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date: 22 February 2020

(p. 577) Index

(p. 577) Index

Tables and figures are indicated by an italic t and f following the page number. Footnotes are indicated by ‘n’ followed by the footnote number if there is more than one footnote on the page.

Abu Dhabi, Guggenheim in 510, 512, 514, 515
Accenture 201, 207
accountants 133, 200, 203
achievement, levels of 407
Achilles 87n4
Achilles’ heel 66
actor network theory 347, 349, 350
actual costs 8, 73, 79, 86
of hosting megaevents 296, 297, 298
measurement of 176, 372
of megadams 430
see also costs
actual outturn costs (actual CAPEX) 81, 88n7, 187n11
adaptive approach to managing projects 470
adaptive change 61
Afghanistan 113, 572n10
Africa
benefit overruns in 180
dams under construction in 557
infrastructure investment by China in 49
railway construction in 15, 48
see also South Africa
agglomeration effects 397, 399–400, 402
aggregate effect 401
Airbus
A380 jumbo jet 177, 455, 476
A400M military aircraft 199, 205, 207
cost overruns 201
airports
Brandenburg airport, Berlin 195
Hong Kong 477
Mexico City 253, 365
Oslo 10
Singapore Changi 253
Alaska pipeline project 97, 99, 106–7
Alexandria, urban trams 44
All Nippon Airways 453, 455
Allen Consulting Group 375t, 377
Allen, Paul 513
Alonso, Fernando 205
Alyeska joint venture 107
America, railways in 393
Andersen, Arthur 377
Anderson, P.W. 64
Ando, Tadao 510, 513, 514
Angola 49
antenarratives 245
antifragility 63
see also fragility
Apollo project 4, 24, 28, 35n2, 492
adapting and innovation during execution of the 317
project management system 27
systems integration in 477
ArcelorMittal 61
architecture of project organization 231
Argentina 77, 289t, 436
Yacyretá Dam 78, 436
Armitt, Sir John 482
Asia, cost overruns in 180
assets 69
physical 68
shared use 262
“stranded assets” 68
Aswan High Dam, Egypt 15, 429, 444, 447, 558, 563, 564
development of 563
negative impacts on delta ecosystems 439
(p. 578) Athens
2004 Olympics 300
Helliniko Olympic Complex 302
Atlas project 24, 25, 28
atomic bomb 4, 21, 25
Auditors General
of New South Wales 375t, 524
of South Africa 545
of Victoria 527
views on PPPs 378
Australia
BOOT (build, own, operate and transfer) arrangement 535n2
Geelong, Victoria 511
Land Cove Tunnel 536n9
M2 Motorway 523–6, 530, 531t, 532t
Melbourne CityLink 526–7
motorways 15, 519–38
New South Wales (NSW) 521
Partnerships Victoria 364
PPP evaluations, 1998-2014 373t, 374t, 375t, 376t
PPP guidelines 380n1
project risk estimation 379
Sydney Airport Link 247
Sydney Cross City Tunnel 247, 520, 528–9, 531t
Sydney Harbour Tunnel 522–3, 531t, 533t
Sydney Lane Cove Tunnel 10, 247, 536n9
Sydney Olympic Park 302
Sydney Opera House see Sydney Opera House, Australia
Australian National Broadband Network 252
Austria
GDP of 3f
Vienna hospital project 252–3
BAA 34, 35, 267, 276, 280, 283n2, 493
delivery of megaprojects 333
Heathrow Express project 325
Heathrow Terminal 2 project 263, 274
Heathrow Terminal 5 project 318, 323, 325, 326, 329, 330, 331
Bacon, Francis 201
balancing capabilities 314, 319, 329, 332
ballistic missiles 25, 26
Ban, Shigeru 514
Bangladesh (was East Pakistan) 157, 182
Karnaphuli paper mill 157, 182
banks
African Development Bank 82
Asian Development Bank 104, 111
multilateral development 568
see also World Bank
Barcelona 291
baseball stadiums 41–4, 47, 51, 55, 56
Basel III rules 365, 367t
Basque Country 498, 499–500, 503, 515
GDP growth 506–7t
tourism in 505, 508
Baulderstone 528
behavior, of people when starting new projects 167
behavioral economics 14
megaproject research and 155–93
Beijing, China 145, 299, 512
2008 Olympic Games 142, 145, 146, 292
Bird’s Nest/National Stadium 146, 301, 302, 513
Old and Dilapidated Housing Renewal Program 141–2
Water Cube 302
see also China
Beijing Urban Construction Corp 146
Bell, Daniel 162
Bell, Judith 502
benefit overestimates 314
benefit overruns 174, 175, 176, 180, 184
benefit risks 179f
benefit shortfalls 9, 56
benefit-to-cost ratio (BCR) 68–9, 74, 75, 80, 83, 396
benefits of megaprojects 14, 158
first-year 176, 187n19
limitations of 396–9
quality of estimates of 126–8
using as justification for projects 399–400
Berlin, Germany 509
Brandenburg airport 195
Guggenheim Museum 510 (p. 579)
Jewish Museum 514
see also Germany
Biafra 183
bias(es) 67, 84, 85, 130
biased sampling 172
optimism bias(es) see optimism biases
overconfidence 159
psychological 66, 84, 85
selection 126, 423
uniqueness bias 8, 16n4
bid low and sue later practice 23, 34
Biehl study 394
big
definition of 62–3
theories of 60, 61
Big Dig artery/tunnel project, Boston 29, 53, 227, 342, 343
cost overruns 9, 11t
losses from 61
"bigger is better" 60, 61, 62, 85, 86
Bilbao effect 40, 497, 500, 508–11, 512–14
Bilbao, Spain 51, 55, 497–518
Abandoibarra 498, 499, 508
economic performance after opening of the Guggenheim 515
Guggenheim effect in 504–8
revitalization program 12, 498–9
Strategic Plan for the Revitalization of Metropolitan 14
Biscay, GDP growth and visitors to 506–7t
Biswas, Asit 434, 441
Blair, Tony 364, 370
Boeing 777 454, 460
Boeing 787 14, 453–74
innovation challenges 459–60
vision 454–5
Boeing Corporation 453
business model innovation 455–6
contract for Chinook Mk3 helicopters 208
Dreamliner see Dreamliner
history of commercial aircraft building 454
outsource design to subcontractors 466
technology innovations 455
Bogota, BRT system 48, 53, 54, 55
Bolivia, Cochabamba water project 108
Bombela 542, 543, 546, 547, 549
BOOT (build–own–operate–transfer) arrangement 145, 431, 535n2, 565
Boston 57
Big Dig artery/tunnel project see Big Dig artery/tunnel project, Boston
–New York–Washington railway, USA 11t
BOT (build–operate–transfer) 145
Botswana, Southern Okavango Integrated Water Development Project 428
bottlenecks 220, 221
branding 295, 305
Brazil 49, 296, 303, 304, 305
2014 World Cup 287, 295, 296–7t, 297, 298, 302, 305
2016 Summer Olympic Games 287, 305
BRT projects 48
Curitiba bus rapid transit system 48, 53
dam construction in 430
as host country for World Cup 289t
Itaipu Dam 79
