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date: 03 June 2020

(p. xvii) List of Contributors

(p. xvii) List of Contributors

Max Abrahms



is Assistant Professor of Political Science at Northeastern University, an affiliate at the Global Resilience Institute, a term member at the Council on Foreign Relations, and a board member on the journal Terrorism and Political Violence. He has published extensively on terrorism with articles in International Organization, International Security, International Studies Quarterly, Security Studies, Comparative Political Studies, Harvard Business Review, Terrorism and Political Violence, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy, the New York Times, and Los Angeles Times. He is also an active analyst in the media about the consequences of terrorism, its causes, and the implications for counterterrorism strategy.



Gary Ackerman



is an Associate Professor in the College of Emergency Preparedness, Homeland Security, and Cybersecurity at the University at Albany (SUNY). He was previously Research Director and Director of the Special Projects Division at the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). His research encompasses various areas relating to terrorism and counterterrorism, including terrorist threat assessment, terrorist ideologies, the impact of emerging technologies on terrorist behavior, terrorist motivations for using chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) weapons, and the modeling and simulation of terrorist behavior. Possessing an eclectic academic background, including past studies in the fields of mathematics, history, law, and international relations, he has authored multiple scholarly and popular articles on terrorism and has testified on terrorist motivations for using nuclear weapons before the Senate Committee on Homeland Security.



Eitan Azani



currently serves as deputy executive director of the Institute for Counter-Terrorism (ICT) and the Head of the BA and MA Specialization in Counter-Terrorism and Homeland Security at the Lauder School of Government, Diplomacy, and Strategy at the Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) Herzliya. He is a Colonel (Res.) in the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) with operational, research, and academic experience in counterterrorism in the regional and international arenas. He is the author of Hezbollah: The Story of the Party of God—From Revolution to Institutionalization (Palgrave, 2009).



John Bew



is Professor of History and Foreign Policy at the War Studies Department at King’s College London.



Andrea Bianchi



is Professor of International Law at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva, since 2002. He has authored and/or edited a trilogy of books on terrorism for Hart Publishing: Enforcing International Law Norms against Terrorism (2004); Counterterrorism: Democracy’s Challenge (co-edited (p. xviii) with Alexis Keller) (2008); and International Law and Terrorism (co-authored with Yasmin Naqvi) (2011). His most recent books are: International Law Theories. An Inquiry into Different Ways of Thinking (Oxford University Press, 2016); Interpretation in International Law (co-edited with Dan Peat and Matt Windsor; Oxford University Press, 2015); and Transparency in International Law (co-edited with Anne Peters; Cambridge University Press, 2013). He has also edited Theory and Philosophy of International Law (Edward Elgar, 2017); and Non-State Actors in International Law (Ashgate, 2009).



Juliette Bird



has been the head of NATO’s Counter Terrorism section, within the Emerging Security Challenges Division, since September 2011. In the course of a twenty-year career in the UK foreign service she specialized in global threats including proliferation, financial crime, and, most extensively, terrorism. She served in the UK’s Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre and was then seconded to NATO to set up an equivalent body for the Alliance. Her work abroad has included postings to India, Belgium, and the European Union. Her degree is from Oxford University (Corpus Christi College), in chemistry.



Lorenzo Bosi



is Assistant Professor in Sociology at the Scuola Normale Superiore. He received his Ph.D. in politics from Queen’s University, Belfast, in 2005 and is the past recipient of the ECRC (University of Kent), Jean Monnet and Marie Curie (EUI) post-doctorate fellowships. He is a political sociologist pursuing comparative analysis into the cross-disciplinary fields of social movements and political violence. He has directed and collaborated on a number of national and international research projects on topics relating to social movements, political violence, and political participation.



