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date: 20 October 2019

(p. 821) Index of Subjects

(p. 821) Index of Subjects

Abbreviations: f refers to figure; n refers to footnote; t refers to table. A page number with an unnumbered ‘n’ or ‘t’ indicates that references are found both in the text and in a footnote or table on that same page.

Page numbers in italics indicate chapters, or significant portions thereof, dedicated to the index term.

Page numbers in bold indicate definitions of index terms in chapter glossaries.

Abantu bekhaya, 337
Abantu bomlambo, 337
Aboriginal people(s), see Indigenous people(s)
abstinence, 604, 616, 658
acculturation, 37, 722, 759–60, 768
acoustic(s), see sound
action(s), 29, 58, 63, 86, 89, 152, 156, 177, 211, 240, 242, 245, 249, 250, 259, 263, 265, 277, 291, 296, 297, 300, 307, 308, 310, 312, 549, 551, 603, 626, 653, 704, 705, 707, 709, 736, 758, see also performance; ritual
collective, 284
commoditized, 362
communicative, 258
domains of, 357, 767
fictive, 296
human, 244, 292, 357, 767
intentional, 259
and narrative, 292–3, 298
parent term for ritual, 310
and performance/ritual, 312, 727
political, 623, 630
prescribed, 282
sacral, 545
and salvation, 625
social, 184, 237–8, 249, 297, 310, 431, 626, 704, 746
symbolic, 542
as texts, 156–7
thought/action dichotomy, 305
transformative, 190
actor-network theory, 236, 276, 277, 794
adaptation/adaptive, 127–8, 131, 132, see also evolution
aesthetic/aesthetics, 154, 185, 202, 209, 246, 263, 275–6, 298, 308, 312, 315, 319, 320, 321, 324, 347, 348, 360, 374, 388, 389, 400, 416, 475, 491, 518, 520, 552, 705, 765, 767, 812
affect theory, 521, see emotion
Afro-Brazilian religions, 103, 762, 764–5
agriculture, 356, 565, 567
alienation, 331, 675, 744
almsgiving, see gift/gifting
ancestral time, 348, see time
angels, 41, 154, 214, 285, 321, 334, 359, 416, 568, 592, 691, 742, 785
animism, 86, 100, 225, 227, 285, 402, 501, 742
anthropology, 3, 11, 19, 43, 62, 63, 79, 89, 91, 98, 100, 102, 105, 128, 129, 138, 143, 145, 149, 170, 180, 204, 209, 210, 211, 217, 219, 220, 221, 227, 231, 241, 271, 274, 277, 306, 309, 309, 318–19, 323, 327, 332, 342, 343, 351, 371–2, 373, 374, 380–1, 386, 390, 402, 405, 410–11, 413, 440, 491, 501, 504, 505, 506, 514, 516, 547, 553, 557–8, 569–70, 572, 581, 587, 609, 617, 618, 621–2, 646–7, 655, 664, 706, 708, 721, 724, 741, 742, 762–3, 771, 776, 783, 795
anthropological turn, 502–3
of the spiritual body, 410
anthropomorphism, 564–5, 726
anthropomorphization, 570, 573
(p. 822) antirealism, 9, 15, 20, 21, 29
anti-religion, 93, see also non-religion
anti-structure (Turner), 588, 617
anti-theism, 93, see also non-religion
aporia, 188, 191
arbitrariness (divine), 567f8
arbitrariness (signs), 210, 212, 213, 217, 263, 273, 274, 500
architecture, 271, 318, 328, 332, 335, 339, 417, 505, 547, 552, 636, 697
areligion, 84, 92, see also non-religion
art, 11, 264, 360, 385, 387–8, 475, 521
artifacts, 127, 174, 261, 272, 275, 277, 388, 698, 732, 748, 749, see also fetishism
agency of, 277
media, 383, 384
sound, 320
texts as, 274
asceticism, 362, 603, 609, 615, 626, 710
atheism, 93, see non-religion
atomism/holism, 204, see also semantics
atonement, 518, 530, 545, 546, 618
audition/auditory, 264, 317–18, 321, 322–3, 324, 325, 327, 384, 390, 599, 607, see also sound
authenticity, 154, 243, 265, 322, 331, 384, 413, 456, 484, 491, 496, 500, 505, 506, 687, 694–5, 720, 734, 764, 766, 767
authenticity rhetoric, 531, 532, 538
authority, 61, 101, 104, 172, 181, 236, 248, 277, 365, 368, 370, 409, 410, 433, 534, 561, 590, 602, 606, 675, 691, see also religious authorities
absolute, 368, 435, 531
Church, 153
decentering of, 695
discourse, 61, 156
of elders, 332
of emperor, 545
