Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 26 June 2019

(p. I-35) Subject Index

(p. I-35) Subject Index

Note: References to figures are indicated by ‘f’, tables by ‘t’.‘n’ indicates a footnote, with the number following ‘n’ indicating the footnote number when there is more than one footnote on the page.

A
Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS), 1350
abortion, 166, 553–554
abuse, of psychiatry, 19–20, 1070
acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), 584
accountable health organizations (ACOs), 810
Action for Advocacy, 679
actions, permitted, 425, 508t
active development, 592
acts
of public order (mu’amalat), 507
recommended, 508t
of worship (‘ebadat), 507, 507n.19
actus rea (guilty act), 916
addiction, 209, 995–996
Islam and, 513–514
madh, 619
treatment, 597
administration, 805
Administrative Justice Tribunals Council (AJTC), 276, 277
adolescence, 64
girls and, 726
adolescents
access to mental health care, 138
assessment, disclosures, 892
bipolar disorder in, 216
child and adolescent mental health care, 137–146
communication of psychiatrists regarding medication for, 225–226
consent, 140
coordination and sequencing of treatment for, 224–225
decision-making capacities in, 139, 140
depression in, 216
ethics codes of professionals who work with, 217
as intersex patients, 195–197
involuntary treatment, 143
with panic disorder, 223
prevalence who meet criteria for mental health diagnosis, 214
privacy and confidentiality in mental health care, 141
psychopharmacological interventions, 143–144
adults, as intersex patients, 197
Adults with Incapacity (Scotland) Act 2000, 684
advance care directives, 40, 40n.17
ethical issues, 40n.19
advance care planning, 260–261
advance refusals of treatment, 261
adverse effects, 966, 967
advocacy
forensic psychiatry, 893
Mental Capacity Act 2005 (England and Wales), 684
Mental Health Act 1983 (England and Wales), 684
in mental health care, 677–710 (p. I-36)
accountability, 680
approach, 689
citizen advocacy, 682
confidentiality, 680–681
current issues, 684–687
definition of, 677–678
empowerment, 680
forms of, 682–683
group/collective advocacy, 682
history of, 678
independence, 679, 687
independent mental capacity advocacy (IMCA), 682–683
Independent Mental Health Advocacy (IMHA), 683
information, 680
instructed advocacy, 682
legislation, 684
mental health settings, 685–686
monitoring, 688–689
non-instructed advocacy, 682, 687–688
Northern Ireland legislation, 684
peer advocacy, 682
principles of, 679–681
professionalism of, 687
recent developments, 678–679
representation, 680
Scotland legislation, 684
self-advocacy, 682
support, 680
umbrella/trade body, 688
patient, 775
Advocacy Charter, 679
advocates, 678
affection (moh, attachment), 619
affirmation, 1267–1268, 1273
Afghanistan, 707
Africa
ethics, 77–78
Indaba, values-based practice, 295–318
see also South Africa
age, 868
ageing, 255
ageism, 816
agency, 209, 365, 408, 1255–1257
diachronic, 395
dual, 240
human, 500
identity and, 372–386
narrative and hope
clinician’s role, 1324–1325
patient’s sense of agency, 1322–1324
agent
autonomy, 357–359, 359t
causal theory, 380
aggression, 142, 153, 444, 590, 908, 1310, 1341
agoraphobia, 1257
Akineton (biperiden), 120
akrasia (weakness of will), 917
al-Sirat al-Mustaqim (Straight Path), 496
alcohol, 515
misuse, 867
and PTSD, caregiving and caregivers, 1378
alcoholism, 123
Hinduism and, 621
algorithms, 793, 872, 1053, 1115, 1117, 1118
alienation, 342
All About My Mother (film), 332
All-Union Society of Psychiatrists and Neuropathologists (AUSPN), 657n.4
Almodóvar, Pedro, 332
Alzheimer’s dementia, 260
Alzheimer’s disease, 396–397
biomarkers, 1221
Alzheimer’s disorder, 1178
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP), 217
Ethics Code, 217
American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (AAPL), Ethics Guidelines for the Practice of Forensic Psychiatry, 816
American Association of Psychiatric Administrators (AAPA), 811
American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP), 1095
American Medical Association (AMA), 810
Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs (CEJA), 774
ethical principles, for clinicians, 811
Principles of Medical Ethics, 811
American National Institute of Health (NIH), 1115 (p. I-37)
American Psychiatric Association (APA), 183n, 638, 647, 802, 809, 830n, 1035, 1063, 1329
Annotations, 1235
ethical code, 827
Ethics Code, 1092, 1093, 1094
Goldwater Rule, 828–836
American psychiatry
growth, dilemmas, 640–641
moral/ethical history of, 637–653
nineteenth century origins, 637–640
therapeutic experimentation, 647–650
transition, 641–647
American Psychological Association, Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation, 185
amnesia
dissociative, 389
retrograde, 1211
amphetamine, 1177
amputation, desire to have limb, 940, 941
amygdala, 918, 1110, 1211
androgen insensitivity syndrome, 196
anger (krodha), 619
anhedonia, 1014
animal care and use committees (IACUCs), 1018, 1019
animal welfare, 1009–1010
fear learning, 1015–1016
learning and memory tests, 1015
in psychiatric research, 1008–1009
animal health status, 1011–1012
animal model selection, 1012–1013
clinical endpoints, 1016–1017
principles, 1010–1017
test selection, 1013–1016
Animal Welfare Act, 1001
animal welfare body, 1018
animals
in psychiatric research, 989–1007
3 Rs, 1001, 1001n.24
contributions to psychiatry, 1020–1021
cost-benefit analysis, 1019–1020
country- and region-specific legislation and regulations, 1017–1019
cumulative harms and risk-benefit analyses, 999–1000
ethical oversight of use of, 1008–1009
ethical problems, 997–1000
ethics committee, 1019
global oversight, 1017–1020
IACUC, 1018, 1019
inducing psychopathology, 997–999
legal and regulatory constructs, 1000–1001, 1002t
modern psychiatric experiments involving, 992–997
psychology experiments, 990–992
research ethics, 23
anorexia nervosa, 364, 437, 528, 529, 723, 997, 1192, 1259
caregiving and caregivers, 1377–1378
contagion, 715, 716, 717
involuntary treatment, 143, 1392
anti-naturalism, 323, 324
anti-realists, 1145
anticonvulsant agents, 1178
antidepressants, 166, 939–940, 1176
antipsychotics, 1176
antisocial behavior, 918
antisocial conduct disorders, 918
antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), 201, 208, 443, 916
anxiety, 123, 221, 594, 993–994, 1177, 1180, 1283
experiments involving animals, 1014–1015
apathetic children, 389
apotemnophilia, 940
archaeology of knowledge, 975
ashramas (stages), 618
brahmacharya (student), 618
grihastha (householder), 618
sanyasa (renunciation), 618
vanaprashtha (retired), 618
ashrams (monastery), 619
Asperger syndrome, 119, 120, 717
Assad, Bashar (ruler of Syria), 804
assent, 1363
Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) teams, 1357, 1386, 1391, 1394, 1395–1396 (p. I-38)
assessments
mental health assessments, values, individual diversity, 1076–1077
reports, language of, 223
of risk, 919–920
strengths-based, 1083–1084
tools, 1133, 1195
assisted dying, 235–236
Association of Medical Superintendents of American Institutions for the Insane, (AMSAII), 638
Association of University Technology Managers (AUTM), 1029
AstraZeneca, 1037
asylums, 3, 274
dependence, 61–62
independence from, 62–63
at-risk mental state (ARMS), 1116
attachment disorders, 991
attachment (moh, affection), 619
attachment theorists, 1255
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 216, 221, 389, 454, 1102, 1177–1178, 1339, 1351
Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (APS), 1361
Attenuated Psychotic Symptoms Syndrome, 661
atypical antipsychotic medications, 1026–1027
Augustine of Hippo, 545n.28
Australia
Code of Ethics of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists, 413
Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists, 413
authoritarianism, 505
authority, cultural, 797
autism, 119, 120, 155, 221, 399, 744
co-morbid, 151
weak cognitive theory of, 399
autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 216, 390, 391, 1111, 1117
autoethnography, 979
autonomy, 32–33, 331, 691, 1216, 1287, 1385
agency and, 1255–1257
agent, 357–359, 359t
authoritative, 366–368
basic principles, 1092
and beneficence, 362
in child and adolescent mental health care, 139
degrees of, 408
dependence and, 257
for feminists, 439
individual, 355, 356, 357t
as instrumental conception of practical rationality, 366
Internet, 716
Islamic perspectives on, 504, 505
and joint agency, 365
Kantian, 354–355, 357t
in LAMICs, 704–705
and liberty, 696
and medical confidentiality, 1354
and paternalism, 1391
paternalism-friendly skepticism, 361–364
patient, 1143, 1144–1145
personal, 356
challenges to, 358t
Jewish view of, 524
value and scope of, 502–505
and personhood, 329–330
presuppositions, 365–368
principle of respect for, 407–409
and professional boundaries, 1161
professional boundaries and, 1172
in psychiatric ethics, 354–371
rational, 356, 357t, 524, 528
rebutting skepticism, 368–369
relational, 440
respect for, 396–398
and right of refusal in relation to personal capacity or competency, 1393
and security, 898–899
and self-determination in relation to coercion, 1389–1392
skeptical presuppositions, 367t
skepticism about personal, 354–357
and telepsychiatry, 1353–1354
vulnerability-based skepticism, 359–361
B
bad news, 239, 1392
Batho Pele, 12, 60–61n.1, 61, 69, 85, 295, 314, 856
as African enhanced values-based practice, 310
multidisclipinary team, 317
and peer supported recovery, 79–80
person-and-people-values-centred-care in, 315
putting a person and people first, 77–80
and values-based practice, 78–79
Bayh-Dole Act (1980), 1029
behavior therapy, 1293
behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), 261–262
behavioral avoidance tests (BATs), 1296
behavioral health trials, 965–966
behavioral leadership theory, 807
being, ways of, 351
beliefs, superstitious, 391–392
Belmont Report of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects, 162, 405, 945, 1361
beneficence, 139, 407, 898, 1162, 1385, 1392, 1394
autonomy and, 362
positive, 693
principle of, 411–412
psychological testing and assessment, 1092–1093
telepsychiatry, 1354–1356
benzodiazepines, 1177
Bhagwada Gita, 617
bias, 773, 1034
publication, 935–936
Bible, the, 563–566, 572
Biederman controversy, 1036
biobanks, 952–953
bioethics, 37, 63
biological markers see biomarkers
biological psychiatry, 651, 1119
biomarkers, 390, 1115, 1181
description of, 1221
for psychiatric disorders, 1221–1224
biopolitics, ethics and, 736–738
bipolar disorder, 454, 743, 744, 745, 807, 819, 1177, 1182
in children, 1026–1027
in youth, 216
black and minority ethnics (BME), 973–974
Blair, Tony, 845
blocking the means (sadd al-dhara’i’), 509
bodily medicine, 373
Body Integrity Identity Disorder, 717
Bolam test, 1131
borderline personality disorder (BPD), 130, 208, 338, 375, 446, 455, 901, 917, 1106, 1392
intimate partner violence (IPV) and, 436, 439, 440
the past and, 341
seclusion and restraint, 201
boundaries, 1254, 1337–1338
definition of, 1160–1161
identity and information, 1255
on-duty, 21
personal, literature review, 1393–1394
sexual, 1264
boundary crossings, 1167–1168
boundary problems, 1073
brain imaging, 1109–1125
brain, the
chemical imbalance in, 992n.5
dysfunctional behavior and, 209
breast cancer, 1021
Buddhism, 584–602
compassion and the healer’s art, 599–600
contributions to modern psychiatry, 594–599
Four Noble Truths, 586
modern psychology, potential ethical conflicts, 591–594
psychology, development of, 591
and scientific psychology, 585–588
scientific psychology, traditional Buddhist and modern, 588–591
Vajrayana, 587n.5
Buddhist creed, 585
buddying, 251
see also peer support
Building Back Better initiative, 707 (p. I-40)
bulimia, 722–735
assumptions, 725–730
belonging bulimia, 723, 724–725, 732
complications, 724
etiology, 724
sororities, 724
bullying, 205
