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date: 22 October 2019

(p. 601) Index

(p. 601) Index

Note: Figures, tables, and boxes are indicated by ‘f’, ‘t’, and ‘b’ following the page number, for example 45f would indicate a figure on page 45. Footnotes are indicated by ‘n’ and the note number following the page number, for example 95n2.

3D printers 233

academic relevance 491–492
Academy of Finland Interdisciplinary Research (AFIR) team 25
accountability 7, 84, 88–89, 177, 490, 495, 500t
and assessment 563
corporate 61
and funding 515, 535
Mode 2 knowledge 474
new public service 427
Ackoff, R. L. 295, 296–298
action research 321
active learning 568
actor-network theory (ANT) 175–176
adaption to interdisciplinary research 576–577
administration 530–531, 540–541, 598, 599
barriers to interdisciplinarity 185
of cities see humane smart cities
digital humanities programs 168–169
elements of interdisciplinary programming 540t
impact of academic disciplines 535–537
negotiation of institutional boundaries 533–535
new public service (NPS) 427–428
organizational norms 531–533
resource challenges 537–539
adult undergraduate degree programs 535–536
affiliated hires 593
Agnew, R., Toward a Unified Criminology 406–408
Alliance of Digital Humanities Organizations (ADHO) 162, 163
All India Women’s Conference (AIWC) 219
alluvial fans 94
al-mīzān (balance) 386
Althusser, L. 207
altmetrics 493–494
American research universities 471
case study in interdisciplinarity 479–482
disciplinary entrenchment 472–473
facilitation of interdisciplinarity 473–475
historical perspective on implementation of interdisciplinarity 477–479
interdisciplinarity by design 475–477
see also universities
ammonia production, Haber–Bosch process 64–65
analogical reasoning 47
anthropology 117
religious studies 386
role in cognitive science 190f
antidisciplinarity 30
military–industrial approach 57
anxiety, interdisciplinarity as a cause 72, 73
applied ethics
in engineering 250, 251
in environmental issues 247–248
generalization 251–252
in ICT 248–249
in medicine 246–247
in nuclear science 247
in scientific research 250–251
appointments, interdisciplinary hires 593–594
area studies 128
American paradigm 119–120
application of 120–121
funding issues 121
impact of globalization 121–122
impact of modernization 120
impact of the Cold War 119, 120
(p. 602) Arendt, H. 310
Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine 417, 418
Arizona State University
biology department funding 538
reconceptualization 479–482
art history 147
artificial intelligence, role in cognitive science 190f, 193
artificial science (design science) 475
artistic design 461–462
arts, interdisciplinary 131
art history 147
definitions of 131–132
Gesamtkunstwerk concept 133–134
historical avant-garde movements 134–135
interaction with biological sciences 110
interaction with science and technology 137–138
intermedia and multimedia experimentations after World War II 135–136
music 147–148
recent research 138–140
transdisciplinary arts 140–141
assemblage 136
assessment of interdisciplinary learning 567
assessment movement 563–564
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), code of ethics 248–249
astronomy, role of mathematics 114
audience-oriented criticism 152–153
authorization of research 527
autonomy 13, 126, 244, 489, 532–533
in design 480
and funding 515
role of peer review 490, 491, 494
autopoiesis 294
auxiliary relationships 24
avant-garde movements 134–135
Avraamov, A. 134
awards for interdisciplinary research 77–78, 595
Bacon, F. 54–55
balance (al-mīzān) 386
Ball, H. 134
barriers to interdisciplinary research 111–112, 188, 476–477, 578, 586, 588t, 592f
funding issues 597–598
in science and technology studies 184–186
BASc, University College London 545
core curriculum 546t
course structure 546–547
student experience 548, 548–549
bridging 552–553
creativity 550–552
discussion 555
interview questions 548t
openness and open-mindedness 549–550
perspective-taking 554–555
timetable schema 547t
base values, policy sciences 364
basic research 63
Bauhaus 459
beauty pageants, feminist issues 224
behaviorism, limitations of 192
Beilt, C. 271
Bertalanffy, L. von 293, 294, 297
bibliometric research 431, 432–433
big data 124
biochemistry 104–106
bioethics 110
bioinformationists 436
biological modeling 107
biological sciences 101, 112
interaction with chemistry 104–106
interaction with engineering 106–108
interaction with mathematics 108–110
interaction with medicine 102–104
interdisciplinary cycle 102f
scope of interdisciplinarity 110
Biopolis 84
Blavatnik Award 78
blind spots, policy sciences 361
Boden, M. 291–292
borrowing 24–25
Boulding, K. E. 293
boundary critique 300
boundary institutions 84
boundary work, definition 21–22
brain, functional imaging 194
Braque, G. 134
(p. 603) breadth
evaluation of 500–501
operationalization of 504–507
bridge-building 26, 582
student experience 552–553
“bucket theory” of science education 98
Buddhist–Christian collaborations 394
Bush, V. 62–63, 64, 490, 515
business cycles 304–305
business studies, case study-based learning 45
Cage, J. 135
calculus 115
calibration, mental 271, 273
Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) program 414
capacity building 528–529
capitalism 57
career paths 582
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 57
Carp, R., knowledge formations 409
cars, cost to society 230, 233, 234
Carson, R., Silent Spring 177, 371
Cartwright, N., How the Laws of Physics Lie 48–49
case study-based learning 44–46
acquisition of professional competencies 47
and conditional laws 49–50
and ideal type 50–51
and unconditional laws 48–49
value of 43
causal integration 404
causality, types of 404
CBox platform 166, 167
Center for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHD) initiative, evaluation model 351f
Center for Study of Interdisciplinarity (CSID) viii
centralization, disadvantages of 37–38
Centre International de Recherches et Études Transdisciplinaire (CIRET) 29
CERN particle collider 453
certification 11, 12
Chandler, A. 63
Checkland, P. B. 296
chemistry, interdisciplinary collaboration 72, 73
with biological sciences 104–106
Chicago Critics 151
China, ethics
historical background 244–246
modern practice 251–252
Christianity
interfaith collaborations 393–394
US Protestant belief 388
World Council of Churches (WCC) 393
Churchman, C. W. 295, 296, 298
citation indexes 77, 432–433
metrics 493
citation maps 507, 508f
City University of New York (CUNY), Futures Initiative 165–168, 169
classification of sciences 89–90
climate research 323
general circulation models 452
knowledge types 325–326
cluster-hiring initiatives 539, 594
coercion 81–82
cognitive distance 504
cognitive psychology 194
cognitive science 188