large-dam projects 177
Manaus stadium 302
museums 509, 510
tourism as a consequence to the World Cup 298
unemployment in 307n1
Brazilian Airline Association 298
“break–fix model” 12, 16n6, 16n7
breaker projects 320, 325
BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, China) nations 288, 292, 294, 295, 306
bridges
benefit overruns 175t
Brooklyn bridge, USA 11t
collapse of bridge on Interstate highway, Minnesota, USA 107
Confederation Bridge 227
cost overruns 175t
Firth of Forth 209
Golden Gate bridge, San Francisco 7
Great Belt bridge, Denmark 11t, 178
Humber bridge, United Kingdom 11t
New San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge 7
Verrazano Narrow bridge, USA 11t
British Airport Authority see BAA
(p. 580) British Olympic Association (BOA) 266
Brockner, Joel 200
"broke symmetry" 67
Brooks, Fred 63
Brooks law 63
Brown, Willie 155, 163, 168, 185
Budapest, urban trams 44
budgets 12, 202, 203, 416–17, 479, 545
build–operate–transfer (BOT) 145
build–own–operate–transfer (BOOT) 145, 431, 535n2, 565
building industry, cartels 132
buildings
benefit overruns 175t
cost overruns 175t
super-tall 45, 46
Burns, Robert 194
bus rapid transit systems (BRT) 48, 51, 53, 54, 55
benefit overruns 175t
cost overruns 175t
Cahill, Joe 168, 185
Calcutta, urban trams 44
California 438, 550
high-speed rail project 3f, 4, 106
State Route 91 project 109
Canada
field configurations in British Columbia 104
Grande Baleine Dam 439
Highway 407 Ontario 235
Montreal metro Laval extension 11t
Montreal Summer Olympics 11t, 246, 247
Ontario Auditor General 378
PPPs 364, 380n1
private finance cases 375t, 376t
Trade Fair Expo 86 196
see also Toronto
Canadian Firearms Registry 9, 11t
Canadian Pacific Railway 354
canals 56, 363, 393, 440
Middlesex Canal 161
in Nicaragua 195
Panama canal, Panama see Panama canal, Panama
Suez Canal, Egypt 11t, 563, 564
Welland Canal 161
Capital in the Twenty-First Century (Piketty) 293
cartels 132
CATIA (software) 503
CH2M Hill 324, 478, 484
Channel Tunnel 9–10, 106, 120, 326, 330, 381n3
computations for 201
cost overruns 11t, 313
organizational drivers 199
rail system 477
traffic through 195
Chernobyl 49, 50f
Chicago 45, 513
Deep Tunnel sewer project 194
John Hancock Center 45
Sears Tower (now Willis Tower) 45
urban trams 44
Chile, Mirror of Tarapacá 227
China 5, 6, 49, 148, 430
1998 Constitutional Amendment 148
before 2008 145–6
after 2008 146–8
2009 stimulus program 147
2011 Regulation 142, 143
city and nation megaprojects in 137–51
corruption in dam building in 435
economy in 105
financing megaprojects in 14, 143–5
high-speed rail project in 3
housing demolitions for megaprojects in 141–3, 149
hukou system 140, 141
as an infrastructure investor 49
land market in 140, 141
land reforms in 138
Local Investment Corporations (LICs) 138–9, 143–5
nuclear plant construction in 50
recession in 146
securing land for megaprojects 139–41, 148, 149
size of US debt to 3
Three Gorges dam 61, 349, 435, 441 (p. 581)
toll roads 145
urban fiscal crisis 147
urban renewal projects 138, 141, 142, 143, 148
use of cement in 5, 137
circle of concern 351
circle of influence 351
Circored project 22
CITIC (China International Trust and Investment Corp) 146
citizens, decision-making process 129
city planning schemes 498
civic organizations 105
classics, in megaproject management 1–2
Cleveland Cliffs 22
client organizations 333
climate change 437–8, 558, 569
Coates, John 305
codes of conduct 125, 128
Cofiroute 227
Cold War 28, 29, 563
cold war rationality 35n1
collective action 259–86
arbitrating and refereeing disputes 276–7
building consensus 272–3
classical studies of 279
controversies 263
flexible design structures 275
global buffers 274–5
governance structure 267
infrastructure design structures 266f
performance targets 273–4
polycentric structure governing megaproject planning 271–2
units of analysis 263–6
Colombia
Chivor Dam 79–80
Guavio hydroelectric project 80–1
Paz del Rio steel mill 189n31
Colson, Elizabeth 442, 447
Commission on Growth and Development 429
commissioning clients 125
commitments 278
commodities, global demand for 105
common sensemaking 244
Commonwealth Games, 2010 India 295, 296–7
competition 392
completion effects 208
complexity 96, 234, 238, 475, 476, 477t
cross-institutional 99
dynamics 465
House of Project Complexity 96
pace 465
requisite 235
sociopolitical 465
spatial/technical configuration 96–7
structural 465
typology of 465–6
uncertainty 465
composite materials 46
conceptual appraisals 413
alternative analysis 413
guidelines for the pre-project phase 413
needs analysis 413
overall requirements 413
overall strategy 413
possibilities study 413
concession fees 520
Concord(e) supersonic aeroplane 11t, 247, 253
concrete 46
Congo, Democratic Republic of, Grand Inga project 557
Congress of South African Trade Unions (Cosatu) 544
consensus-oriented developments 261–2
consultants 125
consumption megaprojects 540
contingencies 240
contract law 247
contracting, collaborative 249
contracting fraud 132–3
contractor management 33–5
contractors 132
contracts 33, 326
alliance 111
fixed-price 320, 323
flexible 34, 320, 327
Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) 111
controversies 263
convention centers 54
cost-benefit analysis (CBA) 118, 122, 126, 133, 164, 354, 400
cost compliance 422
cost estimates 126, 133
cost overruns 9, 88n7, 126, 174, 175, 220, 406
in the 1990s 422
evidence of 56
of large-scale projects 11t
measurement of 176
San Francisco Transbay Terminal megaproject 155
statistical tests 180, 184
Sydney Opera House, Australia 194
cost risks 179f
cost underestimations 128, 158, 314
cost underruns 88n7
costs 4
Bid-Book 298
differences between final cost and steering frames 420, 421f
estimated 126–8, 238
operations and maintenance costs for stadiums 300
per Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY), 121
shaping and competitive advantage 232
see also actual costs
creative destruction 56
creative error 160
CREST project 339
critical path methods (CPM) 27, 240
Cromme, Gerhard 61
Cronin, Jeremy 543, 546