burnout, 868, 870
Bush, George, 37
C
Canada, 677, 939n.10, 1221
Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC), 1018
Canadian Medical Association Journal, 961
cannabis, 622
capabilities, 472
capacity, 258–259, 1387
dangerousness and, 33n.7
Capgras delusions, 392
capital punishment, 552
capsulotomy, 1195
cardinal sins, 511
care, 325
caregiving and caregivers, 1374–1383
alcohol and PTSD, 1378
anorexia, 1377–1378
carers, ethics and dementia, 1378–1381
depression, 1376–1377
mental disorders, 1375–1378
schizophrenia, 1375–1376
caring relationships, 806
case studies
clinical dilemmas, during pregnancy, 170–174
negotiating within VBPE, 485–488
Precious Pelo, 25
secure psychiatric settings, 900–901
Simon, 1070–1071, 1073–1076
and the language of DSM, 1074
and the language of ICD, 1073
and the language of psychiatry, 1071–1073
Teresa of Avila, 373–376, 377, 378–379, 380, 381, 382, 384–385
Tom, 1072
use of trumps hierarchy, 483–485
CAST trial, 933
catechism(s), 541
Catholic Church, 549
Catholic Church see Roman Catholic Church
causal responsibility, 382
change theory, 808
chaplains, 114
charismatic leadership theory, 807
Charter on Medical Professionalism, 785, 788, 792
chat rooms, 715
Chatham House Rule, 846n
child abuse, 141, 1311
child and adolescent mental health care, 137–146
access to mental health care, 138
privacy and confidentiality in mental health care, 141
psychopharmacological interventions, 143–144
childhood trauma, 206
restraint and, 207
children
apathetic, 389
assessment, disclosures, 892
bipolar disorder in, 1026–1027
consent, 140
decision-making capacities in, 139, 140
evaluation for danger to self or others, 223–224
as intersex patients, 195–197
involuntary treatment, 143
psychopharmacological interventions in, 143–144
as research subjects for drugs, 143–144
China, 604–605, 661
18th party Congress of the Communist Party of the People’s Republic of China, 659
Chinese Mental Health Act, 609, 610, 612
chlorpromazine, 115, 1176
chromosomal mutations, 741
chronic mild stress, 1014–1015
cingulotomy, 1195
Cinque, Joe, 921
circumcision, 531
(p. I-41) classification, controversies, 389–390
Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs), 664, 664n.2
clinical encounters, 350
clinical endpoints, 1016–1017
clinical ethics see ethics
clinical expertise, 931n.3
clinical guidelines, 774–775
clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), 769–770
clinical pragmatism, 4 Ps, 453, 456
clinical trials, 934
with children or adolescents, 144
cultural issues, 966–967
placebo-controlled, 1202
termination of, 965
clinician judgment, 409
clonazepam, 1241
Clozaril, 121
co-production, in mental health, 60
Cochrane Collaboration, 1395
Code of Ethics of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists, 413
code(s)
of conduct, 1231
of ethics, impaired health practitioners, 863–867
of practice, 672
for advocates, 679
psychiatric ethics, 417–419
coercive policies, 693
coercive treatment, 39–40, 40n.15, 40n.16
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 520, 1197, 1235n.6, 1257, 1293–1305
ethical considerations during, 1295–1300
assessment phase, 1296
boundary management, 1298–1299
family interventions, 1299–1300
generalization strategies, 1300
homework, 1298–1299
informed consent, 1296–1297
out of office sessions, 1298–1299
psycho-education, 1296
relapse prevention, 1300
resistance during, 1300
risks of evidence-based, 1297–1298
skills training, 1299
practice, ethics of, 1295
PTSD, 1318
schema-based models, 1294
core, 1294
dysfunctional, 1294
emotional, 1294
third wave, 1294
training and knowledge transfer in, 1300–1301
cognitive enhancers, 555
cognitive functioning, 948
cognitive impairment, 868
cognitive remediation, 1395
cognitive restructuring, 1318, 1319
cognitive therapy, 594, 1293
collaboration, 1049–1050
collaborative care model, 231
colleagues, 874, 876
collectivism, 16
Colombo Study, 296
commentators, 834
commissioning mental health services, 664–676
cycles, 669–670
ethics and values in, 665–667
medical, psychological and social therapies, 671–673
negotiating cost, 673–674
outcomes, 673–674
personalization of care and person-centred care, 668–669
psychiatric care, support and treatments, 670–671
quality, 673–674
resource allocation, 667–668
common morality
normative framework, 424n.2
in principlist theory, 414–416
communication, 35, 746, 747
with mass media, 826–838
communitarianism, 16, 77
community, 503
individual and the, 77–78
community-based services, 62
(p. I-42) community treatment orders (CTOs), 40n.15, 156, 1391, 1395–1396
compassion, 835
competence, 32–33, 234, 1095–1096, 1387
Hinduism and, 629–630
competency, 1393
complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), 627–628, 1329
complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD), 130, 131
Compliance Rating Scale, 1135
compulsive behaviors, 597
compulsive disorders, 993–994
computerized scoring, and interpretation systems, 222
conditioning experiments, 990, 1015
conduct disorder, 142, 216, 443
confidentiality, 56, 219–220, 237–238, 406–407, 418–419, 691, 1255
advocacy relationship, 680–681
in child and adolescent mental health care, 141
consent, capacity and, 258–259
in couple and family therapy, 1308
in developing countries, 697–698
of emails, 1173
Hinduism and, 629–630
Hippocratic Oath, 826
impaired health practitioners, 877
multidisclipinary team, 1339–1340
professional boundaries, violations, 1164
telepsychiatry, 1354
see also privacy
confinement, 207
conflict, 1333
causes, 1331–1332
ethical dilemmas, 1337–1341
boundary issues, 1337–1338
confidentiality, 1339–1340
involuntary treatment and restraint, 1340–1341
receiving gifts, 1339
literature review, 1394–1395
preventing and resolving, 1335
and team dysfunction, 1332
conflicts of interest, 752–765, 886
addressing, 758–760
biased practice, 754–755
controversies, 1036–1037
debate, philosophical-ideological, 756–758
definition of, 752
disclosures, 760
education, 759
future directions, 760–762
management, 759–760
payment to physicians, 753
physicians’ financial relationships with industry, 752
problems of, 755–756
prohibition, of ties with industry, 759
public trust, 755
purposes, 758
scope of, 753–754
solution, 758
confrontation, avoiding, 205, 206
Confucianism, 603–615
case studies
Mr. Chen (from Australia), 607–609, 612–613
Mrs. Liu (from China), 606–607
psychiatric ethics, contemporary applications, 609–614
Confucius, 603
Connally Commission, 918
conscientiousness, 835
conscious awareness, 1288–1289
consciousness, sick, 341
consent, 218–219, 258–259, 360–361, 716, 832–834, 1308
adolescents, 140
Hinduism and, 629–630
to participate in psychiatric neurosurgery clinical trials, 1194–1197
to treatment, 1377
voluntary, 950–951
consequentialism, 462–463
psychiatry and, 463–464
consultation-liaison (CL) psychiatrists, 231
contagion, 714–716, 727
emotional, 713, 714
(p. I-43) contemplative healing, communal instruction in, 598
continuing medical education (CME), 771–772, 775–776
controversies
classification, 389–390
diagnosis, 389–390
psychiatric disorders, 36–38
Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 464
corporeal perception, 350n
correlativity thesis, 415
corruption, 19–20
cosmetic psychiatry, 555
cost-benefit analysis, 1019–1020
cost of care, 6
Cotard delusions, 392
Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), International Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research Involving Human Subjects, 162
countertransference, 1269–1270
couple and family psychotherapy, 1306–1314
information, managing the flow of, 1308–1310
intervention goals, 1307–1308
risks related to, management of, 1310–1311
values, couple and family, 1312
credibility, 766
crime, 911
criminal behavior, 201
criminal offenders, 911–925
and mental illness, 912, 913t
criminal responsibility, and mental illness, 916–917
criminality, 1112–1114
criminals, 911
psychopathic, 338
cross-gender interactions, 514
crucifixion, 540n.5
Cruz, Ted, 804
cultural defense mechanisms, Hinduism, 624
cultural moralties, 417
cultures, 973–974
cyberspace, 1350–1351
cycloserine, 1180
D
dangerous psychiatric patients, 200–213
dangerously severe personality disorder (DSPD), 846
dangerousness
assessments, 34
and capacity, 33n.7
of a patient to self and others, 33–36
and safety, 203–206
darura, necessity, 511
data
aggregated, 953
big data, 954
blinded, 962
interim, 962–964
normative, 1102
online, 954
protection and confidentiality, 31–32
unblinded, 962
data safety monitoring boards (DSMBs), 958–965
effectiveness of, 964
freedom from improper influence, 964–965
interim data management, 962–964
member selection, 959–960
organization and management, 960
process, 960–961
statistical analyses, 961–962
de Klerk, F.W., 78
decision-making, 74t, 75, 141, 505, 1130–1131, 1385, 1395
capacity, 232–234, 235
in children, 139
collaborative, 1330–1331
constraints on, 68–69
to end life, 235–236
partnership in, 84t
surrogate, 236–237
best interest, 236
reasonableness, 236
substituted judgement, 236
decisional capacity, and autonomy, 362n.5
decisional closure, 475
Declaration of Geneva, 162, 654
Declaration of Helsinki, 162, 989, 1362
Declaration of Madrid, 887
decommissioning, 674, 675
(p. I-44) deep brain stimulation and lesioning, invasive neuromodulation, 1192–1194
defensive medicine, 6
degeneration, 737, 740, 741
deinstitutionalization, 813
Delphi methodology, of co-production, 65, 66t
delusional disorder, 391
delusions, 115, 391–392
dementia, 258–259, 262, 391, 1374
behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), 261–262
carers, ethics and, 1378–1381
diagnosis of, 259
respect for, 396–398
dependence, 61–62, 65f, 257
Dependent Personality Disorder, 661
depersonalization disorder, 383
depression, 123, 221, 389, 594, 1021, 1176–1177, 1178
caregiving and caregivers, 1376–1377
experiments involving animals, 1014–1015
in India, 620
in youth, 216
depressive realists, 393
derealization, 108
desk criminal (schreibtischtäter), 914
detention powers, 273
determinism, 1323n.8
diagnosis
controversies, 389–390
as an ethical problem, 1046–1049
practical aspects of, 453
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) see DSM-5
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) see DSM
diagnostic assessment, theory, 1075
diagnostic category Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (APS), 1361
diagnostic practice, 1049–1051
characterization, 1049, 1050t, 1053–1054
collaboration, 1049–1050, 1050t, 1054
contextual observations, 1050t, 1051, 1054
disclosures, 1050, 1050t, 1054
ethical ramifications of good, 1053–1054
guidelines, 769–770
privilege, 1050t, 1051–1052, 1054
rationality, 1050t, 1052, 1054
relevance, 1050t, 1051
rituals, 1050t, 1052–1053, 1054
dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), 584, 591
diazepam, 1177
Dieter, struggle to live in the world of others, 124–127
diethylstilbestrol (DES), 162, 163
difference principle, 285
differential diagnosis, 301–302
difficult patients, treating, 455–456
diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), 1115
dignity, of psychiatric patients, 91–93
dilemmas, 406
disabilities rights movements, 37
disability adjusted life years (DALYs), 470, 699
discernment, 835
discharge arrangements, 114–115
disclosures, 196–197, 892
discouraged acts, 508t
discourses, 337–338
discursive ethics, 336–337
disease, 287
prevention, 705–706
disembodied telepresence, 1349
disorder, 1070
disorderly eating disorders (DEB), 723
assumptions, mental disorder, 726–727
ethical implications, 730–732
within female friendship groups and sororities, 725
peer friendship groups, 727
recommendations, 732
social pressure within peer groups, 725
dispositions, 1236
see also virtues
dissensus
role of, 844
and value pluralism, 847
dissent, 1363
dissociative disorders, 621
Dissociative Identity Disorder, 383
(p. I-45) distributed leadership, 807
