see third-person interaction
interaction dynamics 458–9
interaction hypothesis 149, 150–2, 230, 232
embodied and extended cognition 154–8
interaction theory (IT), social understanding 472–8
inter-being (Varela) 171–2, 173, 224n
interdisciplinary research 354, 457–9, 875–84
interface problem 382–4, 409
internalism 183, 433, 761n
cognitive integration and 208–9
enactivism and 581–2, 583, 614
genuine intersubjectivity and 166, 168–9
intuitive judgment 823, 827
person model theory 486
weak embodied cognition 358–9
see also cognitivism
interoception 137, 356
interpersonal judgments 867–8
interpersonal similarity 593, 599
interpersonal synchrony 267, 458, 521–2
interrogative pointing 670
intersubjectivity 453–62, 521–3
aesthetic judgments 899
asymmetry of self- and other-experience 313
clinical application 460
concept 454
ethical dimension 460–1
primary 274–5
psychopathology of 811–12
secondary 275
intransitive sensations 394
intuitive inference 824–7, 828, 837
intuitive judgment 822–3, 827
intuitive rationality, scaffolding 821–37
invisible hand illusion 399, 400
J
jealousy 576–7
joint action 261–76, 321
defining 262
development and 273–5
embodied simulation and 424
infant engagement 273–4, 444–6, 479
interaction theory 475–6
shared task representations 265–6
joint attention 268, 274–5
gaze behavior 809–10
infant engagement 442–4, 479, 560
judicial decisions
factors influencing 363, 406, 407, 867
rationality 869, 870
juridical legitimacy 868–71
K
Kanizsa compression illusion 374–5
Kenshiro (robot) 851, 852–3
kinesthetic sympathy 901–2, 903, 904–6
L
L (person with autism) 562–3, 566
landscape of affordances 43, 44, 45–51, 65
field of relevant affordances vs. 57
reducing disequilibrium 60–2
(p. 931) selective openness and responsiveness to 51–9
social character 47–51
language
acquisition 118, 647, 662
comprehension 357, 361, 407–8
disembodied views 623–6, 708–9
embodied simulation 630–1
embodiment 623, 626–37, 707–10
emotional 537–43
neural theory 634–5, 636–7
niche construction framework 781
norms 695
public 742, 747
relation with concepts 644–5, 654
learning
active inference 135–6
associative 823, 825, 828–9, 833–4
child-directedness in 439
cognitive practices 191–2
concept acquisition 652–3
cultural 361, 407–8, 787–8
machine 130, 131
normativity 692–4
predictive 830, 833–4
predictive processing hypothesis 131–2, 135–6, 137–9
rate, Bayesian inference 131–2
traditional vs. radical approaches 99–102, 103–4
legal institutions, legitimacy 869–71
life
dynamical systems theory 154
enactive conception 71–91, 119–20
origins of 84n
primordial tension of 83–6
LIFE IS A JOURNEY metaphor 632, 877
life-mind continuity thesis 73–5, 120, 613, 723
linguistic processing, action concepts 380
linguistics 357, 360–1
lived experience 54–5, 572
locked-in syndrome 189, 310–11
Lotka-Volterra model 33n, 121, 122
joint action 262, 268
M
Machiavellian intelligence 743–4
machine learning 130, 131
many-many problem 383
mark of the cognitive 20, 24, 24n
enactive approach 75–6, 119
extended cognition 25–7, 26n, 30–1, 36–7, 122
radical theories 37, 121
Markov blanket (EE-circle) 141, 142, 247, 251
massive redeployment hypothesis see neural reuse hypothesis
material culture
4E approach 762
cognitivist approach 760
impact on human cognition 773–88, 798–801
material engagement theory 756, 763–4
material engagement 755–68, 797–8
arts and humanities 881–2, 885
material engagement theory (MET) 756–7, 763–8
embodiment thesis 243
joint action 268–9
metaplasticity 255, 756
material symbols 782, 783, 787
maternal licking/grooming 88–9
meaning
embodied mind and 626–37
emotion and 635–6
humanities 879–80, 886
Johnson’s conception 626–7, 709
psychology of 810–11
mechanical feedback loops 842–3
member-collection relations 312–13, 323