CrossCity Motorway (CCM) 528, 529
Crossrail Central 324
Crossrail Limited (CRL) 324, 326, 331, 333
Crossrail project, London 204–5, 263, 275, 323, 324, 334, 493
adaptive problem-solving capabilities 326, 327
benefits from 395, 395t, 396, 401
contracts 329
costs of delays in 10
delivery model 314
description of 264–5t
economic drivers 199
economic impacts 391
estimation of agglomeration effects 402
flexible delivery model 331
innovation strategies 328–9, 332, 333
integrated program team structure 327
limitations of wider benefits of 396
project and economic drivers 199
referees 276
risks of cost and time overruns 327
test and trial capabilities 327
cumulative gains 62, 69
cumulative pain 68
cycles of megaproject development 39–59
ending a cycle 49–50
political systems and 44–5
reasons for 51–7
south to north innovation waves 47–9
technology and global market 45–6
wave-like pattern of megaproject innovation 41–4
dams 177, 428–50, 562
assessment process for building 431–2
associated environmental degradation 438–40
Aswan High Dam see Aswan High Dam, Egypt
benefit-cost ratios (BCR) 73–6
benefit overruns 175t, 180
benefits of 556
BOOT approach to construction of 431
breakage of investments in 76–85
built in the twentieth century 569
Cahora Bassa Dam 432, 438, 440, 446
Challawa Gorge Dam, Nigeria 438
Chivor Dam 79–80
climate change and 437–8
community resettlement and 441
construction of 79, 560, 562f
corruption associated with 435
cost effectiveness of 430–1
cost estimates for 84f
cost overruns of 9, 73f, 78, 86, 175t, 180
cost performance of 73
cost risks 86
cumulative impacts of 557
cumulative investment fragility 81 (p. 583)
dam democracy 15, 570, 571
death rates, resettlement-related 445
and debts in developing countries 86
decommissioning 432–3, 560–1
definition of large 571n1
delays on 10
demand shortfall 9
development of 556–76
discount rates for building 432
dissent against 570–1
distribution across five continents 72f
downstream community impacts 445–6
downstream flows and fisheries 439
ecological and environmental costs 435–40
economic and financial costs of 430–5
education in dam resettlement projects 444
electricity production 438
Elwha Dam 433
emergency repair and costs 432–3
evaluation and research 436, 441–3
fauna 439
financial flows in dam building 566f
financing for 430
floodplain and river restoration 437
gains from 75
Glines Canyon Dam 433
governance 559
Grande Baleine Dam 439
greenhouse gas emissions and 438
handing over responsibility to resettlement communities 446–7
health problems in resettlement 444–5
Himalaya region 571n3
Hoover Dam, United States 79, 432
impacts of 559, 560
impacts on delta ecosystems 439–40
Impoverishment Risks and Reconstruction framework 442
incorporation of resettlers into a national/international political economy 443–4
investment fragility in 74–6, 77–85, 86
Itaipu Dam 79
justifications for 76, 558
Kainji Dam, Nigeria 438, 447
Kariba Dam see Kariba Dam
Lefebvrian analysis of 570
life spans of 83
locations of 79f
maintaining or removing past intended service lives 86
monitoring and evaluation of 434–5
Nam Ngum 2 dam, Laos 565, 567
Nam Theun 2 dam, Laos 15, 565, 567, 568
in North America 78
number under construction 556, 557
operation decisions 560
as Pandora’s Box 558, 565, 569
political economy of 429–30
political nature of dam development 558
as the production of space 558–61
reasons for studying 71–2
reservoir basin community resettlement 440–5
reservoir basins 438
roads constructed to 443
Sardar Sarovar, India 429, 430, 435
scalability of 77
schedule overruns of 74f
schedule performance of 74
Stava Dams, Eastern Italian Alps 82, 88n9
Tarbela Dam, Pakistan 79, 80t, 436
Three Gorges dam, China 61, 349, 435, 441
Tiga Dam, Nigeria 438
time taken to build 86
as Trojan Horses 558, 561, 563, 569
twentieth-century building of 561–5
twenty-first century 565–8
US Tennessee Valley 347–8
Vajont Dam, Italy 83–5
Volta Dam, Ghana 429, 438, 446
Xayaburi Dam 567
Yacyretá, Argentina 78, 436
data fishing 178, 188n27
Davies, Brian 440
DBFO (design, build, finance and operate) 233, 528, 535n2
framework 519
motorways 530, 531–4t
roads 520, 529
tollways 521–9
debt 10, 79–80
debt traps 10
deception 196
decision makers 159–60, 197
(p. 584) decision-making 220, 260
accountability in 408
democratic quality of 128–33, 134
future research and decision-making procedures 133–4
interface management and interface risks 130–2
and management 118–36
decision making, accountability in 408
decomposition, of megaprojects 262
defense projects 422
delays 10
Delhi 297
additional visitors after world cup 298
Metro 53
delivery model 315–16
execution stage 315
front-end planning stage 315, 316
demand forecasts 133, 195
democratic quality, of decision-making process 128–33
denial 197
Denmark 250, 365
Aalborg, traffic plan 250
Copenhagen Metro 10, 11t
Farum Municipality case study 374t
Great Belt bridge 11t, 178
Great Belt Tunnel 10, 11t
Design Build Finance Operate contract see DBFO (design, build, finance and operate)
Design Structure Matrices (DSMs) 267, 268f, 271–2
design tradespace 228
developers 162–3
developing countries
construction of big dams in 104
private finance in 380
development cycles 39–59
Development Projects Observed (Hirschman) 156, 157, 162, 164, 166, 167–8, 181–3
foreword 173
Hiding Hand 158, 172
diamond
fragility threshold 65
of innovation 461–2, 469
discovery-driven planning 30
"disjointed incrementalism" notion 61
disorder 67
disputes, arbitrating and refereeing 276–7
distribution effects 133
disturbances 63, 67, 69, 86
Dreamliner 453, 454, 455, 456–66, 471
alternative plan 466–7
Boeing’s reaction to delays and challenges 459
challenges of 460–1, 469
complexity of 463
delays and challenges 459
development difficulties 458–9
development history 456–66
diamond of innovation 464f
innovations involved with 455, 460–1
lessons from 467–9
main event sequence 457–8t
novelty of 463
pace of 463
project events and original plan 456–7
technology of 463
drivers of megaevents in emerging economies 287–307
economic expectations and outcomes 295–9
