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date: 29 May 2020

(p. 755) Index

(p. 755) Index

Note: References to Notes will contain the letter ‘n’ following the Note number. Tables are indicated by an italic ‘t’, respectively, following the page number

Abadie, A. 356, 611
Abrahms, M. 155, 352–3, 360, 389, 449, 450, 452, 633, 710
absolutist government 127
Abu Ghraib scandal 747, 748
Abu Sayyaf Group 387, 594
Action Directe, France 122, 420, 553
action militarization 142
action-centered view of terrorism 348
active learning 530–1
actor-based approaches 334, 350, 351
Adler, E. 745
Advisory Group on Research into Non-Violent Conflict Resolution 725
Adwan, K. 570
aerial hijacking see hijacking
Afghanistan 239, 472, 591
terrorism in 472–3, 593
US invasion 17, 80, 81, 473 see also Al Qaeda; Taliban
Africa
causes of terrorism in 610–15
East Africa Embassy bombing (1998) 712
existential or economic terrorism in 613–14
Gross National Income (GNI) 614
Human Development Index (HDI) 614
South Africa see South Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa see Sub-Saharan Africa
African National Congress (ANC)
and Al Qaeda 263–6
apartheid, South Africa 79
and causes of terrorism 255, 257
and dissident organizations 257
African Union counterterrorism strategies 648
agency problems 152–4
aggression concept 302–3
Agnew, R. 169
Ahmadinejad, M. 311n5
Akritas, D. 126
Aksoy, D. 357
Al Khansa Brigade 424
Al Qaeda
and African National Congress (ANC) 263–6
Al Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) 152, 273, 473, 582
Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP) 307, 386, 582
Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) 582
and coercive organizational capacity 187
counterterrorism strategies against 627, 628
creation 582
crime–terror nexus 373
declining influence on jihadists 293
embassies, attacks on 663
fanaticism 309
and “far” enemy 124
female terrorists 415, 417, 424–5
financial resources 481, 484
global operations 63
and group termination research 391, 392
ideology/ideological penetration 189, 305, 424
intelligence capabilities 625
and international order 288
and ISIS 273
Islamist groups affiliated to 290
leadership 585
media portrayal 179
(p. 756) “M-form” design, following 152
motives for 9/11 attacks 284, 289–90, 302–3
and nationalism 272
and “near enemy” 263
operating expenses 484
present-aim rationality 611
propaganda 305
and psychological terrorism research 218
and religion 285
target choice 403
Al Shabaab 611
Albigensian Crusade 94
Alexander, J. 178–9, 180, 185–6
Alexander, Y. 725
Terrorism: An International Journal 734
Alexander I, King of Russia 105, 106
Alexander II, King of Russia 107, 419
Alexander III, King of Russia 419
Alexander of Yugoslavia, assassination (1934) 36
Alfonso XII, King of Spain 109
Algeria 76, 120, 121, 127, 624
war in 707–8
Algiers, Battle of (1956–7) 120, 707
Ali, A. H. 299, 600
Alimi, E. Y. 137, 138
Alison, M. 420
Al Jihad 578
Allee, T. L. 504
ALN (Ação Libertadora Nacional) 122
Al Nusra Front, Syria 445, 585, 651
Al Tahrir Al Islami 578
American Psychological Association (APA) 689n7
American Review of Psychological Affairs 299
American Revolution 197, 203
Amin, I. 335
Amir, Y. 292
anarchist terrorism 522
Anti-Anarchist Conference (1898) 110
historical approaches 201, 202
nineteenth century 108–10
Western Europe 545–6
Andrew, C. 700
Andrieux, L. 109
animal rights extremists 316, 320
Animal Liberation Front (ALF) 317, 321
Annals of St Bertin 91
Ansar-al Khalifah Philippines 594
anti-abortion activists 316, 318, 319, 321–2
anti-money-laundering (AML) 369–70, 486, 488
antinomianism 304, 306–7
anti-slavery terrorism 73
apartheid, South Africa 79
AQI see under Al Qaeda
Arab League 648
Arab Liberation Front 573
Arab Spring (2011) 18, 584
Arab–Israeli conflict 570, 571, 579, 587
Arafat, Y. 121, 500, 570, 581
“Army of Roses” speech 416, 423
Arce, D. G. 148, 608
ArcGIS suite software 246, 247
Argentina 122, 560, 565
Argomaniz, J. 646
aristocracy
and pre-history of terrorism 89, 90, 93–6
in Roman Republic 195
Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED) 64
armed groups
and causes of terrorism 265
indirect-war theory 262
institutionalization mechanism 138
interactions with the state 136–9
organizational dynamics 141–3
organized groups and illicit economies, political capital 370–3
outbidding and competition 139, 387–8
radical flank effects 139, 140
and state security forces 137 see also terrorist groups/organizations
Armed Islamic Group (GIA) 309
(p. 757) Army of God (AOG) 316, 318, 321–2
Aron, R. 707
Arva, B. J. 241
Asal, V. 502, 524
Asia
Central Asia 597
defining 591–2
demographic explosion in 593
historical perspective 197
jihadism in Central Asia 597
Muslim populations 592–3
physical features 591
Assad, H al- 123, 578
assassination, political 23, 36
assassination squads 119
of Bin Laden 290
European political violence 108, 109
of Franz Ferdinand 117
historical approaches to terrorism 195, 201
in long twentieth century 116, 117
of Rabin 292
Assassins, Muslim 73, 87, 196, 203, 305, 311 n4, 741
Atran, S. 184, 191
AUC organization, Colombia 469, 470
Aum Shinrikyo, Japan 202, 403, 408, 411, 597, 712 see also Sarin gas attacks
Austria 549, 553, 645
historical perspective 105, 107–9, 545
Women without Borders/Sisters Against Violent Extremism (SAVE), Vienna 641 see also South Tyrol, nationalist terrorism
aut dedere aut judicare principle 39
authoritarian states 22–3, 46
autocracies 18, 22, 117, 472 see also Russia
Ayers, B. 422
Azev, E. 110
Azzam, A. 303, 308, 582
Defence of the Muslim Lands 301
Baader, A. 421
Baader Meinhof Gang, West Germany 202, 421, 575
Ba’ath regime 573
backlash theories 168
Baghdadi, A. B. al- 303, 307, 308, 585
Bakunin, M. 107, 109, 545
Balcells, L. 354
Baluchi, A. al- 682
bandas criminales 369
Bangladesh 591–6
Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF) 594
Bapat, N. 154, 157, 393, 501, 511
bargaining theory 446–7, 454
Barker, A. D. 405
Barthou, Louis: assassination (1934) 36
BAS (Committee for the Liberation of South Tyrol) 549
Basque Fatherland and Freedom (ETA) 121, 143, 466, 549, 550, 707, 709
Battle of Algiers, The (film) 522
Baudrillard, J. 182, 185
Baxter, R. R. 661
Beccaria, C. 165
Beck, G. 299
Beckendorff, A. 106
Becker, S. G. 608
Beghal, D. 215
Begin, M. 118
Behlendorf, B. 61
Belgium 549, 554
Belmokhtar, M. 373
Benjamin, D. 171
Benmelech, E. 152, 612
Bennell, C. 243
Bentham, J. 165
Bentley, A. 334
Bercovitch, J. 745
Berman, E. 153–4, 611
Berrebi, C. 151, 152, 240, 244, 612
Berry, N. 446
(p. 758) Bersani, B. E. 167, 168
Bin Laden, O. 80, 171, 263–4, 305, 307, 309, 582–3, 596, 682