memory
declarative 26, 28, 30–1
extended vs. inner 26, 27–8, 30–1
facial expressions 540
generic 30
social understanding and 477, 477n, 487
traditional vs. radical approaches 99–102
transactive 271–2
mental disorders see psychopathology
mentalism 500, 720
mental representations see representations
mental time travel 833
metaphors
abstract concepts 631–2, 709, 864–6
embodied 540–3
primary 632, 864–5
underlying scientific theories 737–8
metaphysical distancing 898–9
metaphysics 24, 109–11, 149–50
metaplasticity 244, 254–7, 361, 407–8, 756
metarepresentationalism 739
metastable attunement 64
metastable states, critical 81n
metastable zone 54, 59, 64
methodological individualism 163–4, 173, 183, 222
mimicry
facial emotional expression 483, 485, 533
function 543, 544–5, 609
identifying with 557
mindreading
4E approaches vs. 513–14
animals and humans 685–6
embodied simulation vs. 419, 423, 515
empathy and 592, 593, 594, 598
enactive approach and 523
false-belief understanding 493, 500, 501, 507
infant communication 713
joint action and 264, 274
mindshaping vs. 737, 742, 743–5, 795–7
social understanding 471, 473, 516
mindshaping 735–50, 795–7
advantages 743–6
definition 738–40
uniquely human mechanisms 740–2
mirroring
action 420, 421–2, 424, 425, 530, 543, 544
as embodied cognition 543–5
empathy and 595–7, 616–17
mirror neuron system 166, 380, 417–18
activation by disgust 470
embodied cognition 356, 358, 360, 362
embodied simulation and 419–20, 421, 422, 424–5
empathy and 596
extended-embodied aesthetics 902–3, 904
motor intentionality 380
self-other distinction 169
social understanding 483
mixed emotions 56, 56n
modality theories
affect 537, 609
concept representation 648–9, 711
model theory 478
modes of presentation 337, 339–40, 410
Moebius syndrome 307–8, 308n, 532
moods 580–1
morality
cleanliness/purity and 542–3, 867–8
empathy 589–90
moral norms 688, 689, 691, 695–6
motivation 554, 669–70, 741
motor cortex 380, 532
motor imagery 420, 425
motor intentionality 369–85, 408–9
characterization 375–81
cognitive intentionality and 370–1, 372, 381–5, 412
empirical evidence 373–5
Merleau-Ponty on 370–2, 408
motor interference 380
motor perception, aesthetic experience 903–4, 905
motor programs 191–2
motor representations 375–81, 408
body-formatted 356, 357
format and content 376–7
interface problem 382–4, 409
representationality 377–81, 409, 412
motor schemas 384, 409
motor simulation 361, 380
Müller-Lyer illusion 374–5
multi-agent extended cognitive systems 157
music pedagogy 458–9
mutual circulation 572
mutual incorporation 168, 222–3, 225–6
mutual shaping 89–90, 91
N
narcissism 486
nativism 646–8, 652, 712
(p. 933) naturalism 74–5
criteria of intentionality 348–9, 350–1
theory of content 106–7, 108, 110, 118–19
natural kinds 4
natural pedagogy 670, 741, 746–7
neo-empiricism 646–7, 709
neo-Fregean conceptions 823, 824
neonates 440, 441, 470
nervous system
cognition and 720–1, 723–4, 794–5
evolution 725–8
neural networks 175–7, 828–9
neural reuse hypothesis 356–7, 358, 359–61, 362
cognitive integration 188, 200
understanding abstract concepts 865
see also exaptation
neural theory of language 634–5, 636–7
neuromuscular activity, absent 310–11
neuronal gating mechanism 136
neurophenomenology 171, 172
niche
cognitive-environmental 206
ecological 45–6
nonrepresentational approach 8, 729
cognitive integration 208
embodiment of language 630
embodiment thesis 244, 249–52
joint action 269–70
material engagement theory 767–8
mirroring 543–4
motor intentionality 371–2, 384, 408
radical enactivism 217–18
radical theories of extended cognition 21
nonverbal communication 808–10, 815–16
deficit in autism 813–15
normativity 107, 685–98, 713–15
children’s understanding 479, 690–8
features 686–7, 714–15