hosting megaevents 289–93
Dubai 46
Burj Khalifa 4
Dublin Port tunnel, Ireland 11t
due diligence 127
dynamic capabilities 231, 236n6, 317–18
adaptive problem-solving 326–7
balancing capabilities 329–30
and the flexible delivery model 330–3
front-end planning 319
integrative 231
in megaprojects 318–23, 325–30
search capabilities 325–6
strategic innovation capabilities 328–9
strategic processes and literature 319t
test and trial capabilities 327–8
and uncertainty 331–3
East Africa 207
East Pakistan (now Bangladesh) 157, 182
(p. 585) economic development 60
economic downturn 2008 137
economic growth 353, 393
economic impacts 98–9, 391–2, 402, 403
economic infrastructure projects 520
economic issues 355
economic PPP model 520
economic theory 158
Economics of Defense in the Nuclear Age, The 26
Economist, The 5
ecosystems, river basin 428
education 444
efficiency, aspirations for 62, 85
Egan report 324
Egan, Sir John 325
ego 197
Egypt 561
Aswan High Dam see Aswan High Dam, Egypt
Nile Delta 439–40
Suez Canal 11t, 563, 564
Eisenman, Peter 511
electricity production, economies of scale in 60
emerge–surge–purge pattern 41, 50, 51, 52
emerging nations, hosting megaevents 288
employee relations 248
employment relocation 399
Encyclopaedia Britannica 86
engineering 240
English Channel 23
Enron (US company) 371
entrepreneurial error 353, 355
entrepreneurial urban governance 138
entropy 63
environmental concerns 345
environmental impacts 195, 252
equity value of time 121
escalation
drivers of 197–8
how it starts 195–7
irrationality of 200–1
issues for research 207–10
lock-in 199–200
management of 201–6
organizational drivers 199
project and economic drivers 198–200
psychological drivers 197–8
questions, asking the right 204–5
social drivers 198
ethical issues 118–36, 354
cohesion effects 120
discounting 121
distribution effects 119–20
ethics of doing research 133
impacts of megaprojects on society 119–22
irreversible or irreplaceable effects 121–2
relationship between the researcher and client 123–4t
researching the pros and cons of metaprojects 122–6
safety levels 121
Ethiopia 49
Europe 5
colonial systems 48
cost overruns 180
economic power 105
PPPs in 366, 377t
European Commission 132, 367, 370, 394
European Union 82, 366–7
government debt 368
infrastructure expenditures 120
new roads 375t
Eurotunnel 9, 23, 24, 33
evaluation of megaprojects 389
Excalibur Smart Projectile (USA, Sweden) 11t
execution of projects 470
expenditure, fairness in distribution of 118
experience 470
extraction megaprojects 539
failures of megaprojects 22–4, 47, 198, 206, 208
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) 453
feedback, negative 197, 198
FIFA 301, 302, 306
World Cup see World Cup
financial aid 48
Finland
nuclear reactors 21, 342
toll roads 376t
(p. 586) firm actions and responses 341, 343
firm performance 341, 343–6
flexible delivery model 331
flexible design structures 275, 277–9
Flyvbjerg, Bent 503
focal organization 345
Ford Motor Company 26
forecasting
costs or benefits 127
reference-class 320
fragility 61
in action 71–85
apparent 66
cumulative 66
definition of 63–7
detecting 83
function recoverability of 65
hidden 66–7
inherited 64
map of 65f
as a material property 64
sustaining highly fragile consensus-oriented developments 273f
threshold of 64, 65
France
nuclear reactors 21
PFI schemes in 364
PPPs in 363
TGV services between major cities 397
see also Paris
fraud, contracting 128, 132–3
freeways 548
in Melbourne 526
urban 57, 108
West Gate and Monash 527
Friedman, Mildred 501
Fujitsu 201, 207
Fukushima nuclear power plant, Japan 49, 50, 61
function recoverability 65
Furka base tunnel, Switzerland 11t
gain-to-pain ratio 69
Galloway, Ian 485
games of innovation 219–20, 225, 229
Gauteng, South Africa 540, 541
Gautrain 539–55
and the 2010 FIFA World Cup 551
costs and forecasts 545–8
demographics of passengers 546
Environmental Assessment Investigations 544
environmental impacts of 547
extensions 553
jobs created by 547
projected passenger figures 546
public consultations and special interest groups 543–5
Gautrain Management Agency (GMA) 543, 545, 546, 547
Gay, John 440
Gehry, Frank 14, 169, 500–3, 510, 512, 513, 514
Germany
Jewish Museum Berlin 514
Karlsruhe–Bretten light rail 11t, 178
megaproject overruns in 21–2
monorails in 47
Munich, hospital projects in 252–3
nuclear power plants in 50
Ghana
drought in 438
Volta Dam 429, 438, 446
gigaprojects 4
Gladwell, Malcolm 156, 164
global buffers 279–80
global economy 290
global financial crisis 290, 365, 369
global geopolitics 105
Global Infrastructure Anticorruption Centre 353
global megaprojects 96
alliance contracts 111
anchor tenants 108–10
building a strong project culture 113
challenges of 114
clean-up or restoration activities 108
contact clauses 110–11
definition of 99
diversity of participants in 104–5
features of institutional fields 104–10
final stage of 108
institutional challenges and solutions for 96–117 (p. 587)
institutional challenges of 110–13
levels of analysis of 104
life cycle of 106–8
local embeddedness of 105–6
market, size of 5–6
normative and cognitive-cultural governance mechanisms of 112–13
operations and maintenance phase of 107
organization fields and projects 103–10
partnering and colocation of key participants of 112–13
procedural justice 113
project shaping phase of 106–7
regulative frameworks of 101
shared identity based on exciting project vision 112
global networks
national network in host country 350
transnational infrastructure players 350
Global North 48, 51
Global South 48, 51
goal congruence 261, 279
goal substitution 198, 209
goals 273
Goldberger, Paul 502
Goodland, Robert 439, 441
governance 353, 407, 425
of megaprojects in Norway 408–10
polycentric 277
project governance, stakeholder management and 31–3
governments
expenditures, alternatives and consequences 133
and private finance 368, 371
role in megaprojects 408
as stakeholders 346, 347–8
Greece, 2004 Olympics 177, 300
gross domestic product (GDP) 5, 429
Groves, General 25, 29
Guavio hydroelectric project 80–1
Guggenheim Foundation 509, 510, 515