Alia Brahimi



is a former Visiting Fellow at the Oxford University Changing Character of War Programme at Pembroke College. She was previously a Research Fellow at the London School of Economics (2009–13) and a Research Associate in International Relations at the University of Oxford (2007–9). Alia read for an MA in Philosophy at Edinburgh University, followed by an M.Phil. and D.Phil. in International Relations at the University of Oxford, where she also completed her post-doctoral research. She is the author of Jihad and Just War in the War on Terror (Oxford University Press, 2010) as well as a number of academic articles and policy briefs on jihadist ideology and strategy. Alia is co-founder of Legatus, a London-based advisory firm.



Warren C. Brown



is Professor for Medieval History at the California Institute of Technology. He studies the social and political history of medieval Europe, especially the history of conflict and power. His most recent book, Violence in Medieval Europe (Longman, 2011), examines the social, cultural, and legal norms that governed the use of violence between 600 and 1500. He is currently exploring the instrumental use of terror in particular during this period and how understanding it might inform discussions of violence and terror in the modern world.



Daniel Byman



is a Professor and Vice Dean at Georgetown University’s School of Foreign Service and a Senior Fellow at the Center for Middle East Policy at the Brookings Institution. Dr. Byman has served as a Professional Staff Member with both the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks on the United States (“The 9-11 (p. xix) Commission”) and the Joint 9/11 Inquiry Staff of the House and Senate Intelligence Committees. He has also worked as the Research Director of the Center for Middle East Public Policy at the RAND Corporation and as an analyst of the Middle East for the U.S. intelligence community. Dr. Byman has written widely on a range of topics related to terrorism, international security, and the Middle East. His publications have appeared in The New York Times, The Atlantic, The Wall Street Journal, Foreign Affairs, International Security, and numerous other scholarly, policy, and popular journals. His books include Deadly Connections: States that Sponsor Terrorism (Cambridge 2005); A High Price: The Triumphs and Failures of Israeli Counterterrorism (Oxford, 2011); Al Qaeda, the Islamic State, and the Global Jihadist Movement: What Everyone Needs to Know (Oxford, 2015); and Road Warriors: Foreign Fighters in the Armies of Jihad (Oxford, 2019). Follow @dbyman.



David B. Carter



is Associate Professor of Political Science at Washington University in St Louis. His recent research addresses territoriality and conflict and how the historical legacies of boundary institutions shape patterns of conflict and cooperation among states. Ongoing projects explore topics such as how instability in the international system influences the emergence and character of territorial claims, and how the shape of secessionist groups’ territorial claims affect patterns of political violence. He has published his research in a number of political science and international relations journals, including American Political Science Review, International Organization, World Politics, American Journal of Political Science, and Journal of Politics, among others.



Brahma Chellaney



a geostrategist, is presently a Professor of Strategic Studies at the independent Center for Policy Research in New Delhi; a Richard von Weizsäcker Fellow of the Robert Bosch Academy in Berlin; and an affiliate with the International Centre for the Study of Radicalization at King’s College London. He has served as a member of the Policy Advisory Group headed by the foreign minister of India. As a specialist on international strategic issues, he held appointments at Harvard University, the Brookings Institution, the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University, and the Australian National University. He is the author of nine books, including Water: Asia’s New Battleground (Georgetown University Press, 2011), which won the Bernard Schwartz Award. He is a Project Syndicate columnist and also writes for the Nikkie Asian Review, Wall Street Journal, Financial Times, Le Monde, Japan Times, The Globe and Mail, South China Morning Post, and other newspapers. He has often appeared on CNN and the BBC, among others.



Erica Chenoweth



is Professor of Public Policy at Harvard Kennedy School and a Susan S. and Kenneth L. Wallach Professor at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University. She has published numerous books and articles on political violence and its alternatives. She is co-author, most recently, of The Politics of Terror (Oxford University Press, 2018) with Pauline Moore.



Courtenay R. Conrad



is an Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of California, Merced. Dr Conrad’s research and teaching focus primarily on political violence and human rights, particularly on how repressive agents make decisions in (p. xx) the face of domestic and international institutional constraints. Her most recent work focuses on the effect of law on police violence in the United States and abroad; she is also interested in international organizations, with an emphasis on legislative procedure in the United Nations. Dr Conrad’s research has been funded by the National Science Foundation and the Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation; published in top journals including the American Political Science Review, the American Journal of Political Science, and the Journal of Politics; and referenced in media outlets including the Washington Post and Discovery News. Her first book (with Emily Hencken Ritter) is forthcoming with Oxford University Press.