benefits of interdisciplinarity
experimental 193–194
theoretical 191–193
history of 189
lessons from 194–196
new interdisciplinary directions 196–197
patterns of collaboration 189–191, 190f
studies of interdisciplinary learning 263–265
cognitive science programs 195
Cognitive Science Society 196
coherence 504–505f
measures of 506t, 507
Cold War 59
area studies 119, 120
birth of cybernetics 58–59
collaboration 24, 191, 255–257, 587
applied ethics 246–253
artistic 135–136
incorporation of science and technology 137–139
transdisciplinary arts 140–141 (p. 604)
challenges 577, 578
in cross-disciplinary research 279–280
cyberculture 210–211
digital humanities 160–162, 168–169
lessons from cognitive science 195
multilevel mechanisms 197
science and technology studies (STS) 177–187
scientific 71–85, 101
barriers to 111–112
biological sciences 102–110
cognitive science 188–198
social sciences 118–119, 127–129
area studies 119–122
problem-oriented research 125–127
quantitative and formal methods 122–125
collaborative learning 165, 553, 562
Futures Initiative, City University of New York 165–168
collagen 134
collision concept, interdisciplinary arts 139
Committee on the Status of Women in India (CSWI) 219
common good 324–325
communication
in cross-disciplinary research 280
as the essence of humanity 201
of knowledge 11
communication problems 78, 111, 418, 482–483
in biology/mathematics collaborations 109
trading zones 81f, [link] , 451
communications art 138
communities of practice 476
comparative biology 103
comparative metabolomics 105
complementarity 195
Complex Adaptive Systems Initiative (CASI), Arizona State University 481
composite interdisciplinarity 24
and humane smart cities 231
computation 443
computational biology, cultural issues 78–80, 79f
computational power, role in interdisciplinarity 75
computational sciences 447
ethics 248–249
role in cognitive science 192, 194
computational templates 451
computation and simulation (C&S)
dynamics of interdisciplinarity
complexity, experimentation, and visualization 449–450
network-like integration 452–453
“research technology” and “trading zone” concepts 450–451
simulations at the edge 452
future directions 453
historical development
disciplinary specialization 1960–1985 445–446
infrastructural turn around, 2005 448–449
pioneering phase 1940–1960 444–445
ubiquitous diffusion 1985 on 446–447
computer-mediated communication (CMC) research 210
computers, development of 443
Comte, A. 71
Conant, J. B. 62
concepts, distinction from methods 278–279
conceptual integration 401–402
conceptual interdisciplinarity 26
conditional laws 49–50
conditions analysis, policy sciences 362
confidence, intellectual 256
conflict theory 403, 407
Confucian ethics 245
consensus 332
factors in successful synthesis 333f
fostering of 334
consequentialism 243
environmental ethics 248
consilience 99
Consortium for Science, Policy, and Outcomes (CSPO), Arizona State University 482
constructivist educational methods 562–563
context of research 527
(p. 605) contextualizing interdisciplinarity 23–24
control theory 403
convergence 474
Convergence: Facilitating Transdisciplinary Integration of Life Sciences, Physical Science, Engineering and Beyond (NRC, 2014) 32
cooperative interdisciplinarity 24
cooperative learning 562–563
coordination issues, relativistic heavy ion collider 77
corporate foundations 61–62
impact on corporate business 63
relationship with universities 62
relationship with US government 62–63
corporate history 60–61
Cowles Commission 57–58
creative destruction 308–309
creative industries 232
creative people, role in humane smart cities 232–233
creativity 192, 309, 550–552
crime
definition of 406–407
theories of causation 407
criminology 399–400
integration 400–401
causal 404
conceptual 401–402
cross-level 404–405
propositional 402–404
Robert Agnew’s unifying criminology 406–408
knowledge formations 409
transdisciplinarity 408
critical creativity 550
critical interdisciplinarity 28
in design 462–463
critical systems thinking 299
critical thinking 563–564, 568, 569
criticism, in literary studies 151
cross-disciplinary learning 560
cross-disciplinary research 276–277, 338–339, 352–353
antecedents, processes, and outcomes 350f
comparison of methods 280–286
conceptual foundations 278–279
contemporary debates 286–287
decision-making stages 282t
definition 341–342
future directions 287–288
historical background 277–278
iterative, recursive process 280, 281f
methods of research, identification of 279–280
science of team science 342–343
challenges and future directions 352–353
conceptual and theoretical models 344–352
timeline of key developments 344f
team science 339–341
influencing factors 340f
cross-level integration 404–405
cultural differences 78–80
cultural divides 163–164, 186, 528
in health sciences 418–419
culture industry 206
curriculum, disciplinary distribution of knowledge 532
“Curse of Kant” 56
cyberculture 210–211
cyberdemocracies 209–210
cybernetics 58–59, 72, 208, 248
DACH project 332–333f
Daoism 246
Darwin, C. 163
data analytics 124
data-intensive research 429
eScience 448–449
data management 435
Davy, H. 71
Debord, G. 207
decision process, policy sciences 365–367
deep learning 263
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) 516
defuturing 466
deism 297–298
demands, policy sciences 363
deontology 243
land ethic 248
(p. 606) dependency theory 121
design 456–457
categories of 461–462
definitions 457
disciplines of 457–458f
future directions 466
institutional 473
interdisciplinarity 460–463, 461f
size, scale, and scope of problems 463–464
taming wicked problems 464–465
transdisciplinary schools 481
unique activities of 462
design-build paradigm 480
design education 459
historical background 459–460
design science 475
developmental biology 103–104
developmental theory 403
development studies 121
deviant interdisciplinarity 54
dialectical (reciprocal) causality 404
digital humanities 169–170
conferences 161–162
definition 159–160
emergence of the term 163
examples of 160–162
Futures Initiative 165–168, 169
historical background 162–164
interdisciplinary challenges 168–169
intrinsic interdisciplinarity 164
reasons for success 169
role in learning 164–165
digitality, impact on communication 203
dilettantism, judgments of 88–89, 188
in flood science 93–95
disciplinarity, associated characteristics 590t
disciplinary anxiety 72, 73
disciplinary entrenchment 472–473
disciplinary groupings 531
disciplinary identity 334
disciplinary integration, continuum of 341f
disciplines 9, 12
arbitrary nature of 80
consequences of 18
contrast with religions 392
critiques of 18–19
definitions 35–36, 80, 498
of design 457–458f
false assumptions about 400–401
Foucault’s views on 307–308
hermeneutical conception of 81