intentionality and 691–2, 697
situated 47–8, 55, 57, 482
types 688
norms
of instrumental rationality 688, 688n
language 695
learning mechanisms 692–4
ontology 694–5
third-party enforcement 689, 690, 693, 694, 714
nostalgia 56, 56n
novelty, low-level 503, 504
nuisance variables 829–30
numeracy 188, 198–9, 781
O
objects
children’s understanding 555, 556
component-integral relations 312–13
engagement with 435–6, 519
exploratory touch 289–91
Galileo’s laws of falling 405–6, 407
grasping see grasping
intentional 337, 338–40
perception, embodied simulation 420, 421
phenomenologically incorporated 583–4
proprioceptive judgments 899–900
reaching for 373, 376, 378–9
recognition 291
referred sensations 392–8
thingness 759
offline cognition 188–9, 209–310
offline social understanding 472–3, 477
Olaf and Inga thought experiment 270–1
olfaction 289–90
online cognition 188–9
online social understanding 472–4, 476–7
ontogeny
cognitive integration 198–200
robotic studies 854
shared intentionality 698
social understanding 479–80
see also development
ontology, of norms 694–5
openness hypothesis 149, 153–4, 230, 232
embodied and extended cognition 154–8
optical acceleration cancellation 249, 250
optimistic realists 109, 110, 110n
organism-environment interactions
enactive approach 82–90
origin of meaning 626–7
predictive processing 253
(p. 934) radical approaches 97–8
see also coupling
organism-environment systems 178, 201
other minds 163–4, 166, 322
asymmetry of access 313
direct perception see direct social perception
recognition by infants 441–2
unobservability see unobservability principle
Otto’s notebook system 26, 270
coupling/constitution fallacy 325
dynamical systems model 122
extended functionalism 27–8, 29, 30–1
intentionality and 4E cognition 343, 347, 348
joint action and 203–4, 326–7
material engagement and 763
niche construction vs. 780–1
outfielder’s problem 249, 250
overimitation 694, 741, 746
P
pain
empathy 594, 601
extended body hypothesis 393–5, 396
tactual perception vs. 284n
parity principle 25–7, 270, 612n, 763
social 271
Parkinson’s disease 480
participatory sense-making 91, 270
intersubjectivity 455, 456, 461–2
social understanding 475, 476, 516
part-whole relations 312–13, 322–4
pattern generators 62–3
pattern recognition 199
pedagogy 741
natural 670, 741, 746–7
normative learning 693–4
Pepper (robot) 851, 853
perception
action relations 221, 248, 248n, 250, 251–2
affectivity 253
body-formatted representations 357
constraints-led approach to skill acquisition 97
direct social see direct social perception
embodiment theory 248–9
indirect vs. direct 392–3, 411
intentionality 341–2
Noë’s theory 6–7
predictive processing hypothesis 130–43, 219–21, 247–9
skilled intentionality framework 50–1, 50n
tools 392–3
touch 281–97
perceptual concepts 629–30
perceptual crossing experiments 178–82, 458, 485, 522
perceptual inference, unconscious
false-belief understanding 506, 507, 518
predictive processing and 129–31, 132, 219, 505
perceptual symbols theory 531, 629–30, 653
perceptual systems 34–5
peripersonal space 390–1, 398–400, 411
perlocutionary effects 679, 713n
personal pronouns 561
person images 481
person models 479, 481–3, 487, 516–17
person model theory (PMT) 478–86, 487, 516–17
components 478–81
situatedness 483–6
person schemas 481
perspective-tracking false-belief test 499
phantom limb phenomena 391, 393, 426, 900
phenomenological transparency 583–4
phenomenology
asymmetry of self- and other-experience 313
characterization of life 575
direct social perception 302–3, 304–7, 309–10, 314–15
empathy 597–9
intentionality 341–2
intersubjectivity 165–70, 172–3, 222–9
psychopathology 315
schizophrenia 460
skilled intentionality 43, 44–5, 51–9
(p. 935) Phenomenology of Perception (Merleau-Ponty) 369, 370