Martha Crenshaw



is a Senior Fellow at the Center for International Security and Cooperation (CISAC), Freeman Spogli Institute of International Studies, and Professor of Political Science, by courtesy, at Stanford University.



Luis De la Calle



is Associate Professor of Political Science at Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas (CIDE) in Mexico City. His research areas are comparative politics, conflict, state capacity, and sub-state nationalism. His most recent work has been published in Journal of Peace Research, Journal of Politics, and Conflict Management and Peace Science. His book Nationalist Violence in Postwar Europe was published by Cambridge University Press in 2015.



Donatella della Porta



is Professor of Political Science, Dean of the Institute for Humanities and the Social Sciences, and Director of the PD program in Political Science and Sociology at the Scuola Normale Superiore in Florence, where she also leads the Center on Social Movement Studies (Cosmos). Among the main topics of her research are social movements, political violence, terrorism, corruption, the police and protest policing. She has directed a major ERC project Mobilizing for Democracy, on civil society participation in democratization processes in Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Latin America. In 2011, she was the recipient of the Mattei Dogan Prize for distinguished achievements in the field of political sociology. She is Honorary Doctor of the universities of Lausanne, Bucharest, and Goteborg. She is the author of 85 books, 130 journal articles, and 127 contributions in edited volumes.



Laura Dugan



is a Professor in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Maryland. Her research examines the predictors and consequences of terrorist violence and the efficacy of violence prevention/intervention policy and practice. Dr Dugan is a founding co-principal investigator for the Global Terrorism Database and co-principal investigator of the Government Actions in Terrorist Environments dataset. Dugan holds a doctorate in Public Policy and Management and a Masters in Statistics from Carnegie Mellon University. She has co-authored Putting Terrorism into Context: Lessons Learned from the World’s Most Comprehensive Terrorism Database (Routledge, 2016).



Juliet U. Elu,



Ph.D., is the Charles E. Merrill Professor, Division and Department Chair of Economics at Morehouse College in Atlanta, GA. An applied and policy theorist, her research has been published in a wide variety of journals such as Journal of Third World (p. xxi) Studies, Journal of African Development, Review of Black Political Economy, American Economic Review, African Development Review, and Journal of Economic Studies. Dr Elu earned her B.Sc. in economics and MBA/MPA from Utah State University, Logan, Utah, and completed her economics doctorate at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.



Richard English



is Professor of Politics at Queen’s University Belfast, where he is also Distinguished Professorial Fellow in the Senator George J. Mitchell Institute for Global Peace, Security, and Justice. Between 2011 and 2016 he was Wardlaw Professor of Politics in the School of International Relations, and Director of the Handa Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence (CSTPV), at the University of St Andrews. He is the author of eight books, including the award-winning studies Armed Struggle: The History of the IRA (2003) and Irish Freedom: The History of Nationalism in Ireland (2006). His most recent book, Does Terrorism Work? A History, was published in 2016 by Oxford University Press. He is a Fellow of the British Academy, a Member of the Royal Irish Academy, a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society, an Honorary Fellow of Keble College Oxford, and an Honorary Professor at the University of St Andrews.



Jonathan Evans



joined MI5, the British Security Service, from university in 1980. He worked in a variety of investigative, operational, and administrative roles in the service, specializing in counterterrorism. He was appointed Director of MI5’s International Terrorism branch on September 1, 2001, ten days before 9/11. He served as Director General of MI5 from 2007 to 2013, during which time he attended the National Security Council on a regular basis and led the service’s work to protect the 2012 Olympic Games. Jonathan was appointed to the House of Lords in 2014 and sits as a Crossbench Peer. He is an Honorary Professor at the Handa Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence at the University of St Andrews.



Susan Fahey



is Associate Professor of Criminal Justice at Stockton University.