extra-human, 173
of narratives, 299
other-worldly, 241, 248
of priests, 605
Qur’anic, 361
religious 405, 406, 432, 436, 440, 441, 537, 591
of science, 403, 422, 414, 470
of tradition, 726
autocratic states, 435
avatar, 334, 337
axioms/paradigms, 19, 22, 37, 53, 86, 99, 101, 102, 112, 115–16, 118–19, 120, 210, 295, 306, 307, 315, 341, 392, 393, 400, 404, 410, 416, 431, 432–3, 435, 436, 451, 525, 436, 438, 489, 671, 693, 694, 703, 706, 717, 759, 780
Ayurveda/Ayurvedic medicine, 401–2, 407, 409, 410–11
Badimong, seSotho, 334, 337
baptism, 35, 205, 388, 613, 626, 694, 764, see also ritual(s)
behavior, 55, 60, 99, 115, 116, 119, 120, 122, 124, 125, 127–8, 199, 275, 282, 294, 299, 345, 416, 477, 483, 560, 561, 626, 656, 668, 708, 710, 712, 713
affect theory, 517
carnivalesque, 617
constraints, 106, 209
deviant, 702, 712
economic, 120
embedded and embodied, 668
emotional, 513
expected afterlife payoff, 118
formalized vs. improvised, 101
frames and, 294
inherited from other primates, 547
intentional, 199, 202, 205
monitoring, 641
moral, 64, 103
neurotic, 618
pro-social, 65, 130
(ir)rational, 117, 552, 553
regulation of, 61, 560
ritual(ized), 125, 128, 199, 300, 583, 593, 656, 726
routinized vs. charismatic, 103
standardization of, 706
study of, 102
and worldviews, 419
belief, 3, 18, 21, 25, 27, 28, 33, 40, 54, 59, 60, 75–7, 86, 91, 102, 105, 124–7, 129, 130–1, 135, 171–2, 174, 198, 199, 268, 276, 284, 285, 296, 298, 304, 306, 312, 325, 328, 367, 370, 375, 385, 419, 440, 471, 481, [link] , 509, 526–7, 532–3, 560, 565, 570, 601, 626, 712–13, 742, 807, see also creed(s); ideology
as category, 502
(p. 823) disciplinary development of, 500–3
as expression of folk psychology, 504
vs. faith, 497
as index of religiosity, 503
as intersectional phenomenon, 498
materiality of, 505
non-human agencies and, 560
prehistory of, 500–3
renouncing of, 526–7
systematization of, 712–13
unbelief/non-belief, 91, 92
believer(s), 28, 43, 166, 241, 282, 419, 438, 441, 477, 495, 497, 500, 504, 505, 511, 606, 611, 626, 636, 637, 641, 643, 652, 654, 661, 665, 670, 673, 674, 688, 814
non-/disbeliever(s), see non-religion
Bhagavad Gītā, 152–3, 393
bhakti, 152, 519, 708–9, 710, 712
Bible (Christian), 153, 157, 160, 169, 176, 210, 214–15, 244, 265, 272, 279, 292, 346, 374, 389, 390, 392, 409, 455, 458, 528, 544, 667, 686, 733, 748, 782, 784, see also Tanakh
biblical archtypes as national values, 374
Biblical Studies, 103, 104, 211, 790, 792
Hermeneutics, 151, 154, 155, 157, 158
New Testament, 104, 139, 153, 167, 215, 264, 383, 392, 528, 561n1
biological fallacy, 405, 411
biomedicine, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 408, 411
bio-politics, 240, 245, 404–5
blank slate hypothesis, 106
boddhisatvas, see Buddha(s)
body, the, 99, 146, 211, 253, 277, 284, 286, 301, 318, 319, 322, 328, 330, 331, 336, 344, 357, 385, 402, 403, 404, 411, 416, 476, 515, 516, 518, 538, 601, 610, 612, 614, 615, 616, 624, 626, 658, 744, 767
as bio-technology, 282
black, 179
celestial, 568
cultured, 401
embodied cognition, 106
embodiment, 285, 521
gender/sex and, 138, 142–3, 144
as microcosm, 610
mind and, 276, 305, 310–11
mindful, 405
Muslim, 242
plasticity of, 282
ritual acts of purity for, 610
as site of spiritual warfare, 616
social, 146, 284, 609, 611, 612, 619
sovereign power of, 245
spiritual, 410
three scales of understanding, 405
Vishnu, 335
Book of Common Prayer, 216
boundary (systems-theory), 268
boundary-making/-crossing, 687
boundary transgression, 617
ritual use of, 617–18
Brahmins, 551, 552, 612–13, 615, 628
brain, the, 99, 101, 126, 164, 200, 296, 461, 462, 515
brain–mind dualism, 458
brain science, see neuroscience
breath, 281, 324
vital, 214
bribery vs. gift, 550
bricolage, 226, 231, 704