distributive justice, 412, 692, 1093
Divine, the, 497
divorce, 1312
DLB Consortium revised diagnostic criteria for dementia with Lewy bodies, 1114
doctor–patient relationship, 1235n.6
doctors
disagreement with nurses about treatment decisions, 241
doctor–patient relationship, 1235
documentation, 220
dopamine, 1176
drugs, 109–110
psychotropic, 257
side effects, 718–719
see also medication
Drummond, Edward, 916
DSM, 388, 389, 651, 803, 1046, 1071, 1073, 1246, 1329
American Psychiatric Association (APA), profitability to, 1059–1060
classifications, practical management of, 1058
development, political domains of, 1056–1061
diagnoses based on, 889
diagnosis, 1047
eating disorders, 723
instructions, 1052
language of, 1074
seclusion and restraint of patients, 201
turf/territory, 1060–1061
DSM-5, 183n, 773, 1070, 1103, 1225, 1300
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 221
Attenuated Psychosis Syndrome (APS), 1361
diagnosis of "Gender Dysphoria", 187n
disclosure policy, 772
and financial conflicts of interest, 768, 769
gender diagnoses, 188
mild neurocognitive disorder, 260
and political abuse of psychiatry, 662
Prelude Project, 1057
rituals, 1052–1053
schizophrenia, 1365
Subwork group on Gender Identity Disorders, 182n.3
DSM-II, 182
DSM-III, 182, 182n.1, 651, 1057, 1179
Multiple Personality Disorder, 717
DSM-IV, 182, 768, 769, 1179
Sourcebooks, 1060
DSM-IV-TR
diagnosis of gender identity disorder, 187n
Guidebook, 1053
du Plessis, Dieter, 124–127
dual relationships and business transactions, 1166
duress, 1132
dystonia, 1213–1214
E
eating and fasting, 623
eating disorders, 722–735, 996–997, 1259, 1392
data, 723–724
forced treatment, 1391
ecological rationality, 393
education, 759, 1171
continuing medical, 771–772
of the public, 776
special, 221–222
educators, 214–230
egalitarian theory, 413
ego-dystonic homosexuality, 389, 804
ego-dystonic psychiatric disorders, 1194
ego dystonic sexual orientation, 182n.2
ego-syntonic psychiatric disorders, 1194, 1196
Eichmann, Adolf, 914
elderly patients see older patients
electric shocks, administered to cats, 991
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), 5, 256, 981, 1191, 1207, 1210–1212
electroconvulsive treatment (ECT), 971
electroencephalography (EEG), 918, 1207, 1219
electronic communications, 4
electronic health records (EHR), 238
emails, 1173
(p. I-46) emotional contagion, 713, 714
emotional disturbance (ED), 221–222
emotional intelligence (EI), 806
empathy, 328, 914, 992n.4, 1111
affective, 1111
cognitive, 1111
psychoanalytic, 1267
zero
negative, 914
positive, 914
empirical ethics, 946
empirical research, 945
empiricism, 978
encyclopedic enquiry (modern enquiry), 269
end-of-life
care, 532
ethical dilemmas, 47–49
endophenotypes, 993n
engagement, 1244
England
Mental Capacity Act 2005 (England and Wales), 684
Mental Health Act (1983) (England and Wales), 684
England, Mental Health Act (2007), 273
enhancement, 24
enigmatic other, encountering, 343–344
Enlightenment, 268
enquiry, 270
epilepsy, temporal lobe, 1117
epistemic irrationality, 392
epistemic rationality, 390–393
epistemology, 445–446
equality, 284, 378
equilibrium
reflective, 417–419
specification of, 417–419
Equity and excellence: liberating the NHS, 246
ethical blind spots, 768
ethical burdens, 31
data protection and confidentiality, 31–32
engendered by controversies, 36–38
ethical challenges, literature review, 1394–1395
ethical dilemmas, 45–59
benefits from ethics consultation, 47
end-of-life, 47–49
frequency psychiatrists encounter, 47
preparation for facing, 47
ethical leadership, 802–825
ethical naturalism, 1110
Ethical Principles for Psychiatric Administrators, 811
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (APA), 1092
ethical review process, 1018
ethical theories, 489
ethical thinking, 155–156
ethical vulnerability, 31
ethics, 378
African, 77–78
of ‘being heard’, 130–133
business, 810
clinical, 7
consultants, 242
feminist, 170t
preventive, 170t
principle-based, 170t
relational, 170t
of existence, 149
feminist ethics, 169
pre-modern, 267–281
professional, 808
and relational security, 907–909
and translation in psychiatry, 121–123
ethics committees, 1019
ethics research, conceptual clarity, 950–954
ethics surveys
Medscape 2010, 45
Psychiatric Times (PT) 2011, 45
ethnicity, 1081
and mental disorder, 1081
eugenics, 271, 737, 738, 741
European Convention on Human Rights, 273
European Court of Human Rights, 273
European Union
animals in research, legislation and regulations, 1017–1018
clinical trials with children or adolescents, 144
euthanasia, 553
evidence
definition of, 931–932
hierarchy, 936
(p. I-47) evidence-based care, 666
evidence-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 1297–1298
evidence-based medicine, 13, 35, 453, 477, 793, 929, 930, 1144
definition of, 930–931
ethical values, influence on evidence, 936–938
good mental health, 940–941
hierarchy of evidence, 929, 932, 1146
industry funding
impact on production of evidence, 933–935
publication bias, 935–936
mental health, interpretation and judgment, 939–940
mental health outcomes, value-laden, 938–941
prognostic homogenity, 937–938
research methods, ranking of, 932
technical bias, 936–937
value neutrality, 933–936
evidence-based practice, 888, 1086
evidence-based psychiatry, 438, 929–944
appeal to psychiatry, 941–942
evidence-based research, originating from LAMICs, 702–703
evidence-based treatment plan, 455
evil, 912–916
evolution, 590, 590n
excommunication, 553n.48
excuses, 1321–1322
exegesis, 566
experience-based knowledge, objective knowledge and, 976–979
expert opinions, 32–36
exposure therapy, 1297
eye-movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR), 594
F
Facebook, 712–714
fair equality of opportunity, 285
fair-opportunity principle, 414
false ideas, 452
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), 217, 218, 219
family/families, 876
interventions, 1299–1300
management of mental health problems, 628
FAP (Foundations, Axioms, and Practices) model of values-based medicine, 76
fashion industry, 731
fatalism, 626, 1323n.8
fear learning, in animals, 1015–1016
Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 1032
Federation of Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA), 1019–1020
Federation of the State Medical Boards of the United States, 862
female identity, 725–726
feminism
postcolonialism, 444–445
in the twenty-first century, 443–446
feminist ethics, 169
feminist psychiatric ethics, 436–449
fever therapy, 648
fidelity, 866
financial conflicts of interest, 766–781
concern in psychiatry, 1033–1035
gaps in current solutions, 772–774
informed consent, 774
policies and disclosure, 772–773
zero tolerance, checks and balances, 773–774
in psychiatric professional organizations, 768–772
recommendations, 774–776
continuing medical education (CME), 775–776
educating the public, 776
patient advocacy, 775
policies for clinical guidelines, 774–775
summary, 777–778
research bias, 767
research quality and trust, 1028–1031
First Tier Mental Health Tribunal, 276
fitrah (innate disposition), 496, 497, 501
Five Pillars of Islam, 507n.19
(p. I-48) folk metaphysics, 1048
folk psychology, 1048
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 1028
forbidden acts, 425, 508t
forced swim test, 993, 994, 1014
forced treatment, eating disorders, 1391
forensic patients, 899
forensic psychiatrists, 885–896
forensic psychiatry, 38–39, 816, 833, 885, 1070
for feminist ethicists, 436
forensic advocacy limits, 893
harm, amelioration of, 892–893
and imaging, 1112–1114
and intimate partner violence, 438–443
pitfalls, 888
risk assessment, 890–891
dogma and uncertainty, 890–891
treatment conundrum, 892–893
values-based practice, 888–891
Foresight report on Mental Wellbeing and Mental Capital, 468
Four Principles, 63
four Ps (practical, pluralistic, participatory, and provisional), 16
Frances, Pope, 804
free association, 594
free will, 380, 501, 1049
Freud, S., 834
friendship
deontological, 270
Kantian, 270
narrative, 270
frontal lobotomies, 1193, 1196
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 1207, 1219
functional test, 396
funding, 701, 1029
funding effect, 767
G
Galen, 545n.29
gamma knife lesioning trials, 1202
gamma knife radiosurgery, 1194, 1195, 1208
gay rights movement, 804
gender, 332
gender dysphoria, 182, 182n.3, 183n, 197, 331, 551
gender feminism, 443
gender identity, 194
gender identity disorder, 182
gender identity dysfunction, 1259
gender incongruence, 183n
gender reassignment for gender, 193
gene association, 742
genealogical enquiry, 269
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), 1151, 1191, 1194
genetic counseling, 736–751
ethics and biopolitics, 736–738
expectations of, 744–745
history of, 738–739
practical ethics of, 745–747
psychiatric genetics, intersection of, 742–744
genetic engineering, 1012
genetic identity, 738, 739
genetic risk, 738
genetic testing, 739, 743
genetics, psychiatric, 740–742
genotyping, 1180
Germany, 141, 741
ghost-writing, 934n.8
gifts, 758, 1165, 1339
proffered by patients, 430, 629
girls, and adolescence, 726
God, 118, 125, 540n.3, 1048
reformational christian, relationship with believers, 561–562
Goldwater Rule
benefits of public commentary, 835–836
ethical foundations, 831–836
impact on the profession, 834–835
professional commentary, 831–832
good process, 1139–1141
grace, 540n.12
gratifications, 1270–1271, 1273
Great Man theory, 805
greed (lobh), 619
group therapy, 93, 384
groups, 973–974
guided imagery, 594
Guidelines for the Care and Use of Mammals in Neuroscience and Behavioral Research, 1019
(p. I-49) guiding principles, 857
partnerships and, 846–847
guilds
organizational, 1058–1061
turf/territory, 1060–1061
guilt
feelings of, 568, 568n, 569
notion of, 1113
pathological, 569
penitent, 569
guilty act (actus rea), 916
guilty mind (mens rea), 916
Guru-Chela (teacher–disciple) psychotherapy, 625
Gurus, 619
H
habits, 328, 425
of mind and behavior, 426
halakha, 529
haloperidol, 113, 115, 120
happiness, 284
hardship, 510
harm, 410, 509, 510, 1162
amelioration of, 892–893
darar, 511
indirect, 999
neurofeedback and, 1220
principle, 696
removal of, 694–695
Hastings Center Report, 188
Have We Got Views for You, 973
Haven, The, 982
Hawaii Declaration (1977), 655n.1
Hayter, Gemma, 149
healing group cohesion, 598
healing project, 1242–1245
Healing Psychiatry (Brendel), 453
healing, temple, 620–621
Health and Social Care Act (2012), 679
health budgets, 695f
health insurance, 282
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (1996) (HIPPA), 220
health maintenance organizations (HMOs), 810
Hearing Voices Network, 941
hereditary madness, 740
heredity, 737, 740
hermaphrodites, 193
hermeneusis, 565–566
hermeneutical phenomenology, 319, 320, 321, 326, 326n, 330, 331
heteronomy, 355
heterosexuality, 181
high blood pressure, 1021
Hillel the Elder, 523
Hinduism, 616–633
alcoholism and, 621
cannabis use and, 622
competence and, 629–630
complementary and alternative medicine, 627–628
confidentiality and, 629–630
consent and, 629–630
and cultural psychopathology, 622–624
cultural defense mechanisms, 624
eating and fasting, 623
lunar cycle and lunacy, 623
religious ceremonies, 624
religious rituals, 623
religious symbolism, 624
ritualistic behaviors, 624
sexuality, 623–624
dealing with ethical conflicts and dilemmas, 630–631
depression and, 620
dissociative disorders and hysteria in, 621
ethical issues related to, psychiatric treatments, 625–628
hospitalization
involuntary, 626
voluntary, 626
karma and personality in, 618–619
life cycle, 618
medical treatment, psychopharmacology, 626
and mental health, 619–622
mental health problems, family dynamics in the management of, 628
opium use and, 622
physical treatment
ECT, 626
rTMS, 626
professional and ethical boundary issues related to, 628–631
psychosis and, 620–621
rehabilitation, 627