Megan M. Farrell



is a Ph.D. Candidate in Government at the University of Texas at Austin. Her research interests include alliances among political violence groups.



Vanda Felbab-Brown



is a senior fellow in the Center for 21st Century Security and Intelligence in the Foreign Policy program at Brookings. She is also the director of the Brookings project, “Improving Global Drug Policy: Comparative Perspectives Beyond UNGASS 2016,” and co-director of another Brookings project, “Reconstituting Local Orders.” Dr Felbab-Brown is an expert on international and internal conflicts and nontraditional security threats, including insurgency, organized crime, urban violence, and illicit economies. Her fieldwork and research have covered, among others, Afghanistan, South Asia, Burma, Indonesia, the Andean region, Mexico, Morocco, Somalia, and eastern Africa. Dr Felbab-Brown is the author of The Extinction Market: Wildlife Trafficking and How to Counter it (Hurst, Fall 2017); Narco Noir: Mexico’s Cartels, Cops, and Corruption (Brookings Institution Press, 2019); Militants, Criminals, and Outsiders: The Challenge of Local Governance in an Age of Disorder (Brookings Institution Press, Winter 2018; co-authored with Shadi Hamid and Harold Trinkunas); (p. xxii) Aspiration and Ambivalence: Strategies and Realities of Counterinsurgency and State-Building in Afghanistan (Brookings Institution Press, 2013); and Shooting Up: Counterinsurgency and the War on Drugs (Brookings Institution Press, 2010). She is also the author of numerous policy reports, academic articles, and opinion pieces. A frequent commentator in US and international media, Dr Felbab-Brown regularly provides congressional testimony on these issues. She has also been the recipient of numerous awards in recognition of her scholarly and policy contributions. Dr Felbab-Brown received her Ph.D. in political science from MIT and her BA in government from Harvard University.



Michael G. Findley



is Professor of Government at the University of Texas at Austin. His research interests include political violence and international development.



Daren G. Fisher



is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Criminal Justice at The Citadel. He received his Ph.D. in Criminology and Criminal Justice from the University of Maryland, for his dissertation examining the impact of US Presidential Communications on Terrorism targeting the United States. He specializes in empirically testing the predictions of criminological theory to better inform government policies that aim to reduce terrorism using econometric methods and qualitative approaches. Dr Fisher has published articles in Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, the International Journal of Law, Crime, and Justice, Police Practice and Research, and Critical Criminology.



Martyn Frampton



is Reader in Modern History at Queen Mary University of London.



Boaz Ganor



is the Dean and the Ronald Lauder Chair for Counter-Terrorism at the Lauder School of Government, Diplomacy and Strategy, as well as the Founder and Executive Director of the International Institute for Counter-Terrorism (ICT), at the Interdisciplinary Center (IDC), Herzliya, Israel. Prof. Ganor serves as the Founding President of the International Academic Counter-Terrorism Community (ICTAC), an international association of academic institutions, experts, and researchers in fields related to the study of terrorism and counterterrorism. He is the author of Global Alert: Modern Terrorism Rationality and the Challenge to the Democratic World published by Columbia University Press.



Caron E. Gentry



is a Senior Lecturer in the School of International Relations at the University of St Andrews. She has researched and written on women, gender, and terrorism for over fifteen years. Her publications include articles in Terrorism and Political Violence, the International Feminist Journal of Politics, Millennium, Critical Studies on Terrorism, and Critical Studies on Security. She has also co-authored Beyond Mothers, Monsters, Whores: Rethinking Women’s Violence in Global Politics (Zed, 2015) with Laura Sjoberg, as well as multiple articles and chapters. Her current research focuses on the intersections of gender, race, and sexuality within terrorism studies. Her latest book stems from her other research area, feminist political theology: This American Moment: A Feminist Christian Realist Intervention (Oxford University Press, 2018).



Andreas Gofas



is Associate Professor of International Relations at Panteion University of Athens, director of the Center for the Analysis of Terrorism and European Security (p. xxiii) (CATES) at the European Law and Governance School, and co-director of the Olympia Summer Academy.