Guggenheim Museum Bilbao 12, 14, 40, 51, 55, 497, 514
contribution to the local economy 505
as a global venture 499–500
impact of the building 504
public response to 504
success of 504
and Sydney Opera House 503
visitors to 505, 506–7t
worldwide media impact of 516
Gulf States 49
Gwembe Tonga 439, 442, 444, 445, 447
Harvey, David 562
Heathrow Airport Holdings 323
Heathrow Express project 325
Heathrow Ltd see BAA
Heathrow Terminal 2 (T2) 263, 264t, 276
Heathrow Terminal 5 project 34–5, 111, 263, 313–14, 318, 323, 485
adaptive problem-solving capabilities 326
building systems integration capabilities 493
description of 264–5t
flexible delivery model 331
progressive design fixity 329
reasons for 253
risks of cost and time overruns 327
"roof project" 327–8
search capabilities 325
test and trial capabilities 328
uncertainty 326
helicopters, Chinook Mk3 208
Helsinki, Finland 510, 512, 515
Hiding Fist, Principle of the 177
Hiding Hand 316–17, 353, 355
Benevolent 177, 181, 184, 188n24
cynics view of 185
definition of 157–60
impact of the 162–5
Malevolent 177, 181, 184, 185, 188n24
project risks falling over time 184
reduction of the project risk over time 178–81
romantics view of 185
saving failing projects 174–8
statistical tests 181, 184
Sydney Opera House, Australia 168–70
testability of 168
as a theory 165–8
validity of 170–4
Higgins, David 484
(p. 588) high rise living 196
Hills Motorway Limited (Hills) 524, 525, 536n7
Hirschman, Albert O. 155–7, 160–2
Hitch, Charles 26
Hong Kong 381n3
International Airport 477
West Kowloon Cultural District (WKCD) 514
horizontal projects 97
hospital projects, in Munich and Vienna 252–3
hosting mega-events
competing for 287–8
controversies of 293
corruption and 305–6
as drivers for emerging economy 289–93
economic expectations and outcomes of 295–9
expectations of 299–300, 306
and exports 294
infrastructure costs of 298
job creation and 298–9
legacy benefits of 295
literature regarding 293–5
management of 304–5
managing expectations of 300
monopoly rents appropriated by awarding organizations 303–4
motivations for 294, 306
outcomes of 294, 299–306
short-term benefits of 295
stadiums from 300–3
HS2 high-speed railway 202, 263, 264–5t, 396, 402
benefits of 401
building consensus 272
design structure matrices and companion organizational matrices 268f
economic impacts of 396t, 397
impacts of connectivity on GDP from 397t
organization matrices of 271–2
referees 276
transformational impacts of 400
user benefits estimated for 398
HS2 Ltd 272, 333
Hunt, Jeremy 303
hydroelectric projects, Guavio, Colombia 80–1
hydropower 71, 556, 557, 567, 570
IBM 63, 98
iconic urban megaprojects (IUMPs) 497–518
literature regarding 505
opening of 506–7t
role of 514
ICT projects 4, 10, 422
IDOM 503
ignorance
beneficial 160
of ignorance 160
providential 156
IMF 366, 380
impacts of megaprojects 389–405
implementation completion date 88n8
implementation start date 88n8
In Pursuit of Value for Money and Risk Sharing (OECD) 365
income, welfare and 121
incrementalism 61
indecision 209
India 49, 296, 303, 430, 561
2010 Commonwealth Games 295, 296–7
Bhakra Dam 430
megadams 429
New Delhi metro 550
outcomes for hosting megaevents in 296–7t
Sardar Sarovar Dam 429, 430, 435
industrial megaprojects 12
inefficiency 278
inevitability 209–10
infrastructure bubble 137–51
infrastructure development 50–3
infrastructure megaprojects 4, 5, 39, 539
Inner Mongolia, Ordos Art Museum 512
innovation 52–3, 332, 453–74
breakthrough 31
challenge pitfalls, avoiding in future programs 470–1 (p. 589)
and flexibility in megaprojects 313–38
and megaproject development 55–7
megaprojects as games of 217–36
political systems and 44–5
"S" innovation curve 40, 41f
uncertainty and 316–17
innovation patterns 218–19
south to north 47–9
surges 53–5
innovation strategies 328
innovation waves of megaprojects see innovation patterns
institutional theory 349
as foundation for megaproject stakeholder management 350
and the government stakeholder 347–8
institutions
conception of 99, 100
cultural-cognitive frameworks 102
elements of 100–3
legal-administrative (regulative) frameworks 100–1
multifaceted nature of 100–3
normative frameworks of 101
pillars of 102, 110, 114
integrated form of agreement (IFOA) 111
integration process
single system 492
system of systems (array project) 492
Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBM) 25
interdependencies, compatible and 97
international financial institutions 429, 432, 447, 557, 568
International Hydropower Association 441, 557
International Olympic Committee (IOC) 266, 301, 302, 304, 305, 306
International Space Station 3f, 4
international trade fairs 196
interpersonal and practice-based focus 242–3
interpretation 249
investment fragility 62, 64, 68–9
investment opportunities 202
Investment Plan for Europe, An (European Commission) 367, 370
investments
in infrastructure megaprojects 7
risk-free 521
investors, relationships between startups and 31
Ireland, GDP of 3f
iron law of megaprojects 12, 22
irreversible or irreplaceable effects 133
IT projects 63, 195, 236n3, 348
Italy 120
hospital and support services in 376t
nuclear power plants in 50
PFI schemes in 364
Prealpi Mining Co, Bergamo 82
Stava Dam 82, 88n9
Vajont Dam 83–5
Ivy, Robert A. 510
Jacobs, Ignatius 551
Japan 25
Fukushima 61
Shinkansen Joetsu high-speed rail line 11t
jobs 298–9, 392
Johnson, Philip 14
Joint Strike Fighter aircraft program 3, 4, 5
justice, procedural versus distributive 113
Kamarck, Andy 162, 164
Kamin, Blair 512
Kariba Dam 82–3, 88n11
climate change and 438
emergency repair 432–3
environmental costs of 439
North Power Station project, Zambia 353
resettlements 435, 444, 445
resettlers 442, 444
Kaufman, J.E. 504
Kennedy, John F. 28
Kenya, GDP of 3f
Klebnikov, Paul 509
Korea, Republic of 104, 289t
KPMG 397, 398, 400, 505
Krens, Thomas 500, 501, 509, 510
Kristol, Irwing 162
Krugman, Paul 164, 173, 181
(p. 590) labor markets 397
labor supply 399
Laing O’Rourke 324, 478, 484, 485
land rent 523–4
Laos
GDP of 3f
Nam Ngum 2 dam 15, 565, 567
Nam Theun 2 dam 567, 568