religion and culture, 19
religious treatments, for mental health problems, 626–627
role of holy places, 627
stigma and, 630
suicide and self-harm, 620
and therapies, 624–625
psycho-spiritual, 624–625
psychological, 624–625
traditional healing, 625
see also Buddhism
Hippocratic Oath, 637, 654, 809, 818, 826, 920, 1161
history, 209
violence, 898
Holocaust, 915
holy cities, 627
homosexuality, 181, 197, 389, 513, 551, 804, 1258–1259
ego-dystonic, 389, 804
replaced by sexual orientation disturbance, in DSM-III, 182n.1
theories of the origins of, 182
Hoskin, Steven, 149
hospitalization, involuntary, 532–533
hostile work environments, 205
human agency, 500
human being, notion of, 320
human experience, 325
Human Genome Project, 741
human interactions, 121
human law, 271
human life-world, collective ways of being human in, 339–340
human morality, 1110
human personhood, 320
human rights, 273, 415–416, 704, 706–707, 803
legislation, 848
in mental health care, 128–129
Human Rights in Mental Health—FGIP (Federation Global Initiative on Psychiatry), 658, 662
Human Rights Watch, 694n.2
human translating, 121
Hume’s principle, 666
Huntington’s disease, 739
Hussein, Saddam, psychological profile, 830–831
Husserl, Edmund, 324, 325
hypnotic trance, 1281
hypothyroidism, 131
hysteria, 621, 714
I
IACUC (animal care and use committees), 1018, 1019
ICD, 182, 201, 389, 1052
language of, 1073
ICD-10, 182, 1053, 1070
revision of, 182n.2
ICD-11, 182n.2, 183n, 188
identity, 209, 320, 1336–1337
and agency, 372–386
female, 725–726
gender, 194
internet, 716–718
ill-treatment, of people with intellectual disabilities, 149
illness, 342
imaging, forensic psychiatry and, 1112–1114
impaired health practitioners, 861–884
acute management, 871–872
disruptive, unethical or incompetent, 872
early detection, 871
physical or mental illness, 872
substance abuse, 871–872
burnout, 870
clinical aspects of impairment, 867–869
ethical approach, 869–877
prevention and preparation, 869–871
ethics and
codes of ethics, 863–867
ethical base points, 864–867
fidelity, 866
(p. I-51) practical wisdom, 866–867
professional integrity, 865
role-differentiated moral obligation, 865–866
identification of, 868–869
impairment, definition of, 862–863
long-term management, 873
compulsory treatment, 873
voluntary treatment, 873
nonmaleficence, 864
ongoing duty of care, 873
optimal care, 874–877
colleague factors, 874
colleague involvement, 876
discrimination, 875
family involvement, 876
institutional factors, 874
medical boards, 876
patient information, 877
professional colleges, 877
recovery, 875
regulatory board factors, 874
stigmatization, 875
supportive and therapeutic approach, 875
treating psychiatrist factors, 874
organizational preparation, 871
outcomes with, 869
recommendations, 877–878
resilience, 870
impairment
clinical aspects of
physical and cognitive, 868
psychiatric disorders, 867
stress and burnout, 868
substance misuse, 867
epidemiology and etiology, 867
mental illness, 383
In Pursuit of Wellness, 972
indaba, 15–16, 25, 77, 306–317
in African values-based practice, 295–318
isiZulu indaba, 15
Pelo, Precious, 307–310
person-and-people-values-centred-care in, 314–315
as values-based practice, 311–313t
independence, 62–63, 65f
independent mental capacity advocacy (IMCA), 682–683, 686
independent mental health advocacy (IMHA), 683
India, 616
cannabis use in, 622
depression in, 620
dissociative disorders in, 621
hysteria in, 621
Mental Health Care Act (1987), 627
opium use in, 622
psychosis in, 620–621
individual, and the community, 77–78
Individual Education Program (IEP), 218, 219
individualism, 16, 77
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, 218
industry, financial relationships with, 1028
inequalities, structural, 438
information, withholding, 239
informed consent, 5, 24, 94, 1363
capacity to give, 1133–1134
child and adolescent mental health care, 140
clinical examples, 1137–1139
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 1296–1297
and financial conflicts of interest, 774
genetic counseling and, 739
good process, 1139–1141
incapacity to give, 1134–1137
psychiatric research, 947–949
psychological testing and assessment, 1099–1100
psychotherapy, 1271–1274
requirements for, 1131–1132
scope of, 1130–1131
to treatment, 1129–1142
see also consent
inheritance, theories of, 740
insanity, 639, 917
institutional review boards (IRBs), 961, 1037, 1361
institutionalization, 62, 1284
institutionalized behavior, 205
instrumentalism, 452
insula cortex, 1110
insulin therapy, 648–649
(p. I-52) integrity, 835
professional, 865
intellectual disabilities, 14, 147–160
denial of disability, 151–152
ethical responses to, 152
examples of ill-treatment of people with, 149
in-patient admission under the Mental Health Act, 156
individualism, 148
liberal values for people with, 148
married couples with, 155
neglect of parents and staff, 152–155
policies, 147
socio-emotional age of individuals with, 152
interactive televisions, 1347
interdependence, 63–64, 65f
peer-supported, 65–66
interdependent divided mind, 1282–1283
interdisciplinary teams, moral relationships, 240–241
interest, 410
internal validity, 934n.7
International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 148
International Classification of Diseases see ICD
International Code of Medical Ethics of the World Medical Association, 162
International Covenant on Civil and Political rights (1966), 162
International Early Psychosis Association, 1365
internet, 4, 1172–1173, 1255
contagion, 714–716
identity, 716–718
misinformation, 718–719
psychiatric ethics, challenges for, 711–721
using in clinical practice, 456–457
intersex patients, 193–199
adults, 197
children and adolescents, 195–197
genital interventions, 194
intersex conditions at birth, 195
psychiatric and ethical concerns, 194–197
interventions, 395
interviews, 832–834
intimate partner violence (IPV), 439
introjection, projection and, 1276–1292
intuitive sensibility, 344
invasive techniques, 1208
involuntary hospitalization
Confucian morality, 605, 606
Hinduism and, 626
Islamic perspectives on, 516–517
involuntary incarceration, 691
involuntary seclusion, 839
involuntary treatment, 819, 839, 1070
for children and adolescents, 143
Confucian morality, 605, 606
family of the patient and, 611
and restraint, 1340–1341
values-based, 839–860
iproniazid, 1176
Ireland, 677
irrationality, as a diagnostic criterion, 390
irrationality, pragmatic, 393–394
Islam
addictions and, 513–514
conditions and interactions, 510–517
cross-gender interactions, 514
diversity in, 498
Ethical–legal Maxims (al-qawa’id al-fiq’hiyya) of relevance to bioethics, 509–510
introduction to, 495–497
involuntary hospitalization, 516–517
Islamic law, Shari’a, 507–508
jurisprudence (usul al-fiqh), principles of, 508–509
malpractice in Islamic jurisprudence, 515–516
medications, 515
mental disorder, views of, 501
paraphilias and, 512–513
personal autonomy, value and scope of, 502–505
perspectives, on psychiatric ethics, 495–519
professional liability, 515–516
and psychiatric medication, 514–515
self, the, nature of, 498–499
as a source for ethical deliberation, 506–510
trial, the, 499–501
values, 18
Israel, mental health care in, 128–129
J
Japan, samurai sword testing, 915
Jehovah’s Witnesses, enforced blood transfusion to, 363
Jesus Christ, freedom in, 562–563
Jewish perspectives on psychiatric ethics see Judaism
Johnson & Johnson, 1026
Johnson–Goldwater Campaign, 829
Judaism
ethics
foundational sources of, 521–522
principles of psychiatric ethics and related teachings in, 527t
psychiatric and, 525
Jewish law, 756–757
medical ethics, general principles of, relevance to Jewish ethics, 523–524
non-Orthodox, 521
Orthodox, 521
perspectives on psychiatric ethics, 520–538
potential ethical conflicts, 530–535
circumcision, 531
involuntary medication or hospitalization and psychosurgery, 532–533
professional decorum, 533–534
scope of practice, 533–534
tact, 533–534
terminal illness, 531–532
transference and counter-transference issues, 535
values, potential conflict with psychiatric norms and practices, 525–530
virtues, and psychiatric norms and practices, 526t
jurisprudence (usul al-fiqh), Islam, principles of, 508–509
justice, 139, 1093, 1356–1357, 1385, 1394
in access to mental health care, 282–294
distributive, 412, 692, 1093
and fair distribution of benefits and burdens, 695
principles of, 284–286, 412–414
and mental health care, 286–290
rationing, 290–291, 292
secure psychiatric settings, 902–903
theories of, 16–17
K
kama (sensuality, desire), 619
Kantian autonomy, 357t
Kantian tradition, 736
karma (action), 587, 590, 592, 617
in Hinduism, 618–619
Kazakhstan, 661
Kennedy, Patrick, 804
King, Martin Luther, Jr., 807
knowing, ways of, 351
knowledge, archaeology, 975
knowledge, objectivity of, 337
krodha (anger), 619
L
Ladybird, Ladybird (film), 441
Lake, Catherine, 411–412
Lancet, 702
Land of Clinicum (Gillett), 342–343
language of psychiatry, 1071–1073
Lasting Powers of Attorney, 261
later trait theory, 806
law, mental health, 15
laws of nature, 568
leadership, 802–825
characteristics of, 805–808
choosing ethical leaders, 814–815
distributed, 807
ethical, 808–809
models, 803–805
psychiatric, 809
discipline choices, 813–814
ethical principles, 809–812
psychiatric leaders
common characteristics, 812–813
models, 817–820
in psychiatry, women, 819
(p. I-54) skills and systems, 815–816
success, measuring, 816–817
training, 814
learned habits, 590
learned helplessness behaviors, in animals, 991
learning and memory tests, in animals, 1015
learning disability see intellectual disabilities
Legal Aid certificate, 685
legislation
to enable access to mental health care, 705
to ensure autonomy and liberty, 704–705
for mental health, in LAMICs, 694
to prevent human rights violations, 704
to protect individuals with intellectual disabilities, 156
lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) patients, 979
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) patients, 180–192
causes of sexual orientation, 183–184
disclosure of therapists of own sexual orientation, 186–187
efforts to change sexual orientation, 184–185
ethics, in clinical situations, 182–188
gender reassignment for gender dysphoric or incongruent adults, 187–188
history of psychiatric treatment of, 180–182
talking about homosexuality and transgender expressions in respectful language, 185
liability, of child and adolescent mental health care, 141–142
liberalism, 16, 34n.9, 147
classical, 34n.8
liberty, 407–408, 696, 704–705
negative, 854
positive, 854
Life Course Model, 225
life cycle, in Hinduism, 618
life, decisions to end, 235–236
Life’s Dominion: An Argument about Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom (Dworkin), 396–397
Listening Iman Project, 1083
and strengths-based assessment, 1083–1084
and values-based practice, 1084–1086
Listening to Prozac (Kramer), 24
literacy research, mental health, 23
literature review, services, 1394
lithium, 1177
lobh (greed), 619
lobotomies, 649
frontal, 1193, 1196
Logos (Greek noun), 540n.4
love, 1170
low and middle income countries (LAMICs), 20, 690
coercive power, public/public mental health measures, 693
community-based approach, 706
improving mental health
development approach, 702
human rights approach, 702
public mental health approach, 702
mental health
impact of socio-economic determinants, 700–701
prioritizing, 703
mental health legislation, 694
positive mental health
disease prevention, and promotion, 705–706
human rights approach, 706–707
policy, guidelines and legislation, 703–705
roadmap towards, 702–707
public mental health
autonomy and liberty, 696
collective efficiency and ensuring public participation, 695–696
confidentiality, 697–698
government duty, 701–702
justice and fair distribution of benefits and burdens, 695
maximal balance of benefits over harm and cost, 693–694