Jeff Goodwin



is Professor of Sociology at New York University. He earned his baccalaureate and doctorate at Harvard and has taught at NYU since 1991. His writings focus on social movements, revolutions, and violence. His book No Other Way Out: States and Revolutionary Movements, 1945–1991 (Cambridge, 2001), won the Outstanding Book Prize of the Collective Behavior and Social Movements Section of the American Sociological Association. He is the co-editor of Passionate Politics (Chicago, 2001), Contention in Context (Stanford, 2012), and The Social Movements Reader, 3rd edn (Wiley-Blackwell, 2015). He is also the author of many articles, including “Why we were Surprised (Again) by the Arab Spring,” Swiss Political Science Review (2011), “‘The Struggle Made me a Non-Racialist’: Why there was So Little Terrorism in the Anti-Apartheid Struggle,” Mobilization (2007), and “A Theory of Categorical Terrorism,” Social Forces (2006).



Jeffrey Haynes



is Emeritus Professor of Politics at London Metropolitan University. He has research interests in several areas, including: religion and international relations; religion and politics; democracy and democratization; and the politics of development. Haynes has more than 240 publications, including 44 books. He is editor of a book series, “Routledge Studies in Religion & Politics,” for the major publisher Routledge/Taylor & Francis, which publishes around four books a year; co-editor of the journal Democratization, published eight times a year by Taylor & Francis; and co-editor of Democratization’s book series, “Special Issues and Virtual Special Issues,” which publishes approximately three volumes a year. He serves on editorial boards of many journals, including: Millennium: Journal of International Studies; Commonwealth and Comparative Politics; Politics, Religion and Ideology; DIALOGUE (Italian International Relations journal); Politics and Religion (2012–16); Law and Justice—Critical Law Review; Religion and Transformation in Contemporary Society; Religion, State and Society; Religion and Politics Journal (Politology journal, Belgrade).



Charlotte Heath-Kelly



is an Associate Professor of Politics and International Studies at the University of Warwick. Her research covers all areas of critical terrorism studies, including the performance of countering violent extremism in public sector organizations, and post-terrorist memorialization. She has published nearly twenty articles in leading academic journals, and her latest book is a comparative study of memorials built after terrorist attacks: Death and Security: Memory and Mortality at the Bombsite (Manchester University Press, 2016).



Virginia Held



is Distinguished Professor of Philosophy (Emerita) at the City University of New York, Graduate School and Hunter College. Among her books are How Terrorism is Wrong: Morality and Political Violence (Oxford University Press, 2008); The Ethics of Care: Personal, Political, and Global (Oxford University Press, 2006); Feminist Morality: Transforming Culture, Society, and Politics (University of Chicago Press, 1993); Rights and Goods: Justifying Social Action (Free Press, 1984); and The Public Interest and Individual Interests (Basic Books, 1970); as well as the edited collections Justice and Care: Essential Readings in Feminist Ethics (Westview, 1995); and Property, (p. xxiv) Profits, and Economic Justice (Wadsworth, 1980). In 2001–2 she was President of the Eastern Division of the American Philosophical Association. She has been a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences, has had Fulbright and Rockefeller fellowships, and been on the editorial boards of many journals.



Jennifer S. Holmes



is Professor at the University of Texas at Dallas. She currently serves as Interim Dean of the School of Economic, Political and Policy Sciences. She received her AB from the University of Chicago and her Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota. Her major area of research is violence and development with an emphasis on Latin America, especially Colombia and Peru. Her ongoing research is in four areas: the landscape ecology of conflict and post-conflict, protection of critical infrastructures, urban quality of life, and the creation of real-time event data on political and social events in Latin America.