Xayaburi Dam 567
large dams see dams
Latham report 324
Latin America 180
learning
theory of 178
trial-and-error 30
Lefebvre, Henri 559
Leslie, Jacques 88n10, 447
Lesotho, Highlands Water Project 435
Libeskind, Daniel 514
Liebeskind, Daniel 510
life cycle value 229
light rail 45, 55
limits, setting 203–4
Lindblom, Charles 172
local embeddedness 105–6
Local Investment Corporations (LICs) 138–9, 146, 147, 148
logical incrementalism 61
London 51
Barbican Centre 210
Canary Wharf 210
Crossrail project see Crossrail project, London
Euston system 270t
Limehouse road tunnel 11t
Ringway and Covent Garden developments 252–3
Savoy Hotel 194
Stock Exchange 196, 339
Thames Barrier 330
Thames Tideway Tunnel 328–9
urban trams 44
Wembley National Football Stadium 301, 330, 482
London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games 14, 246, 274, 275, 291–2, 314, 328
adaptive problem-solving capabilities 326
Aquatics Centre 247, 269t, 274, 275, 489
Athletes Village 489, 491
background literature to 476–8
benefits of 195
bridges contracts 489
budget 479
client and delivery partner 484–6, 493
construction of 323, 324, 479–82
delivery partner 484
Design Interface Schedule system 487
funding 491
identification of problems 491
individual systems level of 488–91
integration of individual system projects for 489–91
lessons from 475–96
Olympic Park see London 2012 Olympic Park
Olympic Stadium 283n7
Olympic station 269t
Olympic Village 480
organization of 484–6, 488–9
organization of the artist 480
outcome of the 480–2
planning for the 199
principal contractors 488–9
program management of 486–8
programme, projects and systems 484t
project life cycle 479–80
as system of systems (array project) 482–6
systems integration on the 483t
Velodrome 489
London 2012 Olympic Park 263, 266, 327, 480, 484, 490
description of 264–5t
design structure matrices and companion organizational matrices 268f
major systems within the 481t
London Organizing Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games (LOCOG) 266, 479, 485, 486, 491
London Underground 552
Jubilee Line extension 9, 11t, 326, 328, 330
(p. 591) Los Angeles
1984 Summer Olympics 291, 298
rail transit system 550
Lurgi AG 22
Mace 324, 478, 484–5
McKinsey Global Institute 5
McNamara revolution 26
McNamara, Robert 26
Madlala-Routledge, Nozizwe 544
Mahlangu, Qedani Dorothy 547
mainstream project management 240
Major, John 363
management of megaprojects
adaptive approach to 469
aesthetic 6t, 7
economic 6t, 7
evolution of 240–51
four sublimes of 6–8
front-end 424
political 6t, 7
shortfall 464
success in 12
technological 6t, 7
managerialism 254n
Manhattan Project (1939-46) 4, 21, 24, 25, 28, 36n, 321
Mapisa-Nqakula, Nowiviwe 544, 545
marketing of megaevents 291
Mars Climate Orbiter 67
Marwick, Peat 505
Mashatile, Paul 550
Mbete, Baleka 544
media, and megasports events 292
megaevents 539, 540
megadams see dams
megaprojects
balancing routines and innovation in 322f
built on budget and on time 12
characteristics of 8, 219–20
as collection of systems 476
commitment escalation of 194–216
contractor management of 23–4
cyclical nature of 40
decline of 56
definition of 2–5, 39
distinction between large projects and 96–7
examples of 3
as games of innovation 217–36
as individual systems 476
iron law of 9–12, 22
measurement of 16n2
non-financially viable 9–10
performance data 9
performance track record of 21
refusal to acknowledge 22
size of 3, 5–6
and society 355
uncertainty of 22
underestimation of 22
work awarded to the lowest bidder 23–4
megaprojects paradox 12–13
megasports events 287
Merkel, Jayne 501
meta systems integration 492
metaphors 246
methylmercury 439
Mexico City
airport 253, 365
metroline 11t
Microsoft 30
Middle East 46, 291, 428
Middlesex Canal 161
Millennium Dome 246, 247
Mittal 22
Mitterand, Francois 381n3
models, project delivery 314
Modi, Narendra 430
modularity 61, 261
monorails 47
Montana, Lucky 545
Montecatini Company 88n9
"more is different" notion 64
Moses, Robert 163, 168, 185
Mostert, Vaughan 548
Motorola, Iridium satellite constellation 60, 61
motorways 122, 530, 531–4t
in Australia 519–38
M6 Toll Motorway 195
tolls on 121, 195
(p. 592) Mozambique 557
Cahora Bassa Dam 432, 438, 440, 446
"muddling through" notion 61
Muir, Terence C. 431
multi-criteria analyses (MCAs) 126
museums
in Brazil 509, 510
building boom 51, 55
Jewish Museum Berlin 25
Ordos Art Museum, Inner Mongolia 512
myopia 197
narratives 245
NASA 26, 67
Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) 67
space program 317
NASA/DoD PERT/Cost Guide 26
nation branding 295, 304
national development agencies 48
natural resources 220
Netherlands, the 120, 292, 363
CBA guidelines 125
High-Speed Rail Line South 11t, 130–1, 132
new underground in Amsterdam 132, 194, 198, 210
PFI schemes in 364
rail projects in 120, 126
Zuiderzeelijn 119–20
networks 55
breakage 66, 87
structural analysis on 64
new economic geography (NEG) 390, 394, 400
New York 51
Chrysler Building 4, 45
Empire State Building 45
Twin Towers terrorist attack 314
urban trams 44
New Yorker, The 164
Newhouse, Victoria 501
Nicaragua 195
Nigeria 49
Bornu railway 183
Challawa Gorge Dam 438
Kainji Dam 438, 447
Tiga Dam 438
Nippon-Sumitomo 61
non-government organizations (NGOs) 101, 105, 106, 348
normative systems 101
North America
baseball stadiums 41–4, 47
cost overruns in 78, 180
North Sea, oil and gas projects 111, 317
Norway 14
Bank of Norway headquarters 11t
compliance of projects to approved cost frames in 419
costs of megaprojects 412
data for Quality-at-Entry regime 410–13
differences between final cost and approved cost frame for projects in 419, 420f
Ecofisk project 234
front-end governance of megaprojects in 408–10
health authorities 424
Oslo airport 10
Oslo municipal authority 424
prioritizing public investment projects 415
quality assurance of the choice of conceptual solution 413–14
quality-at-entry regime for major public investment projects in 408f, 409, 423, 424
road projects 411, 412
nuclear power plants 21, 49–50, 57
Shoreham, United Kingdom 194, 196
Switzerland 50