moral considerations, 692, 693–698
overall benefit, 693–694
paternalism, 698
privacy, 696–697
removing harm, 694–695
(p. I-55) public mental health in, scope of ethics, 691–699
research, evidence-based approach, 702–703
social justice, 699–702
LSD, 820
lunar cycle and lunacy, 623
M
MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool (MacCAT), 141
MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR), 949, 1133
MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Treatment (MacCAT-T), 1133
MacArthur risk assessment study, 919
MacIntyre, Alasdair, 267
philosophy, 268–269
Thomistic Aristotelianism, 271
M’Naghten, Daniel, 916
M’Naughton Rules, 916, 1112
madh (addiction), 619
madness, 976, 1119
hereditary, 740
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 1115
Mahabharata (Hindu scripture), 617
Mahayana transcendences, 587n.4
major depressive disorder (MDD), 130, 391, 1191, 1193, 1194, 1198, 1222
in pregnancy, 166
major neurocognitive disorder, 391
maleficence, 1393
malignant positioning, 262
malignant social psychology, 262
malingering, 1103
malpractice, in Islamic jurisprudence, 515–516
managed behavioral health care, 811
managed care business organizations and corporations (MCOs), 810
Mandela, Nelson, 78, 805
mania, 113
manipulativity, 211
personality disorders and, 207–210
medial orbito-frontal cortex (MOFC), 1110
medical boards, 876, 877
medical colleges, 877
medical education and communications companies (MECCs), 771
medical ethics, general principles of, relevance to Jewish ethics, 523–524
medical health services, 665
medical paternalism, 406
medical–societal alliance, 790
medical–surgical psychiatry, 231–243
medication, 113
communication regarding, 225–226
involuntary, 532–533
Islam and, 514–515
forbidden, 515
obligatory, 515
recommended, 515
management, 57
older patients, 257
psychotropic, 57
see also drugs
meditation, 593, 594, 595, 624
Medscape, 48
ethics survey 2010, 45
meetings, 15
executive, 307, 308–309
substantive, 307, 308–309
memory
long-term, 1015
motor, 1015
short-term, 1015
memory tests, involving animals, 1015
mens rea (guilty mind), 916
mental agency, 589
Mental Capacity Act (2005) (England and Wales), 258, 395, 679, 684, 1133, 1135, 1136
mental capacity, neurodiversity and, 399–400
mental disorders, 206, 501, 1329
caregiving and caregivers, 1375–1378
diagnosis, controversies, 1046
ethnicity and, 1081
grounds for intervention, 395
informed consent and, 1132
psychospiritual and theological perspectives, 497–502
(p. I-56) reformational christian, origins, causes and diagnosis, 567–570
stigma, 35
suffering owing to, 579–580
mental frailty, 257–261
capacity, 258–259
confidentiality, 258–259
consent, 258–259
mental health, 1329
case management, 973
Hinduism and, 619–622
promotion of positive, 705–706
Mental Health Act (1983) (England and Wales), 679, 683, 684
Mental Health Act (2000) Queensland Australia [Government of Queensland], 1331
Mental Health Act (2007), 273, 845, 1331
intellectual disabilities in-patient admission, 156
review of, 848–849
training materials, guiding principles and values-based practice, 842–844
Mental Health Acts, 671
mental health advocacy, in United Kingdom, 677–710
Mental Health Alliance, 846
Mental Health America (MHA), 799
mental health assessments, values, individual diversity, 1076–1077
mental health care
access of children and adolescents to, 138
justice, fairness and, 282–294
legislation to enable, 705
Mental Health Care Act (1987)(India), 627
mental health care professionals, attitude of those caring for children, 139
mental-health-care rationing, 413
mental health care teams (MHCT), 1328
Mental Health Foundation, 1078
peer support groups, 248–249
peer support work, 64
mental health law, 15
mental health literacy research, 23
mental health peer support, 244–254
mental health records, and school records, 220
mental health research, epistemologies, 974–976
Mental Health Research Network, 979, 980, 982
Mental Health Review Tribunal, 267n.2
mental health service user involvement in research, 970–988
mental health services in schools, treatment, special considerations for, 224–226
mental health tribunals, 267–281
care models, 274–276
legal underpinning, 272
pre-modern philosophy, application, 276–278
president, 276
Mental Healthcare Bill, 694n.2
mental hospitals, 637
mental hygiene, 645
mental illness, 22, 93, 1119, 1329
basis of, 647
co-occurring problems, ethical implications of, 949–950
criminal offenders and, 912, 913t
criminal responsibility and, 916–917
health practitioners, 872
and personal self, 209
mental incapacity, and interference, 395–396
mental patients, 93
mental retardation see intellectual disabilities
mentalization, 1251
meprobamate, 1177
metacognitive interventions, 1293
methylphenidate, 1177
metrazol, 649
mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 259–260, 1115–1116
military psychiatry, 38n.14
Millennium Development Goals, 700, 703
Millian Harm Principle, 361
mind/body connection, 589
mind, interdependent divided, 1282–1283
mind reading, and the right to privacy of thoughts, 1117–1119
mindful practice, 481
mindfulness, 584, 594, 624
mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), 584
(p. I-57) mindfulness-based stress-reduction (MBSR), 584
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, second edition (MMPI-2), 1098
minors
research with, 1362–1364
at risk for psychosis, 1364–1366
misinformation, internet, 718–719
MMPI-2 Restructured Format (MMPI-2-RF), 1098
models
of disorder, 1077–1081
of disorderly eating disorders, 727
practice, 5
Models Project, 1078
ethnicity and spirituality, 1081
modified Thomistic Aristotelianism of Alasdair MacIntyre, 267
moh (affection, attachment), 619
monism, 847–850
monkeys, attachment disorders experiments, 991–992
monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI), 1176
mood disorders, 770, 993–994
experiments involving animals, 1014–1015
mood stabilizers, 1178
moral arbiters, 34, 36
moral character traits, 414–415
moral conversation, 481
moral ideals, 415
moral obligation, 865–866
moral philosophy, 378
moral relativism, 915
moral responsibility, 382
and neuroscience, 917–918
moral theories, 811
moral treatment, 639
moralities
cultural, 417
personal, 808
professional, 416
Morris water maze, 1015
motor disorders, 1201, 1213
Multi-Regional Center for Clinical Trials at Harvard University, 960
multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA), 1110, 1117
multiculturalism, 4
multidisciplinary teams, 70t, 74t, 83t, 1328–1345
case studies
conflicting values, 1342
May-ling (Cathy) and Chris, 1334–1335
misalignment of values, 1341–1342
extended, 296
extended to the family, 314
review, 1333–1334
multidisclipinary assessment
values
models grids comparing psychiatrists and social workers, 1078–1079, 1079t, 1080t
and models of disorder, 1077–1081
Models Project, 1078
Muslims
health interventions among Muslim women, 699
Islamist (Revivalist), 498
Modernist, 498
muslims, Shi’a, 497n
Muslims, spirit possession, 506
muslims, Sunni, 497n
Muslims, Traditionalist, 498
N
narcissism, 806–807, 893, 979
narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), 916
narrative understanding, 1315, 1318, 1319, 1322
narratives, 330, 971–972, 1321–1325
of people’s lives, 277, 278
National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI), 771, 799
National Association for School Psychologists (NASP), 226
National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, 945, 998
National Committee for Mental Hygiene (NCMH), 645
National Development Team for Inclusion (NDTi), 679
(p. I-58) National Health Service (NHS) UK, 691
National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE), 975, 1252
National Institute for Mental Health in England (NIMHE), 840, 845
and the Care Services Improvement Partnership, 1082
values framework, 849f, 852–853
National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer’s Association (NIAAA) diagnostic criteria for dementia in Alzheimer’s disease, 1114
National Institute of Health (NIH), 1031
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 1062, 1063, 1365
National Service Framework for Mental Health (NSF), 246
natural law, 542, 551
Aquinas and, 270–272
natural selection, 737
naturalism, 323, 324
relaxed, 323, 324
strict, 323, 324
necessity, 510
darura, 511
needs, 665
comparative, 665
expressed, 665
felt, 665
normative, 665
negative actions, 10 modes of, 587n.3
negative symptoms, 94
negative traits, 415
negative utilitarianism, 466
Netherlands, 656
neuro-enhancement, 1228–1249
characteristics of varieties of, 1237–1242
moral principles, violation of, 1229–1234
and the perversion of psychiatry, 1234–1237
practice, preserving, 1245–1246
neurodiversity, and mental capacity, 399–400
neuroethics, 1109
neurofeedback, 6, 1207, 1219–1221
description of, 1219
ethical issues with, 1219–1221
neuroimaging, 1109–1125
and the ethics and politics of biological psychiatry, 1119–1120
ethics of, 1114–1120
psychiatry and, 1110–1114
neuroleptics, 100, 120
neuromodulation techniques, 952, 1207–1208
applications of, 1197–1200
effects in the brain, 1209–1210
neurophyschological evaluations, 1098
neutrality, 1267–1268
New England Journal of Medicine, 964
New Freedom Commission on Mental Health, 37
New Zealand
Code of Ethics of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists, 413
Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists, 413
Newcastle 85+ study, 255
NHS and Community Care Act 1990, 246
Nicene Creed, 539–540, 539n.2
Nichomachean Ethics, 667
NIH Revitalization Act (1993), 165–165
non-directiveness, 739
non-invasive medical treatment, 1208
non-Jewish therapist, responsibility to observant Jewish patients, 535–536
nonmaleficence, 407, 898, 1093, 1354–1356, 1385
impaired health practitioners, 864–865
principle of, 409–411
North America
women
diet culture, 729
social position in, 728
Northern Ireland
advocacy in mental health care, 679
mental health legislation, 684
nosology, 436–438
not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI), 916
now, 342
Nuffield Council on Bioethics, 256
Nuremberg Code, 162, 411, 989, 1132, 1361
nurses, disagreements with doctors about treatment decisions, 241
O
(p. I-59) Obamacare (Affordable Care Act), 804
objective knowledge, experience-based knowledge and, 976–979
objective principles, 667
obligatory actions, 425, 508t
obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), 383, 623, 1193, 1194, 1198, 1209, 1294
treatment, 1295
Oedipus complex, 618
older patients, 255–264, 816
and ability to drive, 53–54
abuse of, 256–257
advance care planning, 260–261
dependence, 257
medication, 257
mental frailty, 257–261
personhood, 261–262
physical frailty, and ethical issues, 255–257
professional approaches, 256
solidarity, 256
on call, 21
on-duty boundaries, 21
online communities, 4
opioid misuse, 867
opium, 622
oppositional defiant disorder, 443, 446
organizational culture, 1289
organizational preparation, 871
Other Health Impaired (OHI) category, 221
otherness, and personhood, 326–329
oughts, 271
outcomes, 35
outpatient commitment, 40n.15
Oxford Handbook of Phenomenological Psychopathology (Stanghellini), 26
Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Psychiatry, The (Fulford), 25
Oxford School, 1070
P
palliative care, 48–49
panic disorder, 223, 1297
papal teachings, psychiatry, psychoanalysis and, 546–548
paranoia, 806
paranoid schizophrenia, 121
paraphilias, 512–513
Roman Catholic Church views on, 549–550
parens patriae, 200, 203
parents, neglect of individuals with intellectual disabilities, 152–155
Parkinson’s diseases, 1201
participatory nature of diagnosis and treatment, 453
partner violence, 436
partnerships, and guiding principles, 846–847
passivity, 917, 1321–1322
paternalism, 364t, 505, 698, 1286–1287
autonomy, 1391
challenges to, 364t
clinical illustration, 364t
hard, 363, 364t