and Afghanistan 582, 584
assassination by US (2011) 290
self-defense claim 301, 303
biological weapons 172
Bismarck, O. von 107, 108
Bjorgo, T. 733
Black Death 95
Black Panther Party 5
Blain, M. 180
Blair, T. 230, 748
Blakeley, R. 232–3, 235, 332
Rendition Project 233
Blanco, M. A. 469
Blanqui, L. 105
Bloom, M. 73, 81, 387–8, 417, 420, 436
Boko Haram, Nigeria 190, 435, 607, 608, 615, 642
bombs 304, 322, 348, 351, 575, 577
Allied bombing in World War II 77–8
atomic 35
Buenos Aires Amia building (1994) 577
car bombs 578
Centennial Olympic Park bombing, Atlanta (1996) 318
East Africa Embassy bombing (1998) 712
Israeli Embassies (1992) 577
King David Hotel bombing (1946) 120
Lockerbie (1988) 469, 496
London bombing (2005) 478, 646, 714
Madrid train bombing (2004) 179, 478, 551, 646, 714
making 537
Oklahoma City bombing (1995) 50, 54, 124, 240, 291–2, 351, 404, 712
Omagh bombing, Northern Ireland (1998) 481
Opera House bombing, Barcelona (1893) 545
Paris bombing (2015) 551
planes 404
precision 304
and Sarin gas 403, 411, 597, 712
“smart bomb” 437
suicide bombing 64, 124, 139, 152, 171, 303, 355, 388, 407, 433
Al Qaeda 311n6
cultural terrorism research 181, 189
failed 216, 417, 424
Hezbollah 403
hijacking 434
Lebanese Civil War 403–4
psychological terrorism research 211, 216
and rationality 613 see also hijacking
Bosi, L. 137, 138, 141
Boston Marathon (2013) 170
Boston Tea Party 198
Boudin, K. 421
bounded rationality 166
Bourdieu, P. 333
Bourke, R. 121
Bouthoul, G. 727
Boxer Rebellion, China (1899–1901) 200–1, 203
Boyle, M. J. 5, 736n12
Braithwaite, A. 240
Brandt, P. T. 608
Bray, M. 318
Brazil 122, 371, 374
breakdown theories 134
Brenner, A. 339, 340
Brigate Rosse (BR), Italy 121, 126, 137, 138, 188, 202, 420, 543
British International Studies Association (BISA) 741
Brown, C. 285
Brown, G. 681
Brown, J. 73, 200
Buchanan, P. 291
Buddhists 597–8
Bueno de Mesquita, E. 148, 149, 151, 154, 155, 157, 512n1, 632
Buenos Aires Amia building, bombing of (1994) 577
Bulldozer Revolution 5
Bulutgil, Z. 20
Buonarotti 105
bureaucratic organizational models 187
Burgoon, B. 150
(p. 759) Burke, J. 286
Burleigh, M. 116
Burundi 607
Bush, G. W. 80, 230, 300, 311n3, 368, 633, 677, 685, 712, 748
Buzan, B. 182
Byman, D. 447–8, 495–7, 500, 501, 503, 511, 640
Caesar, J. 195
Calb, N. 245
Caliphate, Islamic 122, 272, 290, 303, 310, 473, 585
and Middle Eastern terrorism 584, 585
Cameron, D. 645
Camp David agreement (1978) 292
Campbell, B. 339, 340
Campbell, D. 745
Carabinieri, Italian political police establishment 105
Carnot, Sadi (French President), assassination of (1894) 109, 545
cartel violence 21
Carter, D. B. 156, 359, 496, 498, 500, 502–4, 506, 512, 512n2
Carvin, S. 626
Castillo, Antonio Canovas (Prime Minister of Spain, 1897) 109
Castro, F. 122, 202
Cathar heretics 94
Catholic Church see Roman Catholic Church
causes of terrorism 6, 125, 253–67
Al Qaeda and African National Congress (ANC) 263–6
choices by opposition groups 155–7
indirect-war theory 260–2, 264
political objectives 80–1
and radicalization 254, 255, 257–60
and rebel groups 254–6
root causes, looking at 633–4
and state terrorism 254, 255
Centennial Olympic Park bombing, Atlanta (1996) 318
Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), US 642
Center for the Study of Social Conflict (COMT) 729
Center of Excellence of the Department of Homeland Security, University of Maryland 716
Central America
drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) 561
escalation of violence in 367
gangs 561
guerrilla movements 257
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), US 677, 682, 685
Central Investigations Commission (1819), German states 105
Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence (CSTPV) 727–8, 731, 733
Cettl, R., Terrorism in American Cinema 521
CFT (counter the financing of terrorism) 479, 487–8, 490
Chaadaev, P. 106
Chai, S.-K. 152
Chapultepec Peace Accord (1992) 471
Charlemagne (Frankish King) 91, 92, 97
Charlie Hebdo attacks (2014) 215, 484
Chavez, H. 22
Che Guevara 122
chemical weapons 172
Chenoweth, E. 18, 64, 102, 150, 166, 349, 356, 360, 388, 448, 716
Chermak, S. M. 62
Cherokees 199
Chiang-Kai Shek 367
Chicago School of Social Ecology 167
Chile 560, 707
Chilean coup (1973) 21
China 122, 284, 336, 482
Boxer Rebellion (1899–1901) 200–1, 203
and terrorism in Asia 599–600, 603–4 see also Mao Zedong (Chairman Mao)
Chi-square test statistic 504–6
chloropleth maps 244
Chomsky, N. 232
Chouans (pioneers of modern insurgent movements) 104–5
(p. 760) Choudhury, M. 298
Chowanietz, C. 453
Chowdhury, A. 632
Christian terrorism 73, 291–2, 304
fundamentalism 291, 292
civil contingency planning 643
civil society 337–8, 641–2, 652
civil wars 16–17, 348–65
Afghanistan 472
American Civil War 200
causes of terrorism and civilian targeting in
civilian targeting and terrorism sharing the same causes, determining 358–9
domestic political institutions 356–7
grievances 353–4, 361
international factors 357–8
military context 354–6
organizational dynamics 352–3
challenges of differentiating between terrorism and civilian targeting 349–52
consequences for political outcomes 359–60
defining 362n1
El Salvador 471
escalation logic 26
future research 360–1
hierarchical logic 25
Iraq 152
Jordan 570, 573–4
Lebanon 403–4, 570, 573, 574
military coups 15
and military coups 21
outbidding 355–6
and outbidding 388
rebel groups in 24, 26, 348, 354–61, 393
research on the consequences of terrorism and civilian targeting in 359–60
substitution logic 27
Syria 26, 624
civilian targeting and terrorism 348
actor-based approaches 350, 351
causes in civil war
domestic political institutions 356–7
grievances 353–4, 361
international factors 357–8
military context 354–6
organizational dynamics 352–3
sharing the same causes, determining 358–9
conceptual distinction difficulties 348, 349–52
advantages of a conceptual distinction 351–2
defining civilian targeting 350
definitions of terrorism 35, 349–51
“dissident” civilians 264
ends and means argument 76
future research 360–1
research on consequences in civil war 359–60
sniping and shelling 43
where justified 77–8 see also civil wars
civilian victimization 255 see also state terrorism
civilizations, clash of 101, 177, 283
Claes, W. 290
Clarke, R. V. G. 169–71
Clausewitz, Carl Philipp Gottfried von 15, 337
Clinton, B. 80, 712
Clinton, H. 601
Cockburn, P. 340
coercion
coercive power falling short of violence 18
organizational capacity, coercive 186, 187–8, 190
organizational entities, coercive 189
and rationality 447
strategic model of terrorism 445, 447–8
Coggins, B. L. 362n5
Cohen, M.