hierarchical system of 13
of the humanities 145–146
impact on interdisciplinary programs 535–537
as knowledge formations 409
legitimacy and autonomy of 13
new 27
origins of 14, 17–18, 71, 89
porosity of 36
realist conception of 80
and real-world problems 36–37
relationship to interdisciplinarity 28, 29
role in peer review 489–491
in the social sciences 117–118
discovery-based learning 563
disease, studies of 103
dissonance theory, mass media 208
diversity 504, 505f
measures of 506t, 507
DNA, discovery of structure 72
doctoral education 569
meaning of the interdisciplinary PhD 580
doctoral students
strategies for success 582–584, 583t
transitional stages
familiarization 575–576
initiation 575
dogmas 10–11, 14, 15
transmission in universities 17
domains 461
Dooyeweerdian thinking 300
drivers of interdisciplinarity 31, 164, 201
in humane smart cities 236
military–industrial complex 53–54
Duchamp, M. 134
dystopian views of new media 209–210
early career academics
strategies for success 582–584, 583t
transitional stages 590–591
adaptation 576–577
protected enthusiasm 578–579
Earth sciences
departmental names 91t, 92t
epistemic interdisciplinarity 92–93 (p. 607)
flood science 93
“dilettantism” 93–95
paleoflood hydrology 95–97
inherent interdisciplinarity 89–90
positions in hierarchies of the sciences 90, 92
public understanding of 98
transdisciplinarity 97, 99–100
science/policy interface 97–98
Ebola outbreak 37
economics
area interests 121
Cowles Commission 57–58
neo-Schumpeterian 306–307
Schumpeterian tradition
business cycles 304–305
innovation 305
uncertainty management 58
ecumenical activities, parallels with interdisciplinarity 391–395
education
assessment movement 563–564
case study-based learning 44–51
challenges of interdisciplinarity 589
collaborative learning 553
constructivist methods 562–563
design studies 459–460
inclusive pedagogies 563
integrative learning 559–560
interdisciplinary learning 261–274, 560, 569–570, 587, 589f
interprofessional
evaluation of 422
in health sciences 415–416
legal 398–399
new developments 566–567
new public service (NPS) approaches 427–428
peer review of teaching 566
positive and negative aspects of interdisciplinarity 588t
role of digital humanities 164–165
Futures Initiative 165–168
scholarship of teaching and learning 565
student-centered pedagogy 593–594
student engagement 561–562
team teaching 565–566
technology and online resources 565
transmission and acquisition model 550
undergraduate interdisciplinary programs 535–536
writing across the curriculum 563–564
Einstein, A. 163
Eisenstein, S. 134–135
electrification, impact on communication 202
Elgin, C. Z. 267
embedded librarianship 436
emotion, interdisciplinary studies of 193
encyclopedic interdisciplinarity 23, 291
end-of-pipe integration 328
energy efficiency
Save Energy Project 237–238
Smart Campus Project 238
engineering
interaction with biological sciences 106–108
interdisciplinary collaboration 477
systems approach 294–295
transdisciplinary schools 481
engineering design 461–462
engineering ethics 250, 251
Enlightenment 55
entertainment
role of computing and simulation 447
simulation gaming 450
environmental ethics 247–248
environmental issues 110, 370–371
in humane smart cities 234–235
origins of sustainability sciences 371–373
religious environmentalism 390, 394
epistemic communities 476
epistemic interdisciplinarity 41, 92–93, 94
epistemic knowledge, and individual cases 48–51
epistemological reductionism 491
epistemology 4–5
theories of interdisciplinary learning 265–266
views of interdisciplinarity 499, 500t
breadth 500–501
integration 501–502
transformation 502–503
e-portfolios 565, 568
eScience 448–449
essence theories of religion 388
(p. 608) ethics 241–242
application of
in engineering 250, 251
in environmental issues 247–248
generalization 251–252
in ICT 248–249
in medicine 246–247
in nuclear science 247
in scientific research 250–251
historical background 242
in China 244–246
scientific 243–244
theological 243
interdisciplinary future 252–253
of interdisciplinary research 255–257
religious studies 386
European Research Council (ERC)
attitude towards interdisciplinarity 521, 522
comparison with NSF 515–517, 516t, 521
identification of interdisciplinarity 519–521
instruments for promoting interdisciplinarity 517–519
mission statement 514, 516
staffing 517
structure of 517
evaluation of interdisciplinary work 77–78, 89, 528, 580–581, 596–597
evolutionary biology 103
expertise 83
in integration and implementation sciences 528
and peer review 490–491
requirements for research management 336
external funding procurement 538–539
Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research (NRC, 2005) 31
faculty
contingent 539
professional bureaucracy 532–533
faculty collaborations 577
familiarization with interdisciplinary research 575–576
family law 398
Faraday, M. 71
feminist studies
impact of neoliberalism and globalization 223–225
in India 219–220
circulation 221–223
emergence 218–219
intellectualization 220–221
in United States
circulation 217–218
emergence 214–215
institutionalization 215–216
intellectualization 216–217
Ferrier, J. 56
Festinger, L. 208
fields 35
filiopietism 476
Fish, S. 153
flexibility, intellectual 256, 531
Flexible Display Center, Arizona State University 481
flood science 93, 100
“dilettantism” 93–95
science/policy interface 97–98
transdisciplinarity 97
Floridi, L. 248
Fluxxus art movement 136, 137
Ford Foundation
Foreign Area Fellowship Program 119
funding of feminism projects 225n4
funding of social sciences 126
foresight processes, Sustainability Foresight project 328–330
Foucault, M. 307–308
four-phase model of transdisciplinary research 346–347f
fractionation 83
Franco–Prussian war 57
funding agencies
attitudes towards interdisciplinarity 521–522
comparison of 515–517
identification of interdisciplinarity 519–521
instruments for promoting interdisciplinarity 517–519
interdisciplinarity as a challenge 513–514
funding issues 477, 527, 530, 535, 584, 586, 597–598
in area studies 121
in digital humanities 168
external funding procurement 538–539
in problem-oriented research 127
in science and technology studies 181–182
in social sciences 123n4, 126
state funding of research 490
funding streams 517–519
future Internet (FI) convergence, Periphèria project 236–237
Futures Initiative, Graduate Center, CUNY 165–168, 169
Futurist cinema 135
Galileo 16, 115, 163
Genbank 105–106
gender analytics 216
general circulation models (GCMs) of the atmosphere 452
generalizing interdisciplinarity 25, 291
general system theory 291, 292
generosity, intellectual 256
genetics 103
Georgia Southern University, Institute for Interdisciplinary STEM Education 538–539
Germany, Sustainability Foresight project 328–330