justified, 232–234
medical, 406
moral, 363
soft, 362, 364t
Pathological Institute, New York State Hospital, 644
patient advocacy, 770–771
patient advocacy organizations (PAOs), 775
patient-centred care, 70t, 74t, 83t, 1143
patient(s), 811
as an autonomous person, 319–335
care of difficult, 52–53, 53f
circumstances, 931n.5
experience of being a, 98–100
targeted googling, 456
values, 931n.4
Pavlovian fear conditioning, 995
peer-ness, 245
peer support, 92
current state of, 247–248
group behavior, management of, 252
importance of values in, 246–247
independent, 248–249
access and exclusion issues, 249
motivation, 248–249
power issues, 249
interdependence, 65–66
shared and diverse values in, 66–67
mental health, 244–254
one-to-one peer mentoring, 251
(p. I-60) peer groups, independent, 248–249
peer relationship, 251–252
peers, definition of, 251–252
policy drivers, 246
recovery
Batho Pele and, 79–80
resources of values-based practice, 71–75
values-based practice and, 67–77
service-led, 246
within services
motivation, 250
and peer workers, 249–251
power issues of peer workers, 250–251
recruitment and referral of peer workers, 250
types of, 244
values-based practice, stage 2, 81–84t
peer-supported recovery, 64
Pelo, Precious, 25, 300–306
people power, 381
permitted actions, 425, 508t
person-centred assessment, 1070–1077
and values, 1074–1075
person-centred care, 262, 1385
person-centred planning, 152
person-values-centred care, extended MDT and, 1080
person-values-centred practice, 303–304
personal autonomy, challenges to, 358t
personal boundaries, literature review, 1393–1394
personal capacity, 1393
personal experiences, Dieter’s struggle to live in the world(s) of others, 124–127
personal identity, 262, 376, 377
mental disorder and, 395
personal self, 209
personality assessment, 1098
personality assessment inventory (PAI), 1098
personality disorders, 110, 206, 594, 1047, 1315
Cluster B, 209
diagnostic criteria, 1316–1318
intellectual disabilities and, 151
and manipulativity, 207–210
treatment, 1318–1319, 1322
personality, in Hinduism, 618–619
personality tests, 814
personalization, 668–669
of services, 246
personhood, 259, 261–262, 319–335
autonomy and, 329–330
otherness and, 326–329
selfhood to, 324–326
perspective, 209
pervasive developmental disorder, 156
pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), 105
Peterson, Cecil, 202
pharmaceutical gifts, 55–56, 56f
phastastical experiencing, 1277
phenomenology, 320, 324
phenothiazines, 1176
philosophers, 1276
philosophical ethics, 15, 475
philosophy, 8, 16, 856
pragmatic, 450–458
Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology (Hughes), 259
phronesis, 428–429, 455
physical frailty
dependence, 255–256, 257
and ethical issues, 255–257
solidarity, 256
stigma, 255–256
vulnerability, 255–256
physical illness, health practitioners, 872
physical impairment, 868
physician-assisted suicide, 47–48
participation of psychiatrists in, 48f
physician burnout, 790
Pilkington, Fiona, 149
Pilkington, Francesca, 150
placebo effect, 939
placebos, 1207, 1214–1219
ethical issues with, 1215–1219
responses, factors influencing, 1214–1215
pluralistic tools, 453
political abuse of psychiatry, 654–663
definition of, 655–656
geopolitical considerations, 658–660
post-Soviet period, 657–658
reasons for, 660–661
(p. I-61) political psychology profiles, 833
Pontifical Council for Pastoral Assistance to Health Care Workers, 549
Porsolt test see forced swim test
positive beneficence, 693
positive psychology, 24, 467
post-psychiatry, and advance planning, 39–41
post-traumatic disorders, 994–995
post-traumatic stress disorder, 341, 994
diagnostic criteria, 1316–1318
treatment, 1318–1319
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 1013, 1015–1016, 1315
alcohol and, caregiving and caregivers, 1378
complex post-traumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD), 130
postcolonialism, 444–445
power relationships, 248–251
independent peer groups, 248–249
access and exclusion issues, 249
motivation, 248–249
power issues, 249
one-to-one peer mentoring, 251
peer support services and peer workers, 249–251
motivation, 250
power issues, 250–251
recruitment and referral, 250
practical rationality, 366
practice models, 5
practitioner–patient relationship, 427
pragmatic ethics, 451
pragmatic irrationality, 393–394
pragmatic philosophy, 450–458
pragmatic rationality, 393
pragmatism, 451, 452
in contemporary psychiatry, 452–454
in diagnosis and treatment planning, 454–455
pragmatists, 452
modern, 452
postmodern, 452, 453
pre-modern ethics, 267–281
predator-exposure procedure, 995
pregnancy, 161–179
clinical dilemmas, case studies, 170–174
ethical dilemmas during, clinical management of, 167–174
as a medical condition, 36n.13
protections and practices, 162–165
and research, 161–162
research guidelines, impact on clinical practice, 166–167
research involving pregnant women or fetuses, 164
premenstrual dysmorphic disorder (PMDD), 436, 437, 438
Present State Examination (PSE), 1070, 1073
priest-penitent confidentiality, 826
Priestly, J., 461
prima facie, 204
primum non nocere (first, do no harm), 920
principles
as abstract norms of obligation, 406–407
four clusters of, 405–414
origins of, 405–406
Principles of Biomedical Ethics (Beauchamp and Childress), 405, 406, 1092
Principles of Medical Ethics and Annotations Especially Applicable to Psychiatry, 217
principlism, 15, 405–422
privacy, 32, 105–107, 365n, 691, 696–697, 813, 827, 830
in child and adolescent mental health care, 141
Hinduism and, 629–630
of information, 1255
unethical, 105–107
privilege, 1308
Pro-Ana websites, 715, 717
procedural norms, 387–388
professional authority, 793
professional boundaries, 1160–1174
in the internet era, 1172–1173
literature review, 1393–1394
ethical issues related to resource allocation and/or access to services, 1394
(p. I-62) violations
behavior, language and dress, 1164
versus boundary crossings, 1167–1168
clinicians profiles, 1169–1170
confidentiality, 1164
dual relationships and business transactions, 1166
excessive self-disclosure, 1165
frame of treatment, 1162–1167
location and time, 1163
money and gifts, 1165
nonsexual physical contact, 1166–1167
post-termination sexual contact, 1170–1171
preventive strategies, 1171–1172
sexual, 1162, 1168–1171
unethical, 1161–1167
see also boundaries
professional colleges, 877
professional commentary, 831–832
professional decorum, 533–534
professional ethics, 920
professional identity, 1336–1337
professional integrity, impaired health practitioners, 865
professional liability, 515–516
professional moralities, 416
professional-patient relationships, 1093
professionals, service users, partnerships between, 982–983
prognostic homogenity, 937–938
prohibition, of ties with industry, 759
projection, 1278–1279
and introjection, 1276–1292
in interaction, 1280–1282
provisional diagnostic evaluation, 834
provisional nature of diagnosis and treatment, 453
Prozac, 1021
PSE (Present State Examination), 1070, 1073
psychiatric admissions, freedom of choice of hospital for, 128–129
psychiatric advanced directives (PADs), 40–41, 168, 169, 174, 1394, 1395–1396
psychiatric assessment and diagnosis, 23–24
psychiatric care
deficiency and inadequacy of, 20
unwanted, 20
psychiatric citizenship and law, ethics in, 20–22
psychiatric diagnosis, 834
as an ethical problem, 1046–1049
Roman Catholic Church views on, 548–549
values or facts, 889–890
psychiatric disorders, 867
imaging of ethical reasoning in, 1110–1112
psychiatric drugs, experience of coming off, study, 981
psychiatric ethics, as particular, 475
psychiatric evaluation, 834
psychiatric examinations, interviews and consent, 832–834
psychiatric futility, 48–49, 49f
psychiatric genetics, 740–742
psychiatric hospital, experience of a patient in, 91–93, 95–96
Psychiatric Intensive Care, 275
psychiatric intensive care units (PICUs), 274, 277
interventions, 274
psychiatric journeys, 349
psychiatric medication see medication
psychiatric neuroethics
deep brain stimulation and lesioning, 1191–1206
less invasive and non-invasive techniques, 1207–1227
researchers’ obligations, 1200–1203
psychiatric patients, dignity of, 91–93
psychiatric rehabilitation, 1384
and recovery, 246
psychiatric research, 22–23
voluntarism, 951
psychiatric research ethics, 945–957
psychiatric research participants, safety monitoring and withdrawal of, 958–969
psychiatric service, 1283–1285
Psychiatric Times (PT) ethics survey 2011, 45
conflicts of interest, 54–56
end-of-life, 47–49
ethical navigation, 47
format, 46
(p. I-63) limitations and strengths, 57–58
professional boundaries, 49–52
public health ethics, 53–54
results, 46
survey trends, 56–57
psychiatric treatment, ethics and values in, 24–25
psychiatrically-impaired research participants, 1362–1364
psychiatrist-community alliance
challenges to, 791–799
disagreements with allies about policy, 791–794
psychiatrists
accepting pharmaceutical gifts, 55–56, 56f
community involvement
boundary tensions, 796–797
tensions regarding shared cultural authority, 797–799
as community members, 785–801
separating professional expertise and personal values, 794–796
consultation-liaison (C/L), 14
deceiving utilization reviewers to obtain longer stay for patients, 54–55, 55f
discharge of difficult patients, 52–53, 53f
dual roles, 38–39
ethical demands, 11
as moral arbiters, 36
in nineteenth century America, 638
providing informal care to friends and family, 51–52
report patient with dementia still driving, 53–54, 54f
reporting addiction, 54
reporting sexual misconduct of mental health professionals, 50–51, 51f
romantic involvements with relatives of former patients, 49–50, 50f
scrutiny of, 6–7
self-disclosure of mental illness to patients, 51, 52f
psychiatrization, 548–549
psychiatry
and consequentialism, 463–464
and papal teaching, 546–548
as a science, 388–389
splitting of, 1285–1286
vulnerability of, 661–662
psychiatry ethics, as a therapy of care, 330–333
psychic driving, 410
psychoanalysis, 11, 744
and papal teaching, 546–548
psychoanalytic psychotherapy, ethical challenges, virtues approach to, 1264–1275
psychoanalytic theory, 806
psychoanalytic therapy (PT), 1295
psychobiography, 834
psychodynamic psychiatry, 651
psychodynamic/psychoanalytic psychotherapy, 1265
psychodynamic virtues, 1266–1271
complexity, uncertainty and humility, 1269
gratification, restriction of, 1270–1271
knowing oneself, 1271
neutrality and affirmation, 1267–1268
psychoanalytic empathy, 1267
transference and counterference, openness to, 1269–1270
psychological testing and assessment, 1091–1108
basic principles, 1092–1093
autonomy, 1092
beneficence, 1092–1093
justice, 1093
nonmaleficence, 1093
professional–patient relationships, 1093
clients, 1097
content, 1096–1097
disabilities, adjustments to take into account, 1105
diversity, 1104
ethical considerations, 1091–1092
evaluation, 1099–1105
general assessment process, 1100
informed consent, 1099–1100
psychometric considerations, 1101–1102
test selection, 1100–1101
language differences, 1104–1105
laws and organizational rules, 1093–1097
competence, 1095–1096
standards, 1094–1095
(p. I-64) referrals
adjustments to, 1098–1099
roles and context, 1097–1099
reliability, 1101
results
communication of, 1105–1107
feedback to the patient, 1106–1107
feedback to the referral source, 1105–1106
testing, forms of, 1097–1098
validity, 1101
effort and symptom testing, 1102–1104
psychological therapies
ethical issues, 1250–1263
with traditional concerns, 1253–1257
psychometric questionnaires, 814
psychometrics, 1101–1102
Psychopathia Sexualis (von Krafft-Ebing), 181
psychopathic criminals, 338
psychopathology, 975, 1045–1068, 1374
classifications
ethical responsibilities, 1054–1056
scientific taxonomies as sociopolitical products, 1054–1056
classifying, 1061–1063
Hinduism and cultural, 622–624
psychopaths, 916