Five-Word Game 520
COINTELPRO program 5
Cold War
bargaining theory 446
end of 2, 17, 22, 39, 482
nuclear deterrence 516
and state elites 335
and state terrorism 233, 335, 337
substitution logic 26
Coll, S. 433
Collins, M. 118
Collins, R. 181
Collins, S. D. 503
(p. 761) Colombia
AUC 469, 470
financing of terrorism 480, 481, 490
M-19 (Movement of April 19) 469
National Liberation Army 466, 469
organized crime 374
paramilitary groups 561
rise and fall of terrorism 469–70
colonialism 197–8, 202
Combs, C. C. 611
Committee for the International Repression of Terrorism 650
communal violence 20
Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) 594
competence
content 517–18
pedagogical 519–25
conciliation 632–3
Congress of Vienna (1815) 105, 107
Conrad, C.R. 688
Conrad, J. 388
The Secret Agent 111
consequentialism 70
conservative terrorist movements 259
Constanza, S. 180
constructivism 230, 235
contagion, transnational 719
containment strategy 628–9
content analysis 229
contentious politics 22, 136
Continuity IRA 139
Convention for the Prevention and Punishment of Terrorism (1937) 36–7
Cooper, H. H. A. 415
Copenhagen School 182
Cordes, B. 452
Corey, S. 243
Cornish, D. B. 170
Coronado, R. 321
Correlates of Mediation project 745
Correlates of War project (COW) 50
Corsican National Liberation Front (FLNC) 549, 550
Coser, L. 77
Cossacks 335
Cothren, J. 240
Cottee, S. 215
Coulibaly, A. 215
Council of Europe 286
Council of the Islamic Revolution 576
Countering Terrorism through International Cooperation 733
Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) 207–8, 645–6
counter-insurgency studies 1
counter-movements 141
counterterrorism
civil society 641–2, 652
Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) 207–8, 645–6
counter-productive 734
definitional issue 661–2
emergency, states of 672–3
European Union 646–8
force, use of against terrorist groups 662–4
“front line” 627
future research areas 634–5, 651–5
and game theory 159n1
and human rights 651, 652, 659, 665, 666, 668–72, 674
human rights constraints 672–3
inadequacy of government efforts 154–5
inertia 647
and international law (IL) 659–76
definitional quandary 661–2
force, use of against terrorist groups 662–4
international and domestic legal challenges 669–72
Kadi judgment 669
normative framework 660–1
War on Terror and international humanitarian law 665–6
internet and legal challenges 669–72
legal component 698–9
nations 642–5, 653
normative framework 660–1
operational benefits 697–8
outlook 673–5
and prevention 645–6
public opinion 640, 642
regional organizations 41–2, 646–50, 653
responses to terrorism 80
sectoral conventions 38–9
(p. 762) strategies 623–39
allies, strengthening 627–8
conciliation 632–3
containing terrorism 628–9
crushing the terrorist 624–6
defenses 629–31
delegitimation 631–2
killing of terrorist leaders 626
root causes, looking at 633–4
and Sub-Saharan Africa 607–8
and terrorism 640–58
United Nations (UN) 650–1, 654–5 see also terrorism
country patterns
Afghanistan 472–3
Colombia 469–70
El Salvador 471
Peru 470–1
Spain 467–9
United Kingdom 467–9
country-specific studies 239–41
Crandall, R. 343
Crelinsten, R. 728, 732
Crenshaw, M. 2, 58, 75, 163, 211, 213, 214, 253, 255, 298, 391, 403, 434, 452, 559, 611
Countering Terrorism 715
Revolutionary Terrorism 706, 726
Terrorism in Context 5
crimes
criminal organizations and terrorist groups 387
defining ‘criminal’ 89–90
drug offenses 367, 368, 372, 374, 387
hybrid threats 367
illegal economies 367, 370–3
international, codification of 37–8
lack of general crime of terrorism 38
organized see organized crime
of terrorism 37
terrorism as a customary international law crime 44–5
Uniform Crime Reports, US 51, 59
war crime of terrorism 42–3
crime-terror nexus 366–82
anti-money-laundering measures 369–70
conventional view 368–9
illicit economies and organized armed groups, political capital 370–3
and myths of state innocence 373–5
organized crime 366, 367, 369, 371, 373–6, 376n1, 376n2
policy implications 375–6 see also crimes; organized crime
Critical Security Studies (CSS) 748
Critical Studies on Terrorism project 224
Critical Studies on Terrorism Working Group (CSTWG) 741
critical terrorism research 224–37
critical attitude 225, 229, 235
Critical Terrorism Studies (CTS) 4, 235n1, 331, 342, 742–3
defining critique 224–7
discourse analysis and war on terror 229–31
‘knowing’ terrorism 227–8
language 226–7
methodological commitments 228–9
nature of “criticality” 225
response to criticisms 234
state terrorism 231–4
Croatian nationalist terrorism 710
Croft, S. 230, 235
Culture, Crisis and America’s War on Terror 229
Crone, P. 311n7
Cronin, A. K. 310, 386, 391–2, 500, 711
cross-border terrorism see international terrorism
cross-national studies 144, 238, 239, 241–2, 559
Crowe Commission 630
Crozier, B. 725–6
Crusades 196, 300, 306
CTS (Critical Terrorism Studies) 4, 235n1, 331, 342, 742–3
Cuba 122, 202
cultural essentialism 342
cultural terrorism research 177–93
coercive organizational capacity 186, 187–8, 190
critique of cultural foundations of terrorism 183–6
cultural framing 183, 186
going beyond culturalism 186–91
(p. 763) ideological penetration 186, 188–90
longue durée analysis, need for 186, 191
micro-solidarity 186, 190–1
micro-world, neglect of 185
neo-Durkhemianism 178–80, 185–6
post-structuralism 182–3
symbolic interactionism 180–1
Cunningham, D. E. 504
customary international law
state practice in formation of 45
terrorism as crime in, determining 44–5
Cutter, S. L. 240
Cyprus
military coup (1974) 21
National Organization of Cypriot Fighters (EOKA) 549
nationalist insurgency 120, 121, 126
Czolgosz, L. 117
Dallimore, S. 521
d’Argenson, Marquis 103
dark networks 389, 394n4
data
automated 63, 563
collection of 55, 56, 58, 62–4, 461–2
datasets 164
geocoded 247
geographic information systems (GIS) 243–4, 245, 246, 247
insurgency 239
lack of on Latin American terrorism 559–61
official 51
open source collection 461–2
point data 244
polygon 244
quantitative 3, 53, 488, 560, 686
raster data 243–4
self-report 51, 64
semi-automated 63–4, 563
terrorist group termination 392
time series 608
UCDP/PRIO One-Sided Violence 361
vector data 243, 244, 246
databases see event databases
Davis, G. G. 611
Davis, J. M. 435
Dawlah Islamiyah Lanao (DIL) 594
Daxecker, U. 689n11
de la Calle, L. 24, 150, 350–1, 354
De Saussure, F. 226, 229, 231
death squads 339, 340, 343, 471
decapitation 23
decision-theoretic utility maximization 150
Declaration of Measures against International Terrorism (1994) 39
Deep Ecology philosophy 317, 325n1
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) 53
defenses 629–31
definitions
Asia 591–2
civil wars 362n1
civilian targeting 350
counterterrorism 661–2
criminal 89–90