Gesamtkunstwerk concept 133–134
Global Institute of Sustainability (GIOS), Arizona State University 481
globalization 203, 223
impact on area studies 121–122
impact on feminist studies 223–225
Global Research Council 514
goal clarification, policy sciences 361
Gowers, T., Polymath project 448
graduate education 569
grant proposal peer review 486
origins 488, 490
Great Depression 61, 62, 63
green movement 233, 235
grid-computing 453
Gropius, W. 459
group facilitation 553
Haber, F. 64–65
Habermas, J. 310–311
Hagstrom, W. 72–73
Hall, A. D. 295
Happenings 136
hard systems thinking 296
Harvard, case study-based learning 44–46
health, complexity of 417–418
healthcare, wicked problems 464
health sciences 412, 423
definitions 413
evaluation of interdisciplinarity 421–422
interdisciplinary collaborations 413–414
interprofessional education 415–416
interprofessional practice 414–415
stakeholder engagement 416–417
practical conditions for collaboration 420–421
sociocultural theories of interdisciplinarity 418–420
heart, bioengineering studies of 106–107
Hemispheric Institute 169
heterogeneous engineering 73
hierarchic systems 293
hierarchies of disciplines 164, 184
sciences 90, 92, 96
Higgins, D. 136
High Impact Practices (HIPs) 568
h-index 493
history (and philosophy) of science and technology (HPST) programs 181
Hochschule für Gestaltung 460
holistic understanding 322
horizontal integration 403
housing problems 236
Hovland, C. 208
human ecology 537
humane smart cities 228–230, 231–232, 238–239
characteristics of
smart economy 232
smart environment 234–235
smart governance 235
smart living 234
smart mobility 233–234
smart people 232–233
smart social inclusion 235–236
historical background 230
interdisciplinary projects 236
MyNeighbouhood Project 237
Periphèria project 236–237
Save Energy Project 237–238
Smart Campus Project 238
(p. 610) humanities
definition 144
disciplining of 145–146
future trends 154
impact 7
interaction with media and communication studies 204–205
interdisciplinary collaboration 477
Italian humanists 145
literary studies 151–154
origins of interdisciplinarity 145
philosophy 148–151
Roman origins 144–145
transdisciplinary schools 481–482
twentieth century developments 146–148
Humanities, Arts, Sciences, and Technology Advanced Collaboratory (HASTAC) 162
humility, intellectual 256
hundred-year flood designation 97–98
Hutchins, R. M. 62
hybrid art forms 138, 139–140
hybridization 27
hypodermic needle model of communication 207
ideal type 50–51
idiographic knowledge 42–44
case study-based learning 44–47
and conditional laws 50
and unconditional laws 48–49
ID-SURE program, evaluation logic model 351–352f
imaging techniques
in cognitive science 194
interdisciplinary use 73
immersive art 138
impediments to interdisciplinarity 111–112
implementation function, policy sciences 366
incentives-based budget systems 535
India, feminist studies
circulation 221–223
emergence 218–219
institutionalization 219–220
intellectualization 220–221
neoliberalisms and globalization 223–225
indiscriminate interdisciplinarity 23
individual work
balance with teamwork 334f
value of 475
industry
corporate foundations 61–63
corporate history 60–61
Information Ages 162–163, 203
information and computer technologies (ICT), ethics 248–249
information practices research 431–432, 433–435
information research 429–430
bibliometric research 432–433
conclusion 437–438
interdisciplinary nature 431
information scatter 431
information scientists, problems with interdisciplinarity 78
infrastructure
humane smart cities 233–235
interdisciplinary buildings 534
inherent interdisciplinarity 23
Innis, H. 208
innovation 303, 315–316, 322
conceptual framework for 313–315, 314t
as creative destruction 308–309
definitions 312–313, 314t
and human cognitive interests 310–311
and human plurality 309–310
as interdisciplinarity
as an economic phenomenon 304–305
as a systemic phenomenon 306–307
interdisciplinarity as 307–308
predictability of 311–312t
recombinant 476
role of interdisciplinarity 531
student experience 551
inquiry-based learning 563
institutional adaptation 581
institutional design 473
instrumental interdisciplinarity 28
integrated interdisciplinarity 25–26, 291
integration
causal 404
conceptual 401–402
in cross-disciplinary research 279
cross-level 404–405
evaluation of 501–502 (p. 611)
levels of 405
operationalization of 504–507
propositional 402–404
strategies for 567
integration and implementation sciences (I2S) 525
core domains 526f
framework 526–528
future directions 529
parallels with statistics 528–529
integrative applied research 525
integrative capacity model 347–349, 348f
integrative learning 559–560, 564
integrative systems 84
integrity, intellectual 256
intellectual communities
external legitimacy 12
marks of membership 11
intellectual property law 398
intelligence function, policy sciences 365–366
interactional expertise 264
interactional networks 84–85
interactive causality 404
Inter-College program, University of Minnesota 536–537
interdepartmental programs 587
funding issues 598
interdisciplinarity
associated characteristics 590t
challenges 586
definitions 4, 23, 24, 322, 413, 414, 462, 474
epistemic views 499, 500t
breadth 500–501
integration 501–502
transformation 502–503
institutional support 591–592
key terms, degrees of integration, and contrasting types 22t
power shifts 37–38
role of 7
styles of 191, 291–292
interdisciplinarity in education (IE) 544, 558
BASc, UCL
core curriculum 546t
student experience study 548–555
timetable schema 547t
course structure 546–547
definition 545
examples of 545–546
future directions 555–556
pedagogies 558–559
“interdisciplinary”, first use of the term 118n3
interdisciplinary arts 131
art history 147
definitions of 131–132
Gesamtkunstwerk concept 133–134
historical avant-garde movements 134–135
interaction with science and technology 137–138
intermedia and multimedia experimentations after World War II 135–136
music 147–148
recent research 138–140
transdisciplinary arts 140–141
interdisciplinary buildings 534
interdisciplinary commitment and investment, spectrum of 591t
interdisciplinary cycle 102f
interdisciplinary fields 26–27
interdisciplinary hires 593–594
interdisciplinary learning 261–262, 273–274, 569–570
approaches to 587, 589f
cognitive approaches 263–265
challenges 589
context in higher education 561
definitions 560
dynamic view 266–267f
epistemological foundations 265–266
examples
“community response to overfishing” 271–273
“creating memorials” 269–271
levers for change 561–565
new developments 566–567
positive and negative aspects 588t
interdisciplinary peer review 492
see also peer review
interdisciplinary programs 530–531
administration of 541
cluster-hiring initiatives 539
diverse nature 541