John G. Horgan



is Distinguished University Professor at Georgia State University (GSU). He has a Ph.D. in psychology, and holds joint appointments at GSU’s Global Studies Institute and Department of Psychology. His current research examines religious converts and terrorism, and how children are recruited to terrorist organizations. His work is widely published, with books including The Psychology of Terrorism (Routledge, 2005), Divided we Stand: The Strategy and Psychology of Ireland’s Dissident Terrorists (Oxford University Press, 2013), and Walking away from Terrorism (Routledge, 2009). He is editor of the journal Terrorism and Political Violence, and serves on the editorial boards of such journals as American Psychologist and Studies in Conflict and Terrorism. He is a member of the Research Working Group of the FBI’s National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime. His research has been featured in such venues as the New York Times, Foreign Affairs, CNN, PBS, Vice News, Rolling Stone Magazine, Nature, and Scientific American.



Richard Jackson



is the Director of the National Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, the University of Otago, New Zealand. He is the founding editor and editor-in-chief of the journal, Critical Studies on Terrorism. Among many other publications on critical terrorism studies, he is the editor of The Routledge Handbook of Critical Terrorism Studies (Routledge, 2016).



Stathis N. Kalyvas



is Gladstone Professor of Government at the University of Oxford. He is the author, among others, of The Logic of Violence in Civil War (Cambridge University Press, 2006).



Anastasia Kouloganes



is a graduate of the University of Maryland and holds Bachelor’s degrees in Government and Politics and Chinese. Her research is primarily concerned with risk in East Asia, including terrorism in China and associated foreign fighter activity, illicit finance in the Chinese financial system, and North Korean money laundering and smuggling networks.



Gary LaFree



is Chair of the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice and the Founding Director of the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) at the University of Maryland. His research is on the (p. xxv) causes and consequences of violent crime and terrorism. His most recent books are Putting Terrorism in Context (Routledge, 2016) with Laura Dugan and Erin Miller and Countering Terrorism (Brookings, 2017) with Martha Crenshaw.



Brenda J. Lutz



earned her Ph.D. in Politics from the University of Dundee in the United Kingdom. She is an independent scholar in Massachusetts and focuses on terrorism and international political violence as well as animal rights issues. She has co-authored four editions of Global Terrorism (Routledge, 2004, 2008, 2014, and 2019), Terrorism: Origins and Evolution (Palgrave, 2005), Terrorism in America (Palgrave, 2007), Terrorism: The Basics (Routledge, 2011), and Globalization and the Economic Consequences of Terrorism (Palgrave, 2017). Dr Lutz co-edited a four-volume collection of articles and chapters called Global Terrorism (Sage, 2008), and has authored or co-authored thirty articles or chapters dealing with animal rights, terrorism, and international political violence.



Siniša Malešević



is Professor and Chair of Sociology at the University College, Dublin. He is an elected member of Royal Irish Academy and Academia Europae. His recent books include The Rise of Organised Brutality: A Historical Sociology of Violence (Cambridge University Press, 2017), Nation-States and Nationalisms: Organisation, Ideology and Solidarity (Polity, 2013), The Sociology of War and Violence (Cambridge University Press, 2010), and edited volumes Empires and Nation-States: Beyond the Dichotomy (Sage, 2017) and Nationalism and War (Cambridge University Press, 2013). He has also authored over 80 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters and his work has been translated into numerous languages.



Stefan Malthaner



is a Research Fellow at the Hamburg Institute for Social Research (HIS). Previously, he was Assistant Professor at Aarhus University, Denmark, and Marie Curie Fellow at the European University Institute (EUI) in Florence, Italy. He received his Ph.D. in Sociology from Augsburg University in 2010.



Alexander Meleagrou-Hitchens



is a lecturer in Terrorism and Radicalisation at King’s College London and the Research Director of the Program on Extremism at George Washington University. His research focuses on the messaging and recruitment efforts of violent social movements. His book, an intellectual history of the Yemeni-American al-Qaeda ideologue, recruiter and strategist Anwar al-Awlaki will be published by Harvard University Press in 2019. His recent publications include Salafism in America: History, Evolution, Radicalization (2018) and The Travelers: American Jihadists in Syria and Iraq (2018).



Erin Miller



is the Program Manager for the Global Terrorism Database at the University of Maryland.