formal terrorist research literature 149–50
insurgency 27
Middle Ages 88
nation 269
nationalism 268–70
nationality 269
outbidding 387
political violence 12
radical 258
radicalization 258
revolution/social revolution 15
single-issue terrorism 319–20
satisfying the definition 321–3
state 233
suicide terrorism 432–5
terrorist finance 479–80
terrorist groups/organizations 23–4, 386–7, 494–5
violence 13
war 15
definitions of terrorism 34–49
actor-sense versus action-sense 24
acts of terrorism 36
(p. 764) Ad Hoc Committee on Terrorism 662, 731, 736n11
attacks routinely considered terrorist attacks 76
broad 353
and causes of terrorism 253–4
and civil war 27
classical 197
codification of international crimes 37–8
common global meaning 34, 35
compared to political violence 133
conceptual distinction between terrorism and civilian targeting 351–2
conceptual stretching 11
conflicting 3, 4, 11, 34, 35, 39, 57, 349–51
as a customary international law crime 44–5
domestic terrorism 350, 351
and extradition 35–7, 39, 40, 45
following September 11, 2001 35, 43–5
formal approaches to study of terrorism 149
and historical perspectives 194
lack of general crime 38
legal conceptions 35
prior to 1945 36–7
from 1945 to 2001 37–43
risks 46
long-term view 333
moral issues 69
and nationalism 270
normative differences 34
origins of terror/terrorism 87, 103
political offence exception to extradition 36, 42
pre-history 87–9
Security Council 43–4
and state repression 18
and state terrorism 39, 41
and Sub-Saharan Africa 608
and targeting of civilians 76
terrorist groups/organizations 386–7
and United States 486
by United States government 349
Degregori, C. 125
del Castillo, C. 545
delegitimation 631–2
Deleuze, G. 182
Della Porta, D. 135, 140, 416
democracy
democratic peace thesis 16
democratization 20–3, 57, 127, 565
and domestic terrorist violence 24
mass protest/rebellion 22
and rebel groups 357
third wave 20
Democratic Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine 573
Democratic Republic of the Congo 607
demystification of terrorism, psychological research 211
den Uyl, J. 729
deontological rights-based approaches 70
Department of State, US 53, 54, 155
Country Report on Terrorism for 2015 603
deprivation, relative and absolute 169
de-radicalization 258–9
derogation clauses 672
Derrida, J. 182
Dershowitz, A. 446, 450
desperation theory of terrorism 255
despotic power 335, 336
deterrence 166–7
d’Holbach, Baron P.H. 103
diffusion of innovations 171–2 see also innovation
diminishing marginal utility (MRS) 612
discourse analysis 226
and War on Terror 229–31
Disengagement Plan 581
dissent
dissent–repression nexus 22
terrorism as 678–80
dissident groups 195, 196, 198, 256
Ditrych, O. 183
Dohrn, B. 421–2
Dolnik, A. 402, 409, 717
domestic terrorism 41, 44
civil wars 348–50, 355–6
defining 350, 351
and democracy 356
event databases 60, 61
(p. 765) external ramifications 714
and field of terrorism 727
geographic information systems (GIS) 240–2, 244
grievances 353, 361
Latin America 559, 707
political institutions 356
predictors 150
versus transnational terrorism 688n2see also international terrorism
Dominion theology 304
Donnay, K. 64
Donohue, L. 714
Doty, R. 745
Douglass, W. 748, 751
Terror and Taboo 745, 747
Draft Comprehensive Terrorism Convention 39–41
Dragu, T. 155
Drakos, K. 57, 241
drones, use of 23, 410
drug offenses 367, 368, 372, 374
cartels 387
drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) 368, 371, 561
trafficking 366, 367, 374, 390, 470, 481, 484, 487, 561
due diligence 370
Dugan, L. 64, 164, 166, 171, 356
Durkheim, E. 178 see also neo-Durkhemianism
Dyson, W. E. 319–20
The State Tradition in Western Europe 342
Earth First! 317, 325n3
Earth Liberation Front (ELF) 317–18, 321, 324, 325n4, 325n5
East Africa Embassy bombing (1998) 712
East Timor 599
East Turkistan Islamic Movement (ETIM) 600
Eck, K. 64, 357
Eckstein, H. 726
Internal War 706
economic conditions, effects on terrorism 151–2
Egypt
jihadism 576
Muslim Brotherhood 123
Ehrlich, P. 608
Eisman, E. 242
El Al hijack (1968) 51–2, 172, 575
El Salvador 335, 471
ELAS (Greek People’s Liberation Army) 119
elites 5, 107, 262, 336, 376, 390
composition 135
criminal 373–4
democratic 565
disaffected 255
economic 151
governing/ruling 105, 195, 373, 668
military 707, 711
national 374
and outbidding 387
political 20, 135, 139, 199, 201, 230, 265, 374
regional 554
secret police 103
state 333, 335, 339
Elizabeth, Empress of Austria 109
ELN (National Liberation Army of Colombia) 466, 469
Elu, J. U. 607, 615, 616
emergency, states of 672–3
Emsley, C. 105–6
Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences 706
Enders, W. 61, 488
ends and means 76–7, 439
Engene, J. O. 53
Engert, S. 522
English, R. 74, 77, 80, 333
ENIGMA 695
Enslinn, G. 421
EOKA (National Organization of Cypriot Fighters) 549
epistemology 744
equilibrium 150
Erdogan, R. T. 22
ERP (Ejercito Revolucionario del Pueblo), Argentina 122
escalation 137, 138, 144
and costs 447
and de-escalation 141, 143
logic of 26
espionage 119
ETA (Euskadi Ta Askatasuna), Basque terrorist group see Basque Fatherland and Freedom (ETA)
(p. 766) ethics of care 71, 72
ethnic cleansing 13, 19–20, 25, 199 see also Holocaust
Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston (EOKA), Cyprus 120, 126
ethnographic research 102, 416
Ettinger, M. 304–5
Eubank, W. 234, 415–16
Eurobarometer 642
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) 671
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 670, 672
European Court of Justice (ECJ) 669
European Union
Area of Freedom, Security and Justice 646
Commission 647, 648
Common Security and Defense Policy 648
counterterrorism policy 646–8
European Agenda on Security 647
External Action Service 647, 648
Framework Decision on Combating Terrorism (2002) 42, 647–8, 661
Lisbon Treaty 646
Sahel Project 648
STRIVE Project 648
event databases
automated data collection 63
comparisons
criteria 60–1
general 59–61
open source databases versus others 62
of World-Wide Incidents Tracking System (WITS) and Global Terrorism Database (GTD) 61–2
evolution of 50–68
future of terrorism event databases 63–4
geographic information systems (GIS) 64
Global Database of Events, Language and Tone (GDELT) 63, 64
Global Terrorism Database (GTD) see Global Terrorism Database (GTD)
history 52–7
prior to the 1970s 53–4
from late 1990s onwards 54–7
ITERATE 52, 60, 61, 242, 608, 617n1, 708
limitations of 57–8, 63–4
official data 51
open source databases 62, 64–5
PGIS 52–5, 58, 65n3
RAND Corporation 3, 50, 52, 65n2, 65n3
RAND Database of Worldwide Terrorism Incidents (RDWTI) 54
RAND-MIPT database 54, 55, 60, 61, 391
reasons for importance 51–2
self-report data 51
strengths 59
and suicide terrorism 60
TWEED 53, 54, 60