elements of 540t
impact of academic disciplines 535–537
negotiation of institutional boundaries 533–535
resource challenges 537–539
(p. 612) interdisciplinary research
approaches to 587, 589f
barriers to 188, 476–477, 578, 586, 592f
challenges 590–591
continuity problems 597
ethics of 255–257
funding 597–598
overarching concerns 579
evaluation 580–581
institutional adaptation 581
meaning of the interdisciplinary PhD 580
peer review 589
positive and negative aspects 588t
productivity 594–595
quality assessment 498
range of practices 525
steps of 567
transitional stages
adaptation 576–577
familiarization 575–576
initiation 575
protected enthusiasm 578–579
virtues of 256
interdisciplinary research and pedagogy (IDRP)
definition 574n1
strategies for success 582–584, 583t
interdisciplinary research and training (IDRT) programs 573–574
definition 574n1
interdisciplinary scholarship 595
interdisciplinary team science
definition 341f, 342
interdisciplinary understanding, definition 559
interdisciplinary writing 564, 567
interfaith activities
Buddhist–Christian collaborations 394
environmental activities 394
Jewish–Christian collaborations 393
Muslim–Christian collaborations 393–394
parallels with interdisciplinarity 391–395
Parliaments of World’s Religions 392–393
interference concept, transdisciplinary arts 141
interinstitutional programs 588t
funding issues 598
intermedia art experimentation 136
International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) 295
Internet
educational resources 565, 568
impact of 203
information dynamics 437–438
networked communications research 208–211
Internet of Things (IoT) 231
interprofessional education
evaluation of 421–422
in health sciences 415–416, 423
sociocultural theories 418–420
interprofessionalism, definition 413
interprofessional practice
evaluation of 421–422
facilitating factors 421
in health sciences 414–415, 423
stakeholder engagement 416–417
sociocultural theories 418–420
intersectional analysis, feminist studies 217
intrapersonal interdisciplinarity 587
funding issues 598
invention, differentiation from innovation 309
invisible colleges 476
ISABELLE project 74
Islamic–Christian collaborations 393–394
Islamic scholarship 386, 387
ISOE model, transdisciplinary research 282–283
isomorphism 476–477
IT industry 449
Jewish–Christian collaborations 393
jigsaw learning method 562–563
joint appointments 593–594
journal maps 507, 509f
justice system see criminology; law
juxtaposition of disciplines 23
in the arts 140
Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes 64–65
Kali for Women 222
Kant, Curse of 56
kinetic art 137
Klein, J. 116
Knight, F. 58
knowledge
definition of 92
disciplinary distribution of 532
idiographic and nomothetic 42–44
linear transfer model 320
relationship to specialization 491
sovereignty over 65
knowledge classifications 504
knowledge domain maps 433, 438, 595
knowledge formations 9, 409
disciplines 12–15
marks of membership 11–12
scientific revolution 16–18
knowledge networks 419, 476
knowledge production and reproduction 11
knowledge society 6
knowledge sources 10–11
knowledge synthesis 527
knowledge types 325–326
KNOW Press 215
Kongzi (Confucius) 245
land ethic 248
language
as the essence of humanity 201
Laszlo, E. 298
law 398–399
case study-based learning 44–45
early teaching of 15
hybrid disciplines 397–399
see also criminology
Lazarfeld, P. F. 208
Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights 216
LEAP initiative, AAC&U 558
learning
interdisciplinary integration 261–262, 273–274
cognitive studies 263–265
community response to overfishing example 271–273
creating memorials example 269–271
dynamic view 266–267f
epistemological foundations 265–266
legal education see law
Leibniz, G. W. von 16, 115
Leiden Manifesto 494
Leonardo Da Vinci 75, 106, 137
library and information science (LIS) 437–438
bibliometric research 432–433
information practices research 433–435
interdisciplinary nature 430–431
liaison librarians 436
problems with interdisciplinarity 78
research libraries 435–437
life course theory 403
life sciences
Arizona State University 480
LightWorks, Arizona State University 481
Limits of Growth study, Club of Rome 452
Lin, M. Y., Vietnam Veterans Memorial 261, 262, 265, 269–271
linear causality 404
linguistics, role in cognitive science 190f, 191
literary studies
history of 151–152
interdisciplinarity 151–153
twenty-first century developments 153–154
literature-based discovery (LBD) 431
Living Lab environments 237
Luhmann, N. 293–294
magic bullet model of communication 207
Maldonado, T. 460
management of research 335–336
Manushi 222
“Mapping the Futures of Higher Education” course 166–168, 167f, 169
Marxism 121
mass media research, history of 206–208
mathematical models 58
mathematical sculpture 75f
mathematics
interaction with biological sciences 108–110
interaction with social sciences 122–124
as a root interdiscipline 114–116
McLuhan, M. 208
(p. 614) media
feminist publications
in India 222–223
in United States 218
new 203
use of term 202
media and communication 201
as a discipline 205
historical background 202–203
history of academic study 204
history of mass communications research 206–208
networked communications research 208–211
scientific trajectory 211–212
streams of academic study 204–205
medicine
case study-based learning 45–46
ethics 246–247
interaction with biological sciences 102–104
regenerative 107
memoranda of understanding (MOA) 593
metacognition 271, 568
metacognitive collaboration 553
metaethics 246
metaphors 270
methodological interdisciplinarity 24–25, 28
methodologies, distinction from methods 279
“Methods First!” approach, CDR 285
metrics, as replacement for peer review 493–494
military, applications of bioengineering 107–108
military–industrial approach 53–54, 55, 63, 65–66
antidisciplinarity 57
Fritz Haber’s work 64–65
will to knowledge 56
cybernetics 58–59
econometric modelling 58
influence of Moltke 59–60
interpretations of success 57
Miss World competition, feminist issues 224
Mitchell, S. 49–50
Mode 1 knowledge 30, 474
Mode 2 knowledge 4, 30, 64, 474
modernization theory 120
Moholy-Nagy, L. 459–460
molecular biology, and Rockerfeller foundation 63
Moltke, H. von 59
moral neutralization theory of crime causation 401–402
motivation 552
multidisciplinarity
definitions 322, 413, 462
juxtaposition and alignment 23
key terms 22t
multidisciplinary degree programs, University of Minnesota 536–537
multidisciplinary learning 560, 568–569
multidisciplinary peer review 492
multidisciplinary research
multidisciplinary team science, definition 341f
multilevel integration 405
multilevelism, cognitive science 197
multimedia art 135–136, 137
multiple causality 404
multiple principal investigator (MPI) mechanism 338