psychopathy, 916
psychopharmacological interventions, in children and adolescents, 143–144
psychopharmacology, 593, 1175–1190
clinical vignettes, 1181–1183
conceptual framework, 1183–1187
classical, 1183–1184
critical, 1184
integrative, 1185
history of, 1175–1181
cutting edge, 1179–1181
emergence of clinical psychopharmacology, 1175–1178
maturation of clinical, 1178–1179
in psychiatry, 6
psychosis, 94, 120, 1116, 1178
creativity and, 115
Hinduism and, 620–621
treatment, 112–116
psychosomatic medicine, 231
psychostimulants, 1178
psychosurgery, 532–533, 649, 650
psychotherapy, 9–10, 110, 589, 595, 739
Anne Sexton tapes, 830
conflicts between Jewish and psychiatric ethics, 530
couple and family, 1306–1314
informed consent, 1271–1274
and Roman Catholic Church, 554–555
summary of, 1251–1252
values
contemporary issues, 1257–1260
diversity of, 1258–1260
psychotic disorders, 770, 995–996, 1016
public good (maslaha), 508–509
public health
ethics, 53–54
moral theories, 692
public mental health
in developing countries, 690–710
moral theories, 692
scope of, 691–692
public safety, 845–846, 921
public trust, 23
publication bias, 935–936
pure virtue theory, 424n.3
Purpose Principle, 847
Putin, Vladimir, 659
Q
quality adjusted life years (QALYs), 467, 470
quality of care, of child and adolescent mental health care, 141–142
quality of life, 94
question formulations, PICO format, 931n.6
R
rabbinic Judaism, 520–538
core ethical values, relevance to health care and psychiatry, 522–523
rabbinic ethics, psychiatric and, 525
race, 446
racism, 298, 973
racist beliefs, 391–392
(p. I-65) radical empiricism, 451
rajasik (temperament), 618–619
Ramayana, 617
random controlled trials (RCTs), 934
randomization, 938
rational autonomy, 524, 528
rationality, 387, 1052, 1053
framework, 387–388
and legal personhood, 398–399
and patient autonomy, 394–400
practical, 366
pragmatic, 393
role in psychiatric classifications and diagnosis, 388–394
Rawlsian theories of justice, 16
realists, 1145
recommended acts, 508t
recovery, 61, 246–247, 269n, 276–277, 673, 1082
clinical, 1386
clinician’s role, 1324–1325
hypothetical clinical vignette, 1319–1321
personal, 1386, 1388
risk and, 94–97
subsersive environments, 95–97
recovery from mental illness, 1384–1401
ethics, conceptual analysis of, 1387–1388
literature review, 1388–1396
autonomy and right of refusal in relation to personal capacity or competency, 1393
autonomy and self-determination in relation to coercion, 1389–1392
discussion of, 1389–1396
ethical issues related to personal and professional boundaries, 1393–1394
limitations, 1396
methods of, 1388–1389
outcomes associated with proposed solutions, 1395–1396
proposed solution to address identified ethical challenges or conflicts, 1394–1395
results of, 1389
recovery movement, 1384
recovery stories, 1315–1327
reduction, 14
reductionist biomedicine, 652
reflective equilibrium, 344, 419
reflective self-responsibility, 375, 376
reflective understanding, 344–345
reformational christian, 559n.1
Bible, the, authority of, 563–566
clinical practice and, 566–571
exegetical premises, 566
freedom in Jesus Christ, 562–563
key principles, 561–566
mental disorder
origins, causes and diagnosis, 567–570
suffering owing to, 579–580
overview on suffering, guilt, failures and related issued in psychiatry, 559–583
psychiatric treatments and responsibility, 570–571
psychiatrists, relationship between believing patient and, 567
redemption, extent of, 562–563
relationship of God with believers, 561–562
suffering, 571–580
rehabilitation, Hinduism and, 627
reincarnation, 590, 619
relational security, ethics and, 907–909
relationality, 439, 726, 732
social contagion and, 731
relationships, 64
uncertain, 341
relaxation, 594
reliability
of diagnosis, 1052
psychological testing and assessment, 1101
religion, 9, 17–19, 125
psychology of, 340n.4
religious ceremonies, Hinduism, 624
religious cities, 627
religious coping, 626
religious rituals, Hinduism, 623
religious symbolism, Hinduism and, 624
religious texts, 18
remorse, 568–569
repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), 1212
(p. I-66) repression, 1278
reproduction, rates, 737
research, 691, 970–988
academic, assessment of, 984
biomedical, 946
ethics, 10, 945–957
human subjects, 945
involvement
collaboration, 981
consultation, 980–981
contribution, 981
control, 981
levels of, 980–981
literacy, mental health, 23
mental health research, epistemologies, 974–976
new directions for, 400–401
participation, therapeutic misconception, 948
psychiatric, informed consent, 947–949
quality and trust
financial conflicts of interest, 1028–1031
protection of, 1031–1033
service users, involvement and control, 979–980
study designs, 952
and trust, 1026–1041
user-led, 972
values in, 976
voluntary sector, service-user-led, 973
working together as equals, 982–983
Research Diagnostic Criteria, 1180
Research Domain Criteria, 1224
research ethics committees see institutional review boards (IRBs)
resilience, 870
resources, 472, 854–856, 1387
allocation, commissioning mental health services, 667–668
literature review, 1394
respect
for diversity of values, 297–298, 315–317
for persons, 886
responsibility, 382, 500, 903, 1112–1114
responsive acceptance, 348
responsive equilibrium, 344
acceptance and change, 347–348
and care of the soul, 348–349
meaning and honesty, 345–347
responsive understanding, 344–345
resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), 1115
restraint, 211, 274, 275, 1340–1341
and previous trauma, 207
reasons for, 202–203
restrictive measures, 699
restrictive policies, 693
results
negative, 935n
positive, 935n
Rig Veda (Hindu hymns), 616
right hemisphere temporo-parietal junction (rTPJ), 1110
right to life, Roman Catholic Church, perspective on, 552–554
rights, 415–416
risk, 745
assessment, 890–891, 919–920, 1223
and recovery, 94–97
Risk Society, 919
risperidone, 105
rituals, 1052–1053
ritualistic behaviors, Hinduism and, 624
rodents, fear learning, 1015–1016
role morality, 35n.11
rolfing, 109
Roman Catholic Church, 539–540
abortion, 553
capital punishment, 552
Church Fathers, 545n.27
mental diseases according to, 545
euthanasia, 553
features of, 540–541
moral teaching, 541–542
paraphilias, views of, 549–550
perspectives on psychiatric ethics, 539–558
abnormal sexual behaviors, 549–552
psychiatric diagnosis, 548–549
right to life, 552–554
psychiatry, psychoanalysis and papal teachings, 546–548
and psychotherapy, 554–555
scriptural sources, 543–545
views on
sexual dysfunctions, 550–551
sexual orientation, 551
(p. I-67) Rorschach Inkblot Method, 1098
Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists, 413
Runaway House, 99
Russian Federation, political abuse of psychiatry, in the post-Soviet period, 658
S
sadd al-dhara’i’ (blocking the means), 509
safety
dangerousness and, 203–206
monitoring, 967
requests to assess for safety, 223–224
salvation, 504n
satvik lifestyle, 618
scene processing, 1118
schizoaffective disorder depressed type, 105
schizoaffective psychosis, 112–116
schizophrenia, 108, 109, 208, 331, 393, 394, 917, 1047, 1282
adoption studies, 741
animal models, 1016
caregiving and caregivers, 1375–1376
characterization, 391
classification and diagnosis controversies, 389, 390
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 1197
community treatment orders (CTOs), 156
early intervention, 1360–1373
background, 1360–1362
care of minors at risk for psychosis, 1364–1366
minors and impaired research participants, 1362–1364
experiments involving animals, 995–996
fever therapy, 648
Hinduism and, 621
negative symptoms, 1198
paranoid, 121
research, 947–948
schizophrenogic mother, 744
sluggish, 657, 661
twin study, 740–741
school mental health professionals, 214–230
communication regarding medication, 225–226
consent and confidentiality, federal mandates, 217–220
establishing relationships with, 215–216
ethics codes, 217
schools, mental health services in schools, treatment, special considerations for, 224–226
schreibtischtäter (desk criminal), 914
science
model based view of, 1145–1147
social aspects of, 1056–1058
and values-based practice, 305
science driven principle, 74t, 84t
scope
of practice, 533–534
of public mental health, 691–692
Scotland
Adults with Incapacity (Scotland) Act 2000, 684
Mental Health (Care and Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003 (Mental Welfare Commission for Scotland 2003), 678, 684
Scottish Independent Advocacy Alliance, 679
Scottish Recovery Network, 269n
seclusion, 211, 274, 275, 277
reasons for, 202–203
Second Wave Initiative, 165
secular values, 19
secure forensic care
justice, and formulations of responsibility, 903
long-term care, and iatrogenic harm, 904
principle of justice, 902–903
secure psychiatric settings, 897–910
autonomy and security, 898–899
care and custody, 897–898
case histories, 900–901
ethical issues
challenge of long-term care and iatrogenic harm, 904
justice and formulations of responsibility, 903
principle of justice, 902–903
ethics, and relational security, 907–909
values-based practice, 904–907
security, autonomy and, 898–899
sedimentation, 339, 340
(p. I-68) selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 1034
self-analysis, 1271
self-autonomy, 1323
self-awareness, 325
self-care, 595
self-control, 1283
self-creation, 1323
self-deception, 1257
self-determination, 1389–1392
self-disclosures, 1165
self-discovery, 1391
self-esteem, 728
self-governance, 504
self-harm, 34n.9, 143, 201, 204, 620, 1392
self-healing, 595
self-help, 597
anti-psychiatry, 98–99
self-identity, 36, 444
self-indulgence, 979
self-injury see self-harm
self-interest, 757
self-management, 62
self-misconception, 1257
self-report inventories, 1098
self-respect, 288–289
self-responsibility, 382
self-responsible agency, 376–377, 379
self, the, 498–499
al-nafs al-ammara (the inciting or commanding self), 499
al-nafs al-mutma’inna (the content, peace-full self), 499
constitutively social, 726
ontologically relational, 726
self-worth, 440
selfhood, 326, 331
notion of, 320
to personhood, 324–326
selflessness, 592, 596
sense of agency for change, 1316
serious adverse effects, 966, 967
serotonin, 918
serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), 1179
servant leadership theory, 807
service users, professionals, partnerships between, 982–983
services, literature review, 1394
sex, 193
sex offenders, 201, 208, 1259
sexual abuse, 120, 142
sexual disorders, 513
sexual dysfunctions, Roman Catholic Church, views of, 550–551
sexual misconduct, of mental health professional colleagues, 50–51, 51f
sexual orientation change efforts (SOCE), 184–185
sexual orientation, Roman Catholic Church, views of, 551
sexual violence, 120
sexuality, 197
Hinduism and, 623–624
Roman Catholic Church views on, 549–552
Shakyamuni Buddha, 585
shared decision-making, 1395
Shari’a, 496, 497, 498, 504n, 506, 506n.17, 510
cross-gender interactions, 514
Sheehan, Antony, 845
Shi’a muslims, 497n
shock treatments, 648, 649, 971
sick role theory, 977
Singh, Anu, 921
situational leadership theory, 815, 818
skills strategies, 1293
skills training, 1299
sleep/wake disorders, 770
sluggish schizophrenia, 657, 661
Snowden, Edward, 804
social contagion, 727, 728
relationality, 731
social contexts, 19–20
social contracts
in psychiatric care, 786–791
conceptual framework, 787
critical view of, 789–790
between medical profession and society, 787–789
reframing the alliance, 790–791
between psychiatric profession and the community, 920–922
social defeat, 995, 995n
social isolation, 995
social justice, 692, 699–702
social maladjustment, 221–222
social media, 21, 711
(p. I-69) using in clinical practice, 456–457
social phobia, 1183
social policy, 469
social pressure, 725
social primary goods, 284, 285, 290
health care as, 286, 287
social psychology, 340n.4
social reality, 342
social reinforcement, 727