victimization data 51
Worldwide Incidents Tracking System (WITS) database 50, 54, 55–6, 60–2, 63
explanations of terrorism, sociological and criminological 163–76
backlash theories 168
criminological and sociological influences 164–5
frustration-aggression hypothesis 168–9
General Strain Theory (GST) 169
relative and absolute deprivation 169
theories addressing ways of stopping terrorism 169–72
diffusion of innovations 171–2
opportunity theories 170–1
theories on origins and motivations
deterrence 166–7
rational choice theories 165–7
social disorganization 167–8
terrorism as a reaction 168–9 see also causes of terrorism
extradition 35–7, 39, 40, 45, 662
extremism
animal rights extremists 316, 320
anti-abortion activists 316
Countering Violent Extremism (CVE) 207–8, 645–6
and economic conditions 151
Islamic 73, 80, 295, 299
reasons for involvement in 209
(p. 767) Fahey, S. 168
Fairclough, N. 229
Falk, R. 77
Fanon, F. 127
FAR (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias), Argentina 122
Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN), El Salvador 471
Faraj, Abd al-Salam 301
The Neglected Duty 300
FARC (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia) 12, 354, 561
financial resources 480, 481
organizational dynamics 386, 387
and rise and fall of terrorism 465, 466, 469, 470
Fariss, C. 562
fascist terrorism 547, 548–9
Fatah 416, 422, 451
Middle Eastern terrorism 570–2
suicide terrorism 430
Faust, J. 519
Fearon, J. D. 563
Feaver, P. D. 689n8
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 320
Felix, E. 526n2
Fellman, M. 73
Felter, J. H. 154
female terrorists
Al Qaeda 415, 417, 424–5
evaluations of participation in terrorist violence 415–17
grooming of 417
historical engagement 418–25
Islamic State 415, 417, 424–5
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam (LTTE) 415, 419–20
Marxist-Leninists groups 415, 416, 420–2
motivations 414
Narodnaya Volya (The People’s Will) 415, 418–19
Palestinian Resistance Movement, involvement in 416, 422–3
participation in terrorist organizations 390
prior rape of 417, 420
radical Islamism 424–5
suicide terrorism 416–17, 435
Ferdinand, F., assassination of 117
field of terrorism studies
constructing
changes 715–18
early developments 705–9
future directions 718–20
growth of field in 1980s 709–11
responding to terrorism 711–15
evolution of 1–2
institutionalizing 725–39
narratives 740–2
revising 740–53
Figner, V. 418, 419
films, as teaching aid 521–2
Financial Action Task Force (FATF), UK 486, 661
Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), US 486
financing of terrorism 478–93
counter the financing of terrorism (CFT) 479, 487–8, 490
criminalization 486
defining terrorist finance 479–80
future research areas 488–90
implications for countering the financing of terrorism 485–8
informal value transfer systems (IVTS) 483, 484, 487
movement of resources 482–4
principal-agent problem 489
sources of terrorist financing 480–2
Suspicious Activity Reports 487
Terrorist Financing Convention (International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism) 1999 38, 43, 44, 667
terrorist spending 484–5
Findley, M. G. 158, 241–4, 351, 355–6, 388, 497, 503, 506
Finn, J. 714
First Intifada, Palestinian 422
First World War see World War I
Fishman, S. 611
FLN (Front de Liberation Nationale), Algeria 120, 127, 707
FLNC (Corsican National Liberation Front) 549, 550
(p. 768) FMLN (Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front), El Salvador 471
force, use of against terrorist groups 662–4
foreign terrorist fighters 592, 648, 649, 651, 667
Forest, J. 734
formal terrorist research literature 148–62
correlation between national-level measures and locality-specific conditions 151
defining 149–50
empirical issues 150–7, 158
agency problems 152–4
bargaining difficulties 157
economic conditions affecting terrorism 151–2
inadequacy of government counterterrorism efforts 154–5
records, numbers of 152–4
why opposition groups choose terrorism 155–7
game-theoretical models 149–50, 159n1
middlemen, delegation to 152–3
and quantitative research 158
Fortna, V. P. 26, 360, 452
Foster, D. M. 356
Foucault, M. 182, 185, 229
Fouché, J. 104, 107
framing, cultural 183, 186
France
Action Directe 122, 420, 553
anarchist-inspired violence 109
Charlie Hebdo attacks (2014) 215, 484
ETA’s haven in 550
French Revolution (1789) see French Revolution (1789)
occupation in World War II 119
Paris bombing (2015) 551
Paris Commune 107, 109, 112
Paris massacre (2017) 12
Prefecture of Police 110
Reign of Terror (1793–94) 34, 73, 87, 104, 198–9, 203, 730
and revolutionary terrorism 553
St Bartholomew Day Massacre, 1572 (Paris) 103
Free Companies and pre-history of terrorism 95–7
free will 165
freedom fighters 302
Freeh, L. 325n4
Freilich, J. D. 168
French Revolution (1789)
aftermath 104
Declaration of the Rights of Man 104
Jacobin Reign of Terror during (1793–94) 34, 73, 87, 104, 198–9, 203, 730
and long nineteenth century 103, 104
and National Assembly 104
and state terrorism 333
Friedman, T. 715
Froissart, J. 96
Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PLFP-GC) 51–2, 575
frustration-aggression hypothesis 168–9
fundamentalism
Christian 291, 292
Hindu 292
Islamic 143, 290
Jewish 292 see also extremism
Gaddafi, Colonel Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar 335, 496
Gaibulloev, K. 356, 500, 502
Galleani, L. 118
Gambetta, D. 433, 434, 449
game-theoretical models 149–50, 159n1
Gandhi (film) 522
Gandhi, I. 293
Gandhi, M. M. 292
Gandhi, R. 293, 419
Ganor, B. 733
Gassebner, M. 362n6
Gaucher, R. 726
Gaza Strip 171, 571
and Middle Eastern terrorism 575, 579–81
GBTA (Group-Based Trajectory Analysis) 465, 466
General Assembly of the United Nations (UNGA) see United Nations General Assembly (UNGA)
General Strain Theory (GST) 169
genocide
in long twentieth century 125
and political violence 11–13, 18, 19, 25–7
(p. 769) geocoded data 247
GeoCommons (GIS software) 247
geographic information systems (GIS) 238–50
and additional applications of geography in terrorism research 242–3
ArcGIS suite software 246, 247
country-specific studies 239–41
cross-national studies 238, 239, 241–2
data 243–4, 245, 246, 247
event databases 64
extant literature 239–43
future research areas 245–6
popularity 238
PRIO-GRID cell structure 241, 242
R Maptools 247
raster data 243–4
subnational measures/statistics 239
technical needs 246–7
techniques 243–5
terrorist hotspots, identifying 241–2
vector data 243, 244, 246
geographically weighted regression (GWR) 245
George, A. 447, 712–13
Western State Terrorism 232
Germany
Allied bombing in World War II 77–8
Baader Meinhof Gang, West Germany 202, 421, 575
Hayat 641
Munich Olympics, attack of 1972 2, 39, 522, 708, 731
Nazi Germany 119, 274, 307