music, interdisciplinarity 147–148
Muslim–Christian collaborations 393–394
MyNeighbouhood Project 237
nanotechnology, interaction with biological sciences 110
National Cancer Institute, Team Science Toolkit 283–285
National Center for Supercomputer Applications (NCSA) initiative on grid computing 448
National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH), Digital Humanities Initiative 163
National Institutes of Health (NIH) 516
peer review process 487–488
National Nanotechnology Initiative 515
National Opinion Research Center (NORC) General Social Survey 123–124
National Science Foundation (NSF) 62–63, 597
comparison with ERC 515–517, 516t, 521
creation of 515
identification of interdisciplinarity 519–521
instruments for promoting interdisciplinarity 517–519
mission statement 514 (p. 615)
peer review process 488, 490, 492
promotion of interdisciplinarity 521, 522
staffing 517
structure of 517
support for science and technology studies 181
natural laws, validity of 48–49
neoliberalism, feminist issues 223–225
neo-Schumpeterian economics 306–307
network analysis 124
network art 138
networked communications research 208–209
relationship between old and new media 209
utopias and dystopias 209–210
Network for Transdisciplinary Research 284n2
network-like integration, in C&S 452–453
neuroscience, role in cognitive science 190f, 191, 192–193, 194, 196–197
neutralization theory 401–402
New Bauhaus 459–460
New Big Science 76
New Critics 151
New Directions in the Earth Sciences and the Humanities vii–viii
new media 203
relationship to old media 209
new public service (NPS) 427–428
Newton, I. 115, 163, 387
Nobel Prizes 73
for ammonia synthetic process 64
in biological chemistry 104, 105
nomothetic knowledge 42–44
non-governmental organizations (NGOs), spread of Indian feminism 219
normative principle, policy sciences 360
norms 11
nuclear ethics 247
Nuremberg Code 246–247
oil crisis 372
online learning resources 565, 568
open-mindedness 549
openness 549–550
open systems theory 293, 476
operations (operational) research 295–296
opinion polls 123–124
opportunistic interdisciplinarity 28
organismic biology 293, 297
organization of interdisciplinary programs 74, 534–535
outcomes, policy sciences 364
outreach 328
overfishing, community response to 266, 271–273
paleoflood hydrology 95–97, 98, 100
Panel on Modernizing the Infrastructure of the National Science Foundation’s Federal Funds for R&D Survey, 2010 31–32
Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) 123
paradigm shifts, mass media studies 207–208
Paris, urban development 230
Paris College of Art, transdisciplinarity 140
Parliaments of World’s Religions 392–393
participatory learning 165
Pasteur’s Quadrant 54, 126
path-dependency 55
patient engagement 416–417
PC Revolution 446–447
peak interdisciplinarity 5
pedagogies 558–559, 569–570
constructivist methods 562–563
digital 568
in graduate education 569
High Impact Practices 568
inclusive 563
SoITL research 568–569
student-centered 593–594
team teaching 565–566
peer review 485, 498–499, 581
alternative approach 494–495
criticisms of 487
disciplinary basis 489–491
funding agencies 519–521
historical background 487–489
interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary pressures 491–492
breadth evaluation 500–501
incremental modifications 492–493
use of metrics 493–494
for interdisciplinary research 589 (p. 616)
justification of 486
as a measure of quality 490
in the physical sciences 77–78
of teaching 566
uses of 486–487
Penn State University, Life Sciences Building 534
performance art 134
Periphèria project 236–237
perspectives
policy sciences 363
student experience 554–555
PhDs
meaning of the interdisciplinary PhD 580
niche interdisciplinary areas 537
philology 146
philosophy
applied ethics 252
disciplining of 149, 150
early teaching of 15
historical background 242–243
interaction with cognitive sciences 190f, 191
interaction with law 398
modern interdisciplinary effects 150–151
role of 150
systems philosophy 297–299
transdisciplinary and interdisciplinary origins 149
varied accounts of 148
physical sciences
historical background
age of interdisciplinarity 74–76
disciplining of 71
emergence of interdisciplines 72–73
interdisciplinary instruments, facilities, and techniques 73–74
The New Big Science 76
relativistic heavy ion collider 74, 77
integrative systems 84
interactional networks 84–85
practical issues 76
communication 78
coordination 77
culture 78–80
quality assessment 77–78
role of mathematics 115–116
theoretical issues
disciplines and interdisciplines 80–81
fractionation 83
trading zones 81f, 82
trust and expertise 82–83
physics, laws of 48–49
Picasso, P. 134
Plato, use of dialogue form 4
Plexus Institute 417, 418
policy cycle 324f
policy making 527
in flood management 97–98
policy research 182–183
policy sciences 357–358
central theory 359–360
critiques 367
decision process 365–367
historical background 359
normative principle 360
pragmatic principle 360–361
problem orientation 361–362
social process 362–365
value of 368
political positions 28
Polymath project 448
population studies 126
postmodernity 74, 80
postnormal science 30
power shifts 37–38
pragmatic constructionism 266–267
prejudice, academic 54–55
prescription function, policy sciences 366
printing press, impact of 202
probability 116
probing practices 434–435
problem-based learning 563
problem framing 332, 335
problem-oriented research 30
attitudes towards 125–126
funding issues 127
policy sciences 361–362
population studies 126
in professional schools 127
productive thinking 550, 553
productivity 587, 594–595, 596
evaluation of 111 (p. 617)
expectations 576, 578
and resource allocation 535, 541
professional bureaucracy 532–533
professional competencies 46–47
professional ethics 250–251
professionals, T-shaped 560
professional training, interdisciplinarity 127
health sciences 415–416
Program in Modern Thought and Literature, Stanford University 477
Program in the History of Consciousness, University of California, Santa Cruz 477
Progressive Organization of Women (POW) 219
projections, policy sciences 362
project management 335–336
required expertise 336
promotion function, policy sciences 366
promotion systems 578, 596
propaganda, studies of 207
propositional integration 402
horizontal 403
sequential 402
vertical 403–404
Protestant belief system, United States 388
pseudo interdisciplinarity 23
psychology 117
role in cognitive science 190f, 191, 193, 194
psychology of interdisciplinarity 544
Ptolemy 114
public engagement 4
public services, new (NPS) 427–428
public understanding of science 12–13, 183–184
Earth sciences 98
ethical issues 252
publishing
interdisciplinary 436–437
challenges 111–112
peer review 486, 489–490
historical background 487–489