Oceania 180
O’Connell, Patrick 16n6
Ohlin, Göran 162
oil and gas projects 234
Olympic Charter 292
Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) 272, 326, 333, 479, 482, 484, 485
attempt to being costs down 274
integration process established by CLM and 486, 493
limits on innovation 328
monitoring and assurance process 486–7, 488
prime contractor organizational structure 488–9 (p. 593)
research interviews with 266, 478
risk-sharing contracts 331
setting up of 324
Olympic Games 9, 253, 288
1956 Melbourne, Australia 291, 307n3
1976 Montreal 11t, 246, 247
1984 Los Angeles 291, 298
1992 Barcelona 43, 291
2016 Brazil 287
bidding for 288
countries hosting 288
organization matrices 271–2
television rights 291, 307n3
television viewers 291–2
Olympic movement 301
Olympics effect 482
optimism
delusional 195
pervasive appraisal 556
optimism biases 8, 127, 159, 174, 185, 251, 279
adjustments for 401
of promoters 273
underestimation of costs and schedule targets due to 259
Orange County Transportation Agency (OCTA) 110
organization culture 113
Organization for Economic Co- operation and Development (OECD) 571n6
organization of the artist 503
organizational fields 103, 348
Organizations in Action (Thompson) 97
Oud, Engelbertus 431
outcomes, ambiguous 278
owner project capabilities 318
ownership of megaprojects 252
Pakistan
large-dam projects 177
Tarbela Dam 79, 80t, 436
Panama Canal Authority (PCA) 24
Panama canal, Panama 11t, 24, 110, 161, 195, 202, 210
cost overruns 11t
expansion of 194
Pandor, Naledi 544, 545
Paraguay 77
Paris 33, 51, 397
Orlyval project 235
see also France
past performance, and future success adage 470
patterns, of megaproject development 41
pension funds 366
performance of megaprojects 219, 281
performance targets 273–4, 277–9, 282
persistence 198, 200, 203, 209
personal computers 98
personal identity 245
Picciotto, Robert 163
Piketty, Thomas 293
planners 196
planning cycles 471
planning fallacy 159
planning of megaprojects 56, 259–86
front-end 10
reaching consensus 260
Plaza, Beatriz 505
PMBOK (project management body of knowledge) 241
poaching 438
Polaris project 24, 25, 28, 321
Polenske, Karen 164
political impact, in megaprojects 98–9, 251–3
political initiatives 352
political issues 118–36, 355
political symbols, megaprojects as 539–55
Pollack, Sydney 501
polycentricity 271
Pops, Martin 502
ports 54
Portugal 376t
power 247–51
positive 247
rationality and 250
and sensemaking 238–58
power plants, benefit and cost overruns 175t
power relations 248, 253–4
practice-oriented project management studies 243
(p. 594) private finance in public projects 362–88
brief history of 363–7
and the PPP technology 368–70
problems solved by 370–1
reasons for using 367t, 368–70
role in megaprojects 362–3
success in PPP 371–8
private financial institutions 425n
private investments 239
private–public partnership (PPP) model for financing 380n1
privately financed projects (PFPs) 535n1
problem-solving 174
adaptive 314, 319t, 320, 326, 332
product churning 30
production megaprojects 539–40
productivity, transport and 392–5
program evaluation review technique (PERT) 26, 27, 240, 245
Program Planning and Budgeting System (PPBS) 26
project contingency theory (PCT) 460
project governance, stakeholder management and 31–3
project learning 464–5
project management
evolution of 240–51
styles of the 1950s 27–9
project managers 2, 16n4, 171, 239, 241, 245, 250
competency in sensemaking 243
comprimising with stakeholders 343
removal of 206
views on unions 246
projectification 241, 352
proportionality 78
Public Choice theory 129
public debt 79–80
Public Interest (magazine) 162, 164, 172
public–private partnerships (PPP) 232, 233, 362, 519, 520, 535n1
assisting governments 381n7
construction programs 104
deals 370
discount rates 370, 378
evaluation of 373–7t
Gautrain see Gautrain
and the global financial crisis 365, 366
goals for 381n6
governance 382n18
model for financing 148
motorways 521
OECD definition of 362
private finance in 371–8
problems solved by 370–1
and risk-sharing 369
value for money (VfM) 377–8
World Bank’s view of 362
Public Sector Borrowing Requirement (PSBR) 363–4
public services, private provision of 519–38
Pulitzer Foundation for the Arts 513
Qatar 289t, 305
quality assurance 406–27
analysis of cost compliance 418
of the chosen project and its budget 416–17
cost deviation by date 419–20
cost deviation by sector 419
final cost in relation to the agency’s steering frame 420–2
final cost relative to the approved cost frame 418–19
lessons related to 414–16, 417–22
proposed cost frame 416
Raborn, William F. 25, 28
Radebe, Jeff 544
rail projects see railways
railways 52, 252
average cost overruns 9
average demand shortfall 9
benefit overruns 175t
Betuweroute 122, 126, 252
Boston–New York–Washington railway, USA 11t
cost overruns 175t, 545
Karlsruhe–Bretten light rail, Germany 11t
Minneapolis Hiawatha light rail line, USA 11t
replacing canals with 56 (p. 595)
Shinkansen Joetsu high-speed rail line, Japan 11t
social dividend 393
Stockholm airport high-speed rail connections 10
Troy and Greenfield railroad, USA 11t, 161
random events 63
rationality 246, 254, 293
and power 250
region of 200
Rationality and Power: Democracy in Practice (Flyvbjerg) 250
Rawlins, Peter 205
real options 206–7
referees 276
regional planning schemes 498
regulations 407–8
regulators 346, 382n9
rent 536n6
research
and behavioral economics 155–89
design 262–8
incentives to improve 134t
issues for 207–10
resources 262, 471
responsibility 208
retrospective meaning 245
Ribot, Jesse 164
ridership 45, 48, 188n19, 543, 546, 547, 552
Riesman, David 164
Rio De Janeiro, urban trams 44
risks 219
and accountability 407
interface management and interface 130–2
management of 470
underestimation of 128
road projects 422, 520, 529
Ben Schoeman highway 548
cost of PPP roads 378
cost overruns 175t
early roads in Ohio 161
Highway 407 Ontario 235
in Norway 411, 412
Rollerson, Andrew 207
Rubin, Jerry 200
Russia 288, 289t, 305, 509
Rybczynski, Witold 513
Salvucci, F. 29
Samaranch, Juan Antonio 291