social skills training, 1395
social supports, 1365
social surveys, 972
social values, 1055
social workers, 114
Socialist Medical Association, 267n.2
sociogenesis, of mental disorders, 730
solidarity, 256
solipsism, 108, 110
somatic experiencing, 594
somatic medicine, 373
somatic treatments, in psychiatry, 650
sororities, 725
South Africa, 78, 1129
Batho Pele see Batho Pele
see also Africa
Soviet Union, psychiatry abuse, 655, 656–657
spaces to be, stories and, 340–341
special education classification, 221–222
speech, negative, 598
spirituality, 17–19, 1081
splitting, 1277, 1278
of psychiatry, 1285–1286
squeaky wheel principle, 74t, 83t
Sri Lanka, 707
staff, neglect of individuals with intellectual disabilities, 152–155
standards, 1094–1095
for issue resolution when moral considerations are in conflict, 698–699
imperative, 699
least restrictive alternative, 699
socio-culturally sensitive, 699
Standing on Principles (Beauchamp), 405
stigma, 548, 691, 812, 813, 835, 898, 950, 954, 971, 1391
of child and adolescent mental health care, 141–142
and Hinduism, 630
social, 1047–1048
Stockholm syndrome, 1281
stoicism, 542n.15
Straight Path (al-Sirat al-Mustaqim), 496
strengths-based assessment, 1083–1084
stress, 341, 868
stressors, 1015n
structural inequalities, 438
sublimity, 729
substance abuse, 995–996
health practitioners, 871–872
substance misuse, 867, 869
substance use disorder, 54
substantive norms, 387–388
sucrose preference test, 1014
suffering, 19, 571–580
in Colossians 1:24b, 572–574, 575f
clarification, 575–577
interpretations, 577–579
revelation to present-day people, 579
exegesis, to clarify, 572–579
mental disorder, owing to, 579–580
psychospiritual and theological perspectives, 497–502
suicide, 979
Hinduism and, 620
Islamic views of, 511–512
physician-assisted suicide, 47–48
Sukkot, Talmud, 523
sum ranking, 468–470
psychiatry and, 469–470
sunna, 507, 507n.21
Sunni muslims, 497n
superego, 1280
superstitious beliefs, 391–392
support, self-directed, 246
support time and recovery (STR) workers, 72
susceptibility testing, 743, 748
Sweden, 677
symptom validity tests (SVTs), 1103
Syria, 804
T
tact, 533–534
tail suspension test, 994
(p. I-70) Talmud, 522n
Sukkot, 523
tamasik individuals, 619
tameshigiri (testing new samurai swords), 915
tamoxifen, 1021
Tarasoff case, 1254
teams
definition of, 1329–1330
and teamwork, 1330
teamwork, 1329
technical bias, 936–937
technology, 5–6
invasive, 5
non-invasive, 5
telemedicine, 1346–1347
telepsychiatry, 1346–1359
assets and limitations of, 1348–1352
basics of, 1347–1348
ethics of, 1352–1357
autonomy, 1353–1354
beneficence, 1354–1356
justice, 1356–1357
nonmaleficence, 1354–1356
history of, 1346–1347
temple healing, 620–621
temporal lobe epilepsy, 1117
terminal illness, 531–532
testamentary capacity, 832n, 833
testing, susceptibility, 743, 748
tests, symptom validity tests (SVTs), 1103
thalidomide, 162
Theory of Justice, A (Rawls), 282–284
therapeutic innovations, 648
therapeutic misconception, 948, 951, 1362
therapeutic relationship, 36n.12
thin, pressure to be, 724
thinking
latent, 232, 233
manifest, 232, 233
unconscious thoughts, 232–233
Thomistic Aristotelianism, 271
thought, 338–339
thought leaders, 815
3 Keys project, 72, 1081–1087
co-production, and future of values-based assessment, 1086–1087
good practice, 1082–1083
three qualities (tri gunas), 618
thyroid hormone, 130
thyroxine, 131
Tilly Mathews, James, 678
Timor, 707
Torah, 521–522, 536
Tourette’s Syndrome, 105, 113, 114, 115
Towards a Pre-Modern Psychiatry (Booth), 269
tradition-constituted enquiry, 269
traditional healing, Hinduism, 625
training, for staff in child and adolescent mental health care, 142
trajectory, 209
transcranial current stimulation (tCS), 1207, 1212–1219
description of, 1212
ethical issues with, 1212–1214
transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), 1203
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), 5, 1203, 1207, 1212–1219
description of, 1212
ethical issues with, 1212–1214
transference, 1269–1270, 1273
transformational leadership, 807, 817
transgenderism, 182
translation, and ethics in psychiatry, 121–123
transmission of affect, 714
transsexualism, 182
treatment
advance refusals of, 261
coordination and sequencing of, adolescents, 224–225
failure of negotiation, 1157–1158
negotiation, 1147–1151
model-based science and, 1143–1159
and renegotiation, 1151–1156
practical aspects of, 453
refusing, 234–235
tri gunas (three qualities), 618
trial, the, concept of, 499–501
tribunals, legal underpinning, 272–274
tricyclic antidepressants (TCA), 1176
true ideas, 452
trumps hierarchy, 481, 482–483
use of, 483–485
trustworthiness, 431, 835
truth, 451, 452, 453
truth-telling, 886, 1379
truthfulness, 238–240
Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1361
two feet principle, 74t, 83t
U
Ulysses Contracts, 40n.17
uncertainty, 1269
unconscious mind, 1265
understanding, reflective and responsive, 344–345
undue influence, 1132
unethical privacy, 105–107
United Kingdom, 671
Animal Procedures Committee (APC), 1020
Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs), 664, 664n.2
Community Treatment Orders (CTOs), 156
ECT study, 972
Government Office for Science, 468
Joint Strategic Needs Assessment, 669
Mental Health Act (1983), 273, 274
Mental Health Act (2007), 839, 1130
guiding principles, 840–842
training materials, 840–844
mental health advocacy in, 677–710
National Health Service (NHS) UK, 1331
peer support, current state of, 247
prisons, 897
psychiatric leadership, 809
service user/survivor movements, 973
United Nations (UN)
Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 39–40, 143, 273, 398
Conventions on the Rights of the Child, 143
United States of America, 671, 677, 802–803
14th Amendment of the Constitution, 200
animal research oversight, 1018
Animal Welfare Act, 1001
child abuse, 141
clinical trials with children or adolescents, 144
conflicts of interest, 1035–1036
Federation of the State Medical Boards of the United States, 862
Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 163
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) (1996), 217
Institute of Medicine, 163
mental illness, as justification for seclusion and restraint in various states, 201–202
mentally ill patients, health insurance, 282
National Bioethics Advisory Commission, 161
National Institute of Health (NIH), 165
Office of Research on Women’s Health, 165–165
Public Health Service’s Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1361
In Pursuit of Wellness, 972
University of Minnesota, 1037
unreality, 110
Upanishadas, 616
User Focussed Monitoring, 250
user-led research, 972
user recovery movement, 97
Users’ Guides, 931, 932
utilitarian psychiatric ethics, 459–473
utilitarianism, 388, 460
act, 463
consequentialism, 462–463
critiques of, 470–472
history of, 460–462
rule, 463
welfarism, 464–468
utilization reviewers, 54–55
V
vaccination, 696
Vajrayana Buddhism, 587n.5
validity, psychological testing and assessment, 1101
value blindness, 481
value judgements, 667, 1047
values, 481
conflicting, 1342
conflicts of, 305–306
constraints on, 316
divergent, 296
(p. I-72) diversity, 296–300
regulatory responses to, 296–297
respecting, 297–298
misalignment of, 1341–1342
shared, 296, 297
space, creating, 304–305
trumping, 306
values-based assessment, 1069–1090
values-based commissioning, 853–854
values-based ethics hierarchy, 482, 482f
values-based involuntary seclusion and treatment, 839–860
values-based involuntary treatment, 846
values-based medicine (VBM), 260
ten principles of, 478t
values-based practice (VBP), 4, 10–11, 25, 477, 889, 907, 1087, 1139, 1144
3 Rs, 852
awareness, 70t, 82t, 299t, 311t
caveats, 856
commissioning mental health services, 666
communication, 70t, 82t, 299t, 312t
decision-making, 13, 71t
partnership in, 313t
decision-making constraints, 68–69
elements of, 70–71t, 843–844f, 1085–1086t
extended MDT, 299t, 312t
FAP (Foundations, Axioms, and Practices) model, 76
fault-line in, 850
features of, 851–852
forensic psychiatry, 888–891
Indaba in African, 295–318
individual and collective, 850–854
isiZulu indaba, 15–16
knowledge, 70t, 82t, 299t, 312t
limitations, 851
link with evidence, 70–71t, 83t
in multidisciplinary team work, 12
partnership in decision-making, 84t, 300t
patient-values-centred-care, 299t, 312t
and peer support
awareness, 73t
communication, 74t
decision-making, 74t
knowledge, 73t
multidisclipinary team, 74t
patient-centred care, 74t
point, 73t
premise, 73t
professional relationships, 74t
reasoning, 73t
science driven principle, 74t
skills, 73t
squeaky wheel principle, 74t
stage 1, 73–75t
stage 2, 81–84t
ten-part process, 73t
two feet principle, 74t
peer-support recovery, 67–77
limitations, 75–77
resources, 71–75
person-values-centred practice, 303–304
point, 70t, 81t, 299t, 311t
Precious Pelo, 300–306
premise, 70t, 81t, 299t, 311t
professional identity, potential barrier to, 1336–1337
professional relationships, 70t, 83t, 299t, 312t
reasoning, 70t, 82t, 299t, 312t
role in peer support, 60, 61, 80
science and, 305
science driven principle, 71t, 84t, 300t, 313t
secure psychiatric settings, 904–907
skills, 70t, 82t, 299t, 311–312t
squeaky wheel principle, 70t, 74t, 83t, 300t, 313t
strengths, 851
summary, 299–300t
summary of the elements of, 479t
ten-part process, 70t, 81t, 299t, 311t
testing of, 85
tool kit, 69–71
two feet principle, 70t, 83t, 300t, 302–303, 313t
values, 69f
diversity, 67–71
raised awareness of, 302
(p. I-73) values-based psychiatric ethics (VBPE), 474–492
case study 1, 483–485
case study 2, 485–488
clinician, 481
limitations, 489
normative claims, 488–489
objections and limitations of, 488–489
theory and practice, 480–483
values diversity, 67–71
and interdependence, 61–64
values monism, 63
values pluralism, 63, 76
Vedas (Hindu scriptures), 616, 617
Atharva, 617
Rig, 617
Sama, 617
Yajur, 617
Veil of Ignorance, 283–284
vicars, 114
videoconferencing, 1347
violence, 275
partner, 436
sexual, 120
violence history, 898
violent patients, 13
violent sex offenders, 201
virtue ethics, 453–454
origin of, 1264
partialist and role specific, 427–428
virtues, 271, 414–415, 480–481, 1234
and affections, 426–427
aspects of, 425–429
complex and holistic moral psychology, 429
focal, 835
individual flourishing for the patient, 432–433
necessary for excellence in psychiatric practice, 1265
outcome-indifferent and useful, 429–430
phronesis, 428–429
of psychiatric practice, teaching, 430–432
psychodynamic, 1266–1271
virtue-based psychiatric ethics, 423–435
vocabulary, 345
voluntariness, 32–33
voluntary hospitalization, Hinduism and, 626
vulnerability, 13, 14, 31, 359–361
and abuse, 256–257
as a normative alternative to autonomy, 361t
vulnerable individuals, 162
W
Wales
Mental Capacity Act (2005) (England and Wales), 684
Mental Health Act (1983) (England and Wales), 684
Mental Health Act (2007), 273
way, the (sunna), 507, 507n.21
welfare, 472
animal see animal welfare
welfare of patients, 792
welfarism
psychiatry and, 466–468
utilitarianism, 464–468
well-being, 465
wellness and recovery action planning, 247
wellness recovery action plans (WRAPs), 1395
Whitman, Charles, 917–918
will to power, 347
Windsor, Edith, 804
wisdom, 344
practical, 866–867
women
black, 971
health interventions among Muslim women, Muslims, 699
legal justice for, 442
see also bulimia
Women’s Health Initiative Study, 933
World Health Organization (WHO), 148, 182, 388–389, 459, 1073
Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020, 701–702, 705
Mental Health Atlas 2005, 701
revision of ICD-10, 182n.2
(p. I-74) World Mental Health Survey Consortium, 950
World Medical Association, 162
World Psychiatric Association (WPA), 810
Madrid Declaration on Ethical Standards for Psychiatric Practice, 828
World War II, 1361
Y
Yayati complex, 618
yoga, 594, 624
youth see adolescents
Z
zolpidem, 51–52