Red Army Faction 76–7, 126, 188, 202, 213, 253, 302, 309, 420, 548, 708
Springer Press Building, bombing of (Hamburg, 1972) 421
Weimar Republic 333 see also Holocaust; World War I; World War II
Gervasoni, C. 565
Getmansky, A. 452
ghettos 341
Gibson, E. L. 564–5
Gill, P. 217, 218, 411n1
Gillespie, P. 435
Giraudy, A. 565
Gleditsch, K. S. 353, 355, 356–7, 359, 502
Global Centre for Cooperative Security (GCCS) 642
Global Community Engagement and Resilience Fund (GCERF) 650
Global CT Forum (GCTF) 649–50
Global Database of Events, Language and Tone (GDELT) 63, 64
Global North 7, 228, 342–3
Global South 6, 233, 335
Global Terrorism Database (GTD) 3, 50, 52, 54–8, 60–4, 559, 609t, 708–9, 717
access to source materials 463
and Africa 614
and civil wars 355
Codebook 57
compared to WITS database 60–2
and geographic information systems (GIS) 240, 241
perpetrators of violence 464
technology 463
Global Terrorism Index, Institute for Economics and Peace 642
globalization 169, 285
Gofas, A. 57, 241
Golan Heights 504
Goldney, R. 430
Goldstein, B. 292, 433
Gonzalo, President (Abimael Guzman Reynoso) 125
Good Friday Agreement, Northern Ireland (1998) 157, 469
Graaf, J. de 725, 728
Gracchus, T. and G. 195
Gramsci, A. 229
Great Revolt (against Roman rule), 66ce 195
Great War see World War I
Greece 119
Green Gang 367
Green Zone, Baghdad 62
Greenbaum, R. T. 612
Greene, K. 388
Gregg, H. 287
Gregory of Tours
Ten Books of Histories 91
(p. 770) Gregory VII, Pope 94
grievances 353–4, 361
Grivas, G. 126
Group-Based Trajectory Analysis (GBTA) 465, 466
Guantanamo Bay 748
Guatemala, organized crime in 21
guerre revolutionnaire 368
guerrillas/guerrilla organizations 52, 119, 369
Central American 257
suicide terrorism 433
terrorist groups distinguished 386, 494, 544
urban guerrillas 122, 547
“V” Force 598
Guerry, A. M. 167
Guillaume, J. 545
Gulf Wars 570
Guliuzza, F. 521
Gunning, J. 182, 741
Gunpower Plot (1605) 103
Gupta, D. 733
Gurr, T. 168–9, 452, 711
Gush Emunim (Bloc of the Faithful) 292, 304
Gutiérrez-Sanín, F. 362n3
GWR (geographically weighted regression) 245
Habash, G. 572, 573, 575
hadith (Islamic oral traditions) 305, 306, 312n8
Hafez, M. 430
Hafner-Burton, E. M. 689n12
Hall, S. 225
Hamas 40, 151, 422, 451, 537
Charter (1988) 300, 305
Middle Eastern terrorism 575, 580–1
present-aim rationality 611
suicide terrorism 430, 436
Hamdan v Rumsfeld (2006) 665, 671
Haqqani Network (HQN) 595
Hassan, K. al- 571
Hassan, R. 191
Haupt, H.-G. 102
Hawatmeh, N. 572
Hayat, Germany 641
Hayward, K. 215
Heath-Kelly, C. 5
Hebdo, C. 215, 484
Hebron, Cave of the Patriarchs massacre (1994) 433
Hedayah, Abu Dhabi 641, 649
Heger, L. L. 357
Hegghammer, T. 301, 390
Held, D. 288
Hendrix, C. 563
Henriquez, M. 95
Henry, E. 109
Henry IV of Germany 94
Herman, E. S. 232, 255, 257
Hermann, M. 710
Hewitt, J. 62
Heymann, P. 628
Heywood, A. 299
Hezbollah 40, 123, 151, 159n3, 386, 451, 709, 717
financial resources 481, 484–5
Middle Eastern terrorism 576, 577, 578, 581, 582
present-aim rationality 611
and sponsorship 497
suicide terrorism 403–4
hierarchical logic 25
Higgins, R. 661
hijacking 35, 38
aerial/airline 59, 172, 188, 403, 407, 575, 597, 608, 671, 707
El Al hijack (1968) 51–2, 575
and PLO 423
politically-motivated 172
and suicide bombing 434
terrorism-motivated 166, 171, 172
train 729
transportation-motivated 166
by women 423 see also bombs; suicide terrorism
Hijra, Al Takfir wa al- 309
Hindu terrorism 292–3
Hindu Thugs 73, 311n2
historical approaches to terrorism 194–206
colonialism 197–8
dissident groups 195, 196, 198
narratives, in twentieth century 126
(p. 771) nationalism 270
revolts 195–6
Roman Republic 194–5
socio-historically contingent signifier, terrorism as 4
value of 194
violence in city-states 196, 197
and women as terrorists 418–25 see also pre-history
Hitler, A. 40, 275, 336, 741
Hobbes, T. 233, 234
Hobsbawm, E. 102, 279, 338
Hoffer, E. 213, 219
Hoffman, B. 82, 149, 304, 349, 386, 402, 449, 452, 496, 549, 731
Studies in Terrorism and Conflict 734
Holocaust 11, 19, 25 see also ethnic cleansing
homegrown terrorism 403, 551, 555–6, 715
Hopgood, S. 434
Horgan, J. G. 217, 467
Horowitz, D. L. 20
Horowitz, I. L. 730
Horowitz, M. C. 409, 449
hostage situations 343, 424, 452–3
cultural terrorism research 181, 188
and definitions of terrorism 35, 38, 39, 43, 44
event databases 52, 53
simulations 532–5
strategic model of terrorism 452–3
hotspots, terrorist 241–2
Hovil, L. 357–8
Hultman, L. 357
human rights 628
abuses 234, 562, 749
and Cold War 232
constraints/restrictions on 672–3, 682, 684
and counterterrorism 651, 652, 659, 665, 666, 668–72, 674
data 561
and definitions of terrorism 40–4, 46
fundamental 659, 669, 671
groups and organizations 233, 340, 563
instruments 672
international law 46, 651
lobbies 341
norms 16
peacetime standards 665
protection mechanisms 46, 651, 670, 679, 684, 688
reports 562
respect for 58, 294, 341, 681
and rule of law 674, 727
in South Africa 79
spiral model 340
and state terrorism 340, 341, 343
strong movements 357
treaties 673
Human Rights Committee 43, 673
Hundred Years War 95
Huntington, S. 101, 177, 283
Hurrell, A. 286
Hussein, King of Jordan 573
Hussein, S. 570, 734
Huth, P. K. 504, 505
hybrid governance 374
hybrid threats 367
idealism 186
ideology 298–315
fundamentalist 143, 290
ideological drift 321, 322
ideological encapsulation 142
ideological penetration 186, 187, 188–90
indoctrination 602
Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS)/Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) 304–9
jihadist 300–3
militant 283, 285, 289, 600
millenarianism 304–6
Muslim Brotherhood 581
nearer enemies 306–9
psychological terrorism research 209
Saudi Wahabist (Salafist) 581
and terrorism 310–11
Wahhabism 600, 601, 602
Idris, W. 423
illegal economies 367
eradication 372
interdiction 372
political capital theory 370–3, 377n5
suppression of 375–6
toleration of 372–3
imperialism 302
improvised explosive devices (IEDs) 240, 243
in Middle East 404–5
in-class experiences 531–2
India 20, 592, 593
disputes with Pakistan over Kashmir 497, 501, 503–4, 599
Mumbai attacks (2008) 39, 238, 288–9, 596
indirect-war theory 260–2, 264
Indonesia 592, 593
informal value transfer systems (IVTS) 483, 484, 487
infrastructural power 335
Innocent III, Pope 94
innovation
characteristics of innovative groups 408–10
diffusion of innovations 171–2
technological 401–13
terrorism as a European innovation 543–4
Institute of Conflict Studies, London 726
instrumental logic 25–6
insurgency 1, 14, 17, 262
anarchist-inspired violence 108–10
antagonists 102, 105
and civilian targeting 351, 354, 359
colonial 338
counter-insurgency 1, 12, 26, 240, 254, 361, 563
data 239
defining 27
domestic 348
ethnic 594
European political violence 101–3, 105, 109