phenotypic plasticity 190
phylogeny
cognition 188, 189–90
cognitive integration 200–2
physical symbol systems hypothesis 29–30, 30n
place-affordances 58, 63
plasticity
body representations 391, 395
neural 254–5
neural and cultural 255
phenotypic 190, 203
play, autistic children 564–5
pointing
comprehension by infants 672–5
declarative 668–9, 670
expressive 669, 674
imperative 668, 673
by infants see infant pointing
informative 666–7, 669, 671–2, 674
prosodic characteristics 674
Ponzo illusion 374–5
postural sway 250, 267
posture, body 536
poverty-of-stimulus argument 647
precision, predictive error minimization 132–3, 135–6, 250, 256
predator–prey systems 32–3, 33n, 121
predictive error minimization (PEM) 130–43, 219, 244–5
predictive learning 830, 833–4
predictive processing (PP) hypothesis 129–43, 235, 505
4E approaches and 130–1, 136–43, 218–21, 321, 508–9
cognitive integration vs. 202–3
concepts 652–5
embodiment thesis and 244–57, 324–5, 508–9
false-belief understanding 504–9, 517–19
internalist 244–57, 324
prefrontal cortex 538, 814, 816
premotor cortex 417–18, 422–3
pre-planning, joint action 264
pre-reflective embodied interaction 167, 168, 169, 170
presence (Noë’s) 886
pressure sense 283, 284–5, 293–4
pretend games 690–1
primates, nonhuman 676–8, 698, 729–30
priming effects 866, 867
project of the world 71–3, 86–90
promiscuous normativity 693–4
property verification task 648
propositional attitudes
definition of concepts 643, 710
mindshaping 736, 742, 743–5, 747–9
motor intentionality 382
propositions 624–5, 708
proprioception
aesthetic experience 892–5, 898, 900–1, 903, 905–7
illusions 906
sensory nature 896–7
subject and object 899–900
prototypes 644, 652
psychopathology 234
communicative basis 805–17
enactive understanding 460
phenomenological 315
of self-consciousness and intersubjectivity 811–12
social understanding deficits 480, 483–4
understanding and explaining in 810–11
purity, morality and 867–8
pushmi-pullyu representations 378
R
radical embodied cognitive science (RECS) 32–6, 37, 120–2, 123
radical enactive and embodied accounts of cognition (REC) 96–112
conception of cognition 104–6, 123–4
critique 123–5
evolution of cognition 728–31, 795
hard problem of content 106–12
learning and memory 99–100
radical enactivism 217–18, 225–9, 236
radical theories of extended cognition (REX) 20–1, 30n, 32–6, 37
rationalism 645
(p. 936) rationality
biological 821
bounded 826
classical 821, 823, 825–6
judicial decisions 869, 870
norm psychology and 691–2
norms of instrumental 688, 688n
scaffolding intuitive 821–37
reaching for an object 373, 376, 378–9
reading 875, 876, 878–9
activating motor representations 380, 408
emotional embodiment 538
meaning through 879–80
reciprocal interaction 222–3
agent-based modeling 177, 178
co-regulation 181
emotional 167–8, 225–6
empathy 601–2
perceptual crossing experiment 179–80, 181
reciprocation-based cooperation 786–7
referential intentions
early infant communication 679–80
infant pointing 663, 664, 667
infants’ understanding 672–3
referred sensations
constraints on 396–8
peripersonal space 398–400
tools 392–4, 411
reflexive perceptualism 607–8
representational and computational model of cognition (RCC)
4E approaches vs. 5–6, 8, 95n, 118, 217
comparative perspective 721, 729–30
enactive approach vs. 72n
explanatory value 102–4
historical roots 96n
limitations 96
radical approaches vs. 37, 96–7, 102–4, 105
representationalism 761n, 767
genuine intersubjectivity and 166, 168–9
mindshaping hypothesis 739, 750, 795–6
representations (mental) 8, 761
autopoiesis 81
Bermúdez’s criteria 376, 409, 412
cognitive integration 192, 192n, 207–9
comparative perspective 729–30, 795
concepts 645, 648–51, 711
content 376, 420–1
embodiment of language 629–30