San Francisco 57
Golden Gate bridge 7
Transbay Terminal megaproject 155, 163
Sanyal, Bish 165
Sarajevo, urban trams 44
saturation 56
scalability 69–70, 86
aspirations, for 62, 85
scalable, definition 69, 70
scale
of project’s regional economic and political impact 98–9
relational 70
spatial 70
temporal 70
theories of 60–97
Scandinavia, public–private partnerships 370
schedule overrun 88n8
schedule slippage 88n8
schedule underrun 88n8
schedules, actual implementation 74, 88n8
Schelling, Thomas 156, 172, 183
Schön, Donald 164
school buildings 262
Schreiner, Olive 541
Scotland 209
Edinburgh, tram system 194, 210
Scottish Parliament Building 11t, 194, 247
Scott, James C. 429
Scudder, Thayer 447
search capabilities 332
Seattle 57, 513
Seeing Like A State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (Scott) 429
selectionism 30, 31f
self-deception, mechanisms of 159
sensemaking 243–7
definition of 244
patterns of 248
power and 238–58
social context of 245
sensitivity analysis 80, 81
Seoul 57
(p. 596) Shanghai 141, 144
2010 World Expo 145
shaping megaprojects 218–25
as an active sculpting of project elements 222–3
capabilities required for shaping 230–2
complementary organizations 220–1
cost of shaping and competitive advantage 232
engineering the project 225
as an episodic process 224–5
illustrative devices to shape and sculpt projects 223t
as an integration of competencies, capabilities and resources 229–32
major issues around which megaprojects are shaped 222f
ramping and operating the project 225
reshaping the project 224
as a response to issues 221–2
sequence of options 227f
shaping roles 230
shaping the opportunity 224
shaping the project 224
sprinting to build the project 225
traditional and partnership modes of 232–4
Shilowa, Mbhazima 542, 550, 552
shortfalls 9
side-bets 200
significance 188n21
Singapore Changi airport 253
Skillings, Robert F. 171
skyscrapers 45, 46f
slack 280, 282
Slant, Walter 172
slippages 277–8, 280, 282
"Small is beautiful" 61
Smith, Adam 158, 162, 173, 184
Sochi, Winter Olympic Games 305
social costs, of stadium and arena construction 303
social infrastructure projects 54, 520
social movement theory 349
social network analysis (SNA) 351–2
society, megaprojects and 352–5
sociocultural systems 442
soft systems methodology 242
South Africa 15, 296, 298, 303, 442
2010 World Cup 304, 550
ABSA Premiership Soccer League 302
apartheid 442, 541
Bombardier 547
BRT projects 549
car traffic in 541
field configurations in 104
Gautrain 539–55
Mbombela stadium 302
outcomes for hosting megaevents in 296–7t
Peter Mokaba stadium 302
public transport in 541, 548–9
Transport Portfolio Committee 543
South African Rail Commuter Corporation (SARCC) 545
South Korea (Republic of Korea) 104, 289t
South-South investing 49
space
dimensions of 561
lived space 561
production of 559
Spain 292
Madrid, metro extensions 12
PFI schemes 364
visitors to 515
Spence, Michael 429
spin 247
sponsoring megaprojects 218–25
sponsors 230
stadiums 306
Mbombela stadium, South Africa 302
operations and maintenance costs for 300
Peter Mokaba stadium, South Africa 302
Wembley National Football Stadium 301, 330, 482
white-elephant 300–3
stage-gate process 27, 29, 30, 31, 35
stakeholder complexity 21
stakeholder management 339–61
concepts 346
as ethical imperative 341
and project governance 31–3 (p. 597)
research 344
theory of 346–50
stakeholders 238, 246, 407
actions and responses 340, 342–3
actor network theory and the primordial 347
circle tool 351
conflicts 23
decision-making process 129
definition of 340, 342, 345
future for research on 352–5
governments as 346
mapping workshops 351
neglect or mismanagement by 23
primordial 341, 344, 345, 347, 349, 355
in project and program management research 341–6
representation in steering committees 32
of the shadows 353
stakeholder management and project governance 31–3
in strategic management research 340–1
tools for managing 350–2
standardization of rationalities 240
standardized models, for project management 241–2
Standish Group 10
Stanford Research Institute 340
STAR Alliance 263, 267
startups, relationships between investors and 31
statistical significance 188n23
status centrality 351
steel 45
steering committees 32–3
Stone, Edward 67
storytelling 173
strategic assumption surfacing and testing 242
strategic innovation capabilities 332
streetcar systems 44–5
stressors 67, 69
structural contingency theory 460
structural signature 64
subprojects 97, 98
substitution 208
success
levels of 406–7
in megaproject management 12
operational 406
strategic 407
tactical 406
Sudan 49
Summer Olympic Games see Olympic Games
Sunstein, Cass 14, 156
supplier management 28
surge, in megaprojects 53–5
sustainability 279, 282
Sutter Health 111
Swanwick Air Traffic Control system 330
Sweden
CA report variant 424
Government of 82
Stockholm airport 10
Switzerland
Furka base tunnel 11t
nuclear power plants in 50
Sydney Opera House, Australia 7, 9, 163, 246, 251, 254
architect of 187n12
cost overruns 11t, 194
Guggenheim Museum Bilbao and 503
and the hiding hand 168–70
symbols 53, 202, 205–6
system architecture 98
system complexity 477t
system of systems (array project) 477
complexity of 477t
London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games 482–6
Systems Analysis and Project Management (Cleland and King) 27
systems integration 475–96
Taichung, Taiwan 510
Tampa Bay, baseball stadiums 47
TAURUS IT project 196, 205, 210
psychological drivers 197, 198
Securities Industry Steering Committee on TAURUS (SISCOT) 339, 352
team integration 343
(p. 598) technical assistance 48
technology 219
maturity of 98
Tennessee Valley Authority 348
tera 4–5
terrorism 291
test and trial capabilities 332
Thailand 565
Bangkok metro 11t
irrigation project 158
Thatcher, Margaret 381n3
Thompson, James 97
Three Mile Island 49, 50f
ThyssenKrupp 60, 61
time
equity value of 121
pressure 261
savings 398
toll roads 145, 363, 371, 521–9
tools 245
for managing stakeholders 350–2
PERT 26, 27, 240, 245
project management 240–1
project planning and forecasting 196
Toronto
base