geographic information systems (GIS) 240, 243
Greece 119
groups 26, 149, 157, 234, 359
Iraq, attacks in 239
Ireland 118, 120
“jihadi” 17
justifiable 78–9
mass protest/rebellion 21
movements 104
by non-state actors, as terrorism 228, 234, 331
rural 122
“second-wave” 123
and state terrorism 334, 337
Integrated Conflict Early Warning System (ICEWS) 63–4
intelligence community
and academic research 695–701
intercommunal violence 20, 21
inter-group competition 140–1
internal war see civil wars
International Communist League 108
International Convention on the Suppression of Terrorism (1999) 479, 480
International Criminal Court (ICC)
Preparatory Committee on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court 37, 38
International Criminal Police Commission 650
International Criminal Police Congress 650
International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia 42
International Economic Emergency Powers Act (IEEPA) 486
International Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences 706
international humanitarian law (IHL)
and Draft Comprehensive Terrorism Convention 40–1
proportionality principle 666
and rebel groups 358
and war crime of terrorism 42
and War on Terror 665–6
International Institute for Justice (IIJ), Malta 649
(p. 773) International Law Commission (ILC)
draft code of international crimes (1996) 37
international law (IL)
and counterterrorism 659–76
definitional quandary 661–2
force, use of against terrorist groups 662–4
international and domestic legal challenges 669–72
Kadi judgment 669
normative framework 660–1
War on Terror and international humanitarian law 665–6
international order
and international society 284–6
and religious terrorism 286–91
International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO) Center for the Study of Civil War 50
International Scientific and Professional Advisory Council (ISPAC) 733
International Studies Quarterly 708
international terrorism 115, 212, 287, 603
in Asia 595
and civil wars 361, 718, 719
cross-national studies 144, 238, 239, 241–2, 559
and definitions of terrorism 37, 45
and democracy 356
versus domestic terrorism 350, 688n2
event databases 54, 63
field of terrorism studies
constructing 706–8, 713
institutionalizing 727, 732
and financing of terrorism 478 see also domestic terrorism
International Terrorism: Attributes of Terrorist Events database see ITERATE (International Terrorism: Attributes of Terrorist Events) database
internet and legal challenges 669–72
Internet-enabled communication 410
interstate conflict/war 15–16, 25, 503–10
intra-movement interactions 139–41
intrastate war see civil wars
Iran 26, 294, 576
Islamic Revolution 576
Revolutionary Guards 576
Iraq
Ba’ath regime 573
civil wars 152
economic sanctions on 255
Green Zone, Baghdad 62
improvised explosive devices (IEDs) 240
interstate conflict/war 25
media coverage of attacks 463
rise and fall of terrorism 473–4
and state terrorism 335
as subject of analysis 239
Irgun (Zionist paramilitary organization) 118, 120, 121, 549
Irhabiyin (those terrorizing the enemies of Islam) 126
Irish Republican Army (IRA)
in 1980s 709
and causes of terrorism 253
and coercive organizational capacity 188
decommissioning of weapons 157
financial resources 480
interaction between armed groups and the state 139
Irish Free State, winning independence for 202
liberation war 118
in long twentieth century 118, 119, 126
and Nazi Germany 119
Official IRA 549
political reality of terrorism 73–4
splinter groups 139
suicide terrorism 435
(p. 774) Irish Republican Brotherhood 187
Iron Curtain, fall of 482
Islam
failure of Islamists to secure power as motivation for terrorism 123
fundamentalism 143, 290
ideology see ideology
Koran, misinterpretation 78
militant Islamism 123
Muslim Assassins 73, 87, 196, 203, 305, 311n4, 741
radical Islamism 73, 424–5, 603
sectarian divisions 294–5
Shi’a/Shi’ite 87, 294, 305, 307, 310, 311n7, 576, 577
Sunni 273, 289, 294, 305, 308, 310, 311n7, 600
terrorism see Islamic terrorism
umma (global Muslim community) 263 see also extremism; Quran; terrorist groups/organizations; world faiths
Islamic extremism 73, 80, 295, 299
Islamic Liberation Organization 123
Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS)/Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) 304–9
and Al Qaeda 273
and crime–terror nexus 366
female terrorists 415, 417, 424–5
financial resources 484, 485, 489, 490
founding of 306
global operations 63
growth of 80–1, 82
ideology/ideological penetration 189, 301, 302, 424
impossibility of justifying activities of 78
and jihadism 308
and Middle Eastern terrorism 585–7
millenarianism 304–6
and nationalism 272
Nazis compared 307
nearer enemies 306–9
political reality of terrorism 73–4
rebranding as 473
recruitment and retention strategies 417
and religion 293–4
religion and international order 288
on religious minorities 307
state-building 273
Sunnis, treatment of 308
women, recruiting of 414 see also Hamas; Hezbollah; Islamic terrorism; jihadism
Islamization of Palestinian area 579
Ismaili Assassins 305
Israel
Arab–Israeli conflict 570, 571, 579, 587
Camp David agreement (1978) 292
and economic conditions 152
Gush Emunim (Bloc of the Faithful) 292, 304
Israeli Air Force (IEF) 577
Israeli Defense Force (IDF) 171, 578
Israeli Embassies, bombing of (1992) 577
Jewish terrorism 292
state terrorism 257
state violence 341
and suicide terrorism 240
Supreme Court 670–1
terrorist goal to destroy 576, 577, 579 see also Jewish people; Middle Eastern terrorism; Zionist groups
Israeli, R. 430
Italy
Brigate Rosse (BR) 109, 121, 126, 137, 138, 188, 202, 420, 543
violence in city-states 196, 197
ITERATE (International Terrorism: Attributes of Terrorist Events) database 52, 60, 61, 242, 608, 617n1, 708
Jaber, H. 404
Jabhat al Nusra 303, 308
Jackson, A. 199, 200
Jackson, B. A. 171, 172, 406–7
Jackson, R. 3, 4, 182, 219, 230, 232, 235, 331, 332, 343
Writing the War on Terrorism 229
(p. 775) Jacquerie (French uprising, 1358) 95–6, 97
Jaish-e-Mohammad (JeM) 595
Jama’at Ansar al-Islam 308
Jamaat-e-Islami, India 122
Jaman, I. 303
Japan
Aum Shinrikyo 202, 403, 408, 411, 597, 712
kamikaze pilots 429, 430
Red Army Faction 121–2, 420
Sarin gas attacks 403, 411, 597, 712
Jarvis, L. 741
Jenkins, B. 53, 59, 452, 706, 726, 727
Jewish people
dissident groups 195, 198
fundamentalism 292
genocide 27
terrorists 73, 87, 118, 120, 121, 292, 304 see also Holocaust; Judaism
Jibril, A. 572
jihadism
Al Qaeda’s declining influence on 293
in Central Asia 597
and fear of retaliation 714
Global Salafi Jihad 151
ideology 300–3
insurgency 17
Irhabiyin (those terrorizing the enemies of Islam) 126
and ISIS 308
jihad as an individual duty 300–2
“jihad factories” 600
in Lebanon 576