Gregory D. Miller



is Professor and Chair of the Strategy Department at the Joint Advanced Warfighting School (JAWS), National Defense University. He received his Ph.D. (2004) in Political Science from The Ohio State University. His research appears in Security Studies, Terrorism & Political Violence, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, The Washington Quarterly, PS: Political Science and Politics, and Small Wars Journal. Prior (p. xxvi) to joining JAWS, Dr. Miller taught at the College of William & Mary, the University of Oklahoma, and Oklahoma State University. He was Founding Director of the Summer Workshop on Teaching about Terrorism (SWOTT), which ran from 2004 to 2008. He currently serves as Editor for the new book series “Political Violence in America” at the University of Oklahoma Press, and is an Associate Editor for the journal, Perspectives on Terrorism. Beginning in 2019, he will be in the Leadership Studies Department at the Air Command & Staff College, Air University.



Martin A. Miller



is a Professor in the History Department and the Department of Slavic and Eurasian Studies at Duke University. He is the author of numerous books and articles on aspects of the intellectual history of Russia and Europe. His most recent book is The Foundations of Modern Terrorism: State, Society and the Dynamics of Political Violence (Cambridge University Press, 2012).



Saurabh Pant



is a postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in Toulouse. He received his Ph.D. in Politics from Princeton University in 2018. His research interests lie at the intersection of international relations and comparative politics. He studies the political economy of conflict and militancy in divided societies Some of his research is published or forthcoming in the Journal of Theoretical Politics and South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. Support through the ANR Labex IAST is gratefully acknowledged by this author.



Evan Perkoski



is an assistant professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of Connecticut. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania and has held fellowships at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at the Harvard Kennedy school of Government as well as the Josef Korbel School of International Studies at the University of Denver. His research focuses on the dynamics of rebel, insurgent, and terrorist groups; strategies of violent and nonviolent resistance; and state operations in cyberspace.



Brian J. Phillips



is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Government at the University of Essex. His research on terrorism and other types of violence has been published in outlets such as the Journal of Politics, Journal of Peace Research, Journal of Conflict Resolution, International Studies Quarterly, Comparative Political Studies, and Terrorism and Political Violence. His work has been discussed in The New York Times, The Washington Post, and other sources.



Gregory N. Price,



Ph.D. is Professor of Economics at Morehouse College. An applied econometrician and theorist, his current research interests include economic anthropometry, the economics of Historically Black Colleges/Universities, the effects of race on economic stratification, and the causes/consequences of slavery. His research has been published in a wide variety of journals such as African Development Review, Economics and Human Biology, Review of Black Political Economy, Review of Economics and Statistics, American Economic Review, and Review of Development Economics.



Ignacio Sánchez-Cuenca



is Associate Professor of Political Science and Director of the Carlos III-Juan March Institute of Social Sciences at Carlos III University of Madrid. (p. xxvii) His research areas are comparative politics, political violence, and theory of democracy. He has published articles in journals such as Journal of Conflict Resolution, Journal of Peace Research, Terrorism and Political Violence, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, Annual Review of Political Science, European Union Politics, Politics and Society, Party Politics, and several others. He is also the author of several books in Spanish, including two monographs on ETA.



Ben Saul



is Challis Chair of International Law at the University of Sydney, the Visiting Chair of Australian Studies at Harvard University in 2018, a barrister, and an Associate Fellow of Chatham House. Ben has published 14 books and 93 refereed articles. Significant books include Defining Terrorism in International Law (Oxford University Press, 2006), Research Handbook on International Law and Terrorism (Edward Elgar, 2014), the Oxford Commentary on the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Oxford University Press, 2014) (awarded a Certificate of Merit by the American Society of International Law), and Indigenous Peoples and Human Rights (Hart/Bloomsbury, 2016). Ben practices in international and national courts. He has advised the United Nations, governments, and NGOs, and delivered technical assistance in developing countries. Ben has served on various international and national bodies, and taught law and undertaken field missions in numerous countries. He has a doctorate from Oxford and honours degrees in Arts and Law from Sydney.