publishing industry
in India 221–223
in United States 217–218
purpose of science 75
quality assessment 77–78, 89, 111, 528, 580–581, 596–597
in the physical sciences 77–78
problems with 89
quantitative research, in social sciences 122–125, 128
quantum mechanics, role in interdisciplinarity 74–75
radiation science 72
radio advertising, as a driver of mass media research 206
RAND (Research And Development) Corporation 295
real ethics 252, 257
real-world problems 40, 41, 473
case study-based learning 44–46
and discipline-based research 36–37
idiographic and nomothetic knowledge 42–44
policy research 182–183
transdisciplinary research 322
and unconditional laws 48–49
see also wicked problems
recognition of interdisciplinary scholars 595
recombinant innovation 476
recombinant science 73–74
regenerative medicine 107
relationship-centered healthcare 417
relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) 74, 77
religion
contrast with disciplines 392
definition of 385
interaction with biological sciences 110
religious studies 385–386
community interactions 390
comparative approaches 389
essence theories 388
faith-based 388
goals of 389
historical background 386–387
interfaith and ecumenical movements 391–395
religiosity and secularity 387–391
theme-based 390
remediation 209
rent-seeking behavior 55
(p. 618) research centers, interdisciplinarity 36
research equipment, production of 73
research evaluation 77–78, 89, 111, 282t, 328, 474, 498, 510–511
cross-disciplinary team science 349–352
epistemic views of interdisciplinarity 499, 500t
breadth 500–501
integration 501–502
transformation 502–503
health sciences 421–422
mapping and measuring interdisciplinarity 504
operationalization of breadth and integration 504–507
operationalization of transformation 508
policy sciences 362
see also peer review
research libraries, interdisciplinarity 430–431, 435–437
research methods 278–279
research organizations 6
corporate foundations 61–62
research technology, characteristics of 451
responsible research and innovation (RRI) 251, 252
restructuring 26
retrospective peer review 486–487
rhetoric 5, 204
rigor, scientific 90
Rio-92, Conference on the Environment and Development 372
Rockerfeller Foundation 62, 63
funding of social sciences 123n4, 126
role in interdisciplinarity 19
Rossolo, L. 134
Royal Society 16
and origins of peer review 488
Rumsfeld, D. 58
Rutherford, E. 96
sati 221
scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) 565, 566, 568–569
scholar-teachers 12
school violence, theories of 402, 403–404
Schramm, W. 204
Schumpeter, J. 304–305
Schwartzchild, A. 77
science, technology, and public policy (STPP) programs 180, 181
science, technology, and society (STS) programs 177, 180
science and technology studies (STS) 173
academic institutionalization 180–182
challenges 186–187
barriers to disciplining 185–186
redundancy charges 185
“studying up” 184–185
conceptual and theoretical models, conceptual models to guide evaluation 349–352
history of 174
areas of study 175–176
convergence of two streams of scholarship 178–179
impact and control of S&T 177–178
invention of technoscience 176–177
interdisciplinary nature 174–175, 179–180
international nature 174n2
research frontiers 182–184
Science Citation Index 432
science maps 506b, 508f
science of team science (SciTS) 338–339, 414
challenges and future directions 352–353
characteristics of team science 339–341, 340f
conceptual and theoretical models 344
concept map for the SciTS field 344–345f
ecological model for TD TS 345–346
four-phase model of TD TS 346–347f
integrative capacity model 347–349, 348f
team science systems map 346
information practices research 433–434
origins, goals, and history 342–343
timeline of key developments 344f
studies of human health 417–418, 420, 421
sciences
classification of 89–90
ethics of research 250–251
hierarchies of 90, 92, 96
impediments to interdisciplinarity 111–112
incorporation into art 137–138
interaction with communication studies 211–212
interaction with religion 387
interdisciplinary collaboration 477 (p. 619)
perceived value of 164
purpose of 75
role of computing and simulation 446–447
systems science 292–294
science wars 180
scientific management 359
scientific revolution 16–18
scientific societies 16–17
Second Wave Feminism 218
Security and Defense Systems Initiative, Arizona State University 481
Self-Employed Women’s Association (SEWA) 219
self-referential systems 294
Seminar on Interdisciplinarity in Universities, 1970 477
semiotics 210–211
sequential integration 402
serendipity 495
service learning 563
shared interdisciplinarity 24
signature areas 539
Signs 218
Silicon Valley 64
simulacra 451
simulation gaming 450
simulation modelling 443–444
necessary conditions for 450
situations, policy sciences 364
Skiena, S. 78–80
skills, acquisition of 46–47
sleeper effect, mass media 208
Slingerland, E. 245, 253
Smart Campus Project 238
smart cities 228, 231
smart economy 232
smart environment 234–235
smart governance 235
smart living 234
smart mobility 233–234
smart people, role in humane smart cities 232–233
smart social inclusion 235–236
social learning theory 403
social media 203
social process, policy sciences 362–365
social reality 379
social research 61–62
Social Science Research Council (SSRC) 118
Committee on World Area Research 119
social sciences 127–128, 320
area studies 119–122, 128
disciplinary structure 117–118, 128–129
information practices research 434
interaction with cognitive sciences 197
interaction with media and communication studies 204
interdisciplinary collaboration 118–119, 477–478
problem-oriented research 125–127
quantitative and formal methods 122–125, 128
religious studies 386
transdisciplinary schools 481–482
society, views of 59
Society for Social Studies of Science (4S) 176
sociocultural theories of interdisciplinarity 418–420
sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) 175
Socrates 149, 202
soft systems thinking 299
specialties 35
specialization 491
disadvantages of 482–483
spiritualism 389
spreadable media 165
staffing, interdisciplinary hires 593–594
standpoint theory, feminist studies 217
Stanford University
case study-based learning 44–45
Yang and Yamazaki Environment and Energy Building 534
statistics 116
parallels with integration and implementation sciences 528–529
in social sciences 122–123
stem cell research, integrative systems 84
STEP model, cross-disciplinary research 281–282
Stockholm, UN Conference on the Human Environment 372
(p. 620) strategic interdisciplinarity 28
strategies, policy sciences 364
Stree 222
Stri Dharma 222
structural adjustment programs (SAPs), feminist issues 223–224
structural differentiation 242
structuration 472
student engagement 561–562
student experience 544–545