local Islamist-Jihadist activities 575–81
long twentieth century, terrorism in 123, 126
modern 301
Palestinian groups 579
self-defense 302–3
and suicide terrorism 716
John, King of England 94
Johnson, J. 727
Johnson, S. D. 240
Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre (JTAC), UK 643, 644
Jones, S. G. 391–2, 711
Jordan
Black September 574
civil war in (1970) 570, 573–4
Joseph, Emperor Franz 107
journals 2, 234, 708, 725, 734, 736n16
Journal of Conflict Resolution 706, 726
Judaism 196, 292 see also Jewish people
Judea, revolts in 195, 196
Juergensmeyer, M. 177, 287
juramentado (suicide missions), Philippines 197
just war 15, 69, 90, 254
justice 72
justifiability of terrorism 75–9
Kahane, Rabbi M. 292, 304
Kalyango, M. 616
Kalyvas, C. N. 349, 350, 354
Kalyvas, S. 624
Kant, I. 70
Kasab, A. 288
Kashmir, disputes between Pakistan and India over status 497, 501, 503–4, 599
Kathman, J. D. 355, 359–60
Katzenstein, P. 745
Kaufman, S. J. 393n2
Kaussler, B. 524
Keesing’s Record of World Events 53
Kellen, K. 298–9
Kelsay, J. 300
Kenya 370
Kenya Defense Forces (KDF) 373
Kerchove, G. de 647
Kermani, N. 311n6
Khaled, L. 423
Khobar Towers attack (1996) 630
Khomeini, Ayatollah 576
Khurasan 305
kidnapping 608
Kilburn, J. 180
Kim Jong Nam 593
Kim Jong Un 593
King David Hotel bombing (1946) 120
(p. 776) Kinsey, A. 207
Kittner, C. C. B. 499
Kliot, N. 240
Kluch, S. P. 242
Knights Templar 95
Knutson, J. 710
Köbben, A. 729
Koran see Quran
Kotzebue, A. von 105
Krause, P. 710
Krebs, R. 632
Kreps, S. E. 497, 501
Krieger, T. 552
Kropotkin, P. 109, 125
Krueger, A. 55, 151, 159n3, 499, 610
Kruglanski, A. W. 611
Ku Klux Klan (KKK), US 200, 202, 259, 291
Kuhn, T. 225
Kumar, S. 61
Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), Turkey 124, 190, 348, 351, 625
Kuwaiti, Abu Abdullah al- 308
Kydd, A. H. 155–6, 388, 446, 449
labor camps, Siberia 106
Laborde, J. P. 651
LaFree, G. 58, 164, 167, 168, 172, 203–4, 465–6, 559, 716
Countering Terrorism 715
Laitin, D. 55, 153–4, 158, 611
Lakdawalla, D. 240
Lake, D. 446, 503
Lander, S. 695, 700
language, and critical research 226–7
Lankford, A. 215–16
LAPOP (Latin American Public Opinion Project) 565
Laqueur, W. 76–7, 706, 729–30
“The Futility of Terrorism” 452
Lashkar-e-Taiba, Pakistan 190, 285, 296n3, 450, 595
Mumbai attacks (2008) 39, 238, 288–9
Latin America 559–67
conceptual confusion 561
lack of data on terrorism in 559–61
LAPOP (Latin American Public Opinion Project) 565
long twentieth century, terrorism in 122
rise and fall of terrorism 469–71
state capacity, importance 563–6
street crime 371
subnational measures/statistics 562–6
Law, R. 73, 76, 80
Law of Coercive Responsiveness 679
Lawrence, B. 263–4
League of Nations 36, 37, 38, 706, 731
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Terrorism (1937) 662
Lebanon
Hezbollah in 577
Islamic Jihad in 576
Shia in 159n3
terrorist bombings 44, 403–4, 412n2, 429
UN Special Tribunal for 661
Appeals Chamber 44, 45
wars
in 1982 576
in 2006 578
civil war (1976) 403–4, 570, 573, 574
Lee, A. 151, 633
Lesch, D. 336
Leviathan, Hobbesian 233, 234
Lexis-Nexis 55
Li, Q. 684
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Elam (LTTE), Sri Lanka 348, 386, 709, 716
Black Tigers 419, 434
and causes of terrorism 255
and cultural terrorism research 187, 190
female terrorists 415, 419–20
financial resources 481
and ideology 302
in long twentieth century 121, 124
suicide terrorism 420, 430
Liberia 607
Libicki, M. C. 391–2, 711
Libya 503
Lieven, A. 340
linguistic structuralism 226
Liou, Y.-M. 354
(p. 777) Lockerbie bombing (1988) 469, 496
logics 24–7
escalation 26, 137, 138
hierarchical 25
instrumental 25–6
substitution 26–7
logit models 509
Lok Sabha (lower chamber of India’s Congress) 374
London bombing (2005) 478, 551, 646, 714
lone actor terrorists 208, 218
long nineteenth century see nineteenth century (long), terrorism in
long twentieth century see twentieth century (long)
longitudinal analyses of terrorist attacks 58
Lopez, G. 519
Louis Napoleon, Emperor 107
Louis XIV, King of France 103
low-intensity terrorist campaigns, toleration of 154
Luechinger, S. 362n6
Lum, C. 172
Luna, J. P. 565
Lynch, J. P. 170
Lynch, O. 733
Lyotard, J.-F. 182
M-19 (Movement of April 19), Colombia 469
McAlister, B. 729
Maccabees, revolt of 196
McCants, W. 299, 414, 424, 634
McCauley, C. 171, 214, 259, 710
McCormick, G. H. 389, 449, 496
MacDonald, E. 415
McEvoy, S. 425n1
McGrew, A. 288
McKinley, William 117
McVeigh, T. 50, 124, 291
Madobe, A. 373
Madrid train bombing (2004) 179, 478, 551, 646, 714
costs 481, 484
Maghrebi, Abu Obeida al- 308
Mahdisim 311n7
Maistre, J. de 105
Majeed, A. W. 303
Malatesta, E. 125, 545
Malaysia 593, 594
Maldives 596–7
Malečková, J. 151, 159n3, 610, 612
Malik, R. 288–9
Malik, T. 414
Maliki, Nuri al- 312n11
Malkki, L. 711
Mandela, N. 79
Mann, M. 20, 335
Mao Zedong (Chairman Mao) 18, 122, 336
Maoz, Z. 497, 502–4
mapping militants project 718
Marawi, terrorist siege of (2017) 593–4
Marighella, C. 122, 125, 126, 730
Marineau, J. F. 244
Marsden, S. 732
Martin, G. 287, 320
martyrdom 305, 430, 432, 433, 438, 439 see also suicide terrorism
Marx, K. 107, 108, 225–6, 229
Marxism-Leninism 202, 415, 416
groups of the 1960s 420–2
Masri, Abu Ayyub al- 306
mass protest/rebellion 22–3, 27
mass terror 25
Maute Group 594
Mayntz, R. 187–8
Mazzini, G. 106
measuring of terrorism 461–4
source materials, access to 462–3
technology 463–4
terrorism versus other forms of political violence 464
Medina, R. M. 240, 244
Meierrieks, D. 552
Meinhof, U. 421
Mendelsohn, B. 715
mental illness 209, 215–16
Merari, A. 214, 402, 464, 560
Merton, R. K. 169
Messiah 304, 305
meta-narratives 182
Metternich, K. von 105, 107
(p. 778) Mexico, organized crime in 21, 371
drug cartels 387
Mickolus, E. F. 495
micro-solidarity 186, 190–1
Middle Ages and pre-history of terrorism 73, 89, 97
defining Middle Ages 88
early Middle Ages (c. 500–1000) 89–91
high Middle Ages (c. 1000–1300) 92–4
later Middle Ages 89, 90, 94–6, 97, 196 see also pre-history
Middle Eastern terrorism 569–89
centrality of Middle East to development of modern terrorism 569, 575
global Islamist-jihadist organizations 581–7
improvised explosive devices (IEDs) 404–5
local Islamist-Jihadist activities 575–81
Midlarsky, M. 708
militarized interstate dispute (MID) 506–7, 508t, 509, 512
military campaigns 75–6
military context, civil war violence 354–6
military coups 14, 21–2
coup-proofing 27
Mill, J. S. 70
millenarianism 304–6
Miller, E. 466
Miller, M. A. 73, 75, 77
Milosevic, S. 5
minimax strategies 150
MIPT (National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism) 54
MIR (Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria), Venezuela 122
Miracles of St Benedict 92
Miracles of St Foy 92, 97
Mishal, S. 436