Alex P. Schmid



is editor-in-chief of Perspectives on Terrorism and former co-editor of Terrorism and Political Violence. He is Director of the Terrorism Research Initiative (TRI) in Vienna and a Research Fellow at the International Centre for Counter Terrorism (ICCT) in The Hague. Previous positions included Associate Professor at the Institute of Security and Global Affairs (ISGA - Leiden University, Campus The Hague), Director of the Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence (CSTPV) at the University of St Andrews (where he also held a chair in International Relations), and Officer-in-Charge of the UN Terrorism Prevention Branch of UNODC in Vienna.



Jacob N. Shapiro



is Professor of Politics and International Affairs at Princeton University. He is author of The Terrorist’s Dilemma: Managing Violent Covert Organizations (Princeton University Press, 2013), co-author of Foundations of the Islamic State: Management, Money, and Terror in Iraq (RAND, 2016), and co-author of Small Wars, Big Data: The Information Revolution in Modern Conflict (Princeton University Press, 2018). Shapiro received the 2016 Karl Deutsch Award from ISA, given to a scholar younger than 40 or within ten years of earning a Ph.D. who has made the most significant contribution to the study of international relations.



David A. Siegel



is Associate Professor of Political Science at Duke University. His research addresses the theoretical determinants of collective action in the contexts of political violence and terrorism, elections, and opinion and identity formation. He has published in journals such as the American Political Science Review, American Journal of Political Science, and Journal of Politics, and is the co-author of A Behavioral Theory of Elections (Princeton University Press, 2011) and A Mathematics Course for Political and Social Research (Princeton University Press, 2013). Prior to coming to (p. xxviii) Duke, he was on faculty at Florida State University. He received his Ph.D. from Stanford University in 2006.



Rashmi Singh



is an Associate Professor in International Relations at the Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais (Brazil). She was formerly based at the Handa Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence (CSTPV), at the University of St Andrews (UK). Her primary areas of interest include the role of nationalism, culture and religion in the promulgation of terrorism in the Middle East and South Asia. She has authored numerous articles and book chapters and is also the author of, Hamas and Suicide Terrorism: A Multi-Causal and Multi-Level Approach (Routledge: March 2011) and Understanding Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism (co-authored with Jorge M. Lasmar; Routledge: forthcoming). She is an Associate Editor of Perspectives on Terrorism and part of the editorial board of the International Journal of Conflict and Violence (IJCV). She has served in numerous positions, including as a member of the Global Agenda Council of Terrorism of the World Economic Forum. Dr. Singh is the co-founder of the Terrorism, Radicalisation and Crime (TRAC) Collaborative Research Network where she currently also serves as a principal investigator. She received her PhD in International Relations from the London School of Economics and Political Science in 2008.



Jessica A. Stanton



is an Associate Professor at the Humphrey School of Public Affairs at the University of Minnesota. Her research focuses on international relations, including the causes, dynamics, and resolution of civil wars; the role of international institutions and law in international relations; and criminal accountability for wartime violence and terrorism. Her book, Violence and Restraint in Civil War: Civilian Targeting in the Shadow of International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2016), examines why some governments and rebel groups engaged in civil war adopt strategies that involve the deliberate targeting of civilians, while other groups, in accordance with international humanitarian law, refrain from attacking civilian populations.



Harold A. Trinkunas



is a senior research scholar and the deputy director of the Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University. He is co-author most recently of Militants, Criminals and Warlords: The Challenge of Local Governance in an Age of Disorder (Brookings Institution Press, 2017).



Tim Wilson



is the Director of the Handa Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence at the University of St Andrews. Trained as a modern historian, his chief research interests lie in the differing effects political violence can have across different contexts. He has worked widely on inter-communal conflict in deeply divided societies, as well as on the terrorism of both states and their opponents.



Joseph K. Young



is Professor in the Schools of Public Affairs and International Service at American University. His research investigates the causes and consequences of terrorism and political violence.