BASc, UCL 548, 548–549
bridging 552–553
creativity 550–552
discussion 555
interview questions 548t
openness and open-mindedness 549–550
perspective-taking 554–555
supplementary relationships 25
supporting expectations, policy sciences 363–364
survey research 123–124
Sustainability Foresight project 328–330
sustainability sciences 370–371, 380–381
Arizona State University 481
development as a research field 373–377
epistemology 378–380
fields involved 374f, 375f
historical, political, and social evolution 371–373
interconnections and interactions 377–378
publication trends 374f, 375, 376f
synthesis 261–262, 272, 274
factors in success 333f
interdisciplinary arts 140
systemic phenomenon, innovation as 306–307
systems analysis 295
systems approach in technology and management 292
systems dynamics 296
systems engineering 294–295
systems knowledge 325
systems philosophy 292
systems thinking 291–292, 320, 476
developments
critical systems thinking program 299–300
Dooyeweerdian thinking 300
systems approach in technology and management 294–297
systems philosophy 297–299
systems science 292–294
team science systems map 346
tamed problems 322–323
target knowledge 325
teaching styles 565–566
student preferences 551
see also pedagogies
team management 598
team science 339–341, 414
influencing factors 340f
science of team science 342–343
conceptual and theoretical models 344–352
Team Science Toolkit, NCI 283–285, 414
team teaching 565–566
teamwork, balance with individual work 334f
technological anxiety 177
technological imagination 252, 257
technology, incorporation into art 137–138
technoscience 176–177
tenure processes 578, 593, 597
termination function, policy sciences 366–367
theoretical interdisciplinarity 25–26
theoretical neuroscience 193
Tinguely, J. 137
topics 26–27
Toulmin, S. 246
Towards Equality, CSWI, 1974 219
trading zones 78, 81f, 82, 451
traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), role in sustainability sciences 377
transdisciplinarity 26, 29–30, 95n2
in criminology 408–409
definitions 4, 408, 413, 414, 462, 474
in design 463–464
in Earth sciences 99–100
paleoflood hydrology 95–97
science/policy interface 97–98
in the humanities 147
key terms 22t
religious studies 390
in sustainability sciences 377, 378–379
transdisciplinary arts 140–141
(p. 621) transdisciplinary peer review 492–493
transdisciplinary research 319
challenges of wicked problems 323–325
consensus 332, 334
definitions 321–323
factors in success 333f
historical background 320–321
knowledge production, requirements for 323–324
knowledge types 325–326
open questions and ongoing debates 327–328
phases of 326t
problem framing 332
project management 335–336
publication trends 321f
research question formulation 327
Sustainability Foresight project 328–330
tools for 326–327
transdisciplinary schools, Arizona State University 480–481
transdisciplinary science 30
transdisciplinary team science
definition 341f, 342
ecological model 345–346
four-phase model 346–347f
Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Center (TTURC) initiative, evaluation model 350f, 351
transformation
evaluation of 502–503
interdisciplinary arts 140
operationalization of 508
transformation knowledge 325
transgenic arts 138
translation, automated 448
translation practices 434–435
transport, smart mobility 233–234
trends, policy sciences 362
“tribes” metaphor, health professions 419
triple-helix model, university–industry–government interaction 64, 474
trust 82
truth, achievement of, military and industrial approaches 57
two-stepflow model of communication 207
typologies 21–22
bridge-building versus restructuring 26–27
instrumental versus critical interdisciplinarity 28–29
interdisciplinary integration and collaboration 24–26
multidisciplinary juxtaposition and alignment 23–24
reportage of change 31–32
transdisciplinarity 29–30
Ulrich, W. 300
unconditional laws 48–49
undergraduate interdisciplinary programs 535–536
unidisciplinary team science, definition 341
unified theory of knowledge 265–266
unifying interdisciplinarity 27
United Church of Christ (UCC), Commission on Racial Injustice 390
United States
feminist studies
circulation 217–218
emergence 214–215
institutionalization 215–216
intellectualization 216–217
neoliberalisms and globalization 223, 224
women’s studies programs 215
Protestant belief system 388
unity, quest for 29, 99
universities
American research universities 471
case study in interdisciplinarity 479–482
disciplinary entrenchment 472–473
facilitation of interdisciplinarity 473–475
historical perspective on implementation of interdisciplinarity 477–479
interdisciplinarity by design 475–477
case study-based learning 44–46
changing role 6–7
disciplinarization 17–18
divisional structure 168–169
housing of interdisciplinary programs 534
impact of printing press 202
institutional design 475
interdisciplinary undergraduate degrees 535–536
need for disciplines 35–38
organizational norms 531–533
origins of 14
problem-oriented research 125
relationship with corporate foundations 62
support for interdisciplinarity 591–592
teaching practices 17
University of California in San Diego (UCSD), Interfaces in Science program 538
University of Minnesota, Inter-College program 536–537
University of Virginia, School of Continuing and Professional Studies 535–536
University of Wisconsin, Women in Science and Engineering Leadership Institute 589–590
unknowns
management of 527
as yet to be known 56
“unknown unknowns” 58
UN World Conferences on Women 225
urban development 230
urban problems 228, 229
use-inspired research 54
utopian ideals, new media 209
Valid Assessment of Learning in Undergraduate Education (VALUE) 567
vertical integration 403–404
Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Washington DC 261, 262, 265, 269–271
virtues of interdisciplinary research 256
virtue theory 243
von Bertalanffy, L. 291, 292
Wagner, R., Gesamtkunstwerk concept 133–134
war
incentivization of industry 57–58
progress along a dialectic 60
weak information work 434–435
Web 2.0 203
Weber, M. 50–51
Weslyan University College of the Environment 592
wicked problems
challenges 323–325
coping strategies 465f
definition 323
design solutions 464–465
in healthcare 464
knowledge types 325–326
Wiener, N. 248
will to knowledge, military–industrial 56–60
Wilson, E.O., Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge 99
Windelbrand, W. 42–43
women’s studies programs 215, 537
Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) assessment rubric 567
World Council of Churches (WCC) 393
world systems theory 121
writing across the curriculum (WAC) 563, 564, 569
wu-wei 245–246
X-rays, interdisciplinary use 73
Zentrum für interdisziplinäre Forschung (ZiF)
Universität Bielefeld 477–478