Buddha(s), 292, 300, 369, 393, 463, 563, 615, 655, 732, 765
Amitābha/Amida, 624
boddhisatvas, 765–6
veneration of, 569–70
Buddhism, 34, 41, 44–6, 184, 243, 289, 346, 348, 360, 392, 435, 438, 441, 515, 520, 530–1, 534–7, 569, 583, 589, 624, 628, 631, 653, 655–6, 697, 701, 728, 732, 765, 766
hermeneutics, 151
Pure Land, 625, 630
purity/purification in, 610, 614–15, 617
reincarnation in, 628
scholarship of, 781, 783, 785, 788, 796–7
and science, 450, 456, 461–4 [link]
Theravada, 17, 376, 443, 520, 551
Tibetan (Vajrayana), 322, 371, 420, 731, 767
by-product (cognitive/evolutionary), 21, 54, 63, 99, 100, 124, 125, 126, 127, 130, 131, 132, 135, 136, 619, see also cognition; evolution
(p. 824) calendars, see time
Camino de Santiago, 486, 732 [link]
Canada, 140, 141, 145, 438, 476, 778, 792, 803
Candomblé, 764–6
Canon Law, 371, see also Christianity; church; religious, canon
capital, 116, 165, 169–73, 174, 176, 181, 343, 348, 355–64, 688–9
accumulation of, 170
cultural, 359, 360, 362, 477
human, 118, 359, 363
resistance to universalization of, 181
social/cultural, 68, 359, 362, 477, 531, 548, 590
capitalism, 90, 140, 141, 162, 169–73, 174, 176, 178, 182–3, 188, 235, 239, 243–4, 246–7, 343, 355–61, 362, 364, 401, 403, 406–8, 410, 411, 414, 520, 548, 626, 636, 642, 670, 684–5, 687–90, 697, 740–50, 752–3
commodification and, 741, 747, 749
markets in, 358–9
metaphysical spookiness of, 170
origin of, 357
sacralization of, 246
as the devil, 170–1
cargo cults, 733
Carmelite order, 499
caste, 227, 589, 615, 706, 722
caste system, 409, 612–13, 622, see also differentiation, social
boundaries within, 612–13
category, 47, see also religion, as category
Cathars, 657, 659
Catholicism, see Christianity
celebrity, 462, 477–8, 479, 747, 783
centrifugal/centripetal forces, 321, 337
change, 3, 4, 23, 35, 64, 89, 91, 138, 221, 231, 236, 265, 299, 308, 356, 364, 376, 420, 435, 437, 462, 602, 640, 641, 648, 649, 650, 652, 653, 658, 665, 718, 722, 729, 733, 735, 738, 763, 777, 780
agents of, 190
analysis of, 702–3
cold vs. hot societies, 227
contingent factors, 728
deconstruction, 230
endogenous factors after, 648
entrepreneurs, 728
and functionalism, 226
genomenon (Pettazzoni), 34
institutional, 118, 119, 122
media and, 386, 394
modeling, 654–6
patterns of, 658–9
rapid, 249
toward spirituality, 75, 78
structural/cultural, 236
tradition and, 723
violence, 659, 732
charisma (authority), 101, 103, 238, 436, 605, 678, 695, 727–8, 792
Amtscharisma, 596, 605
loss of, 727
charity, 356, 358, 362, 439, 440, 709
chastity, 615–16
childbirth, 143, 342, 344, 401, 406–9, 552, 586, 592, 595, 611
children, 84, 102, 113, 141, 143–4, 146, 282, 284, 293, 310, 416, 401, 404, 407–8, 476, 519, 547, 548, 553, 616, 638, 649, 659, 669, 673, 720
as intuitive theists, 126–7, 135, 565
choice(s), 120, 260, 263, 249, 639, 654, 658, 671, 701, 710, 713, 743
individual, 374, 702, 706, 712
rational, 55, 88, 116, 117, 360, 635
Christian Yoga, 401, 409–10
Christianity, see also Bible; church; Protestant ethic
Calvinism, 40, 129, 216, 274, 289, 439, 441, 626, 660, 670, 713, 782
Catholicism, 35, 39, 42, 75, 153, 180, 216, 270, 278, 280, 289, 343, 360–1, 371, 386, 390, 395, 400, 420, 408, 423, 432, 438–40, 442, 444, 453, 477, 486, 518, 529, 533, 543, 545, 601, 636, 640, 643, 659, 691, 692, 706, 712, 713, 746, 748, 760, 762, 764–5, 768, 794
charismatic, 243, 324, 364, 669, 675, 684–6, 691, 694, 728
Christian Democratic parties, 438
(p. 825) Christian Right (USA), 431, 437, 642, 701
expansion of, 670–1
formation of, 153
hermeneutics of the Gospels, 153
law in, 369
Lutheranism, 40, 153, 165, 187, 392, 439, 441, 518, 542, 543, 636, 640, 713, 729, 733, 760
mega churches, 244, 391
Methodism, 512, 518, 528, 636–7, 640
Mormonism (Latter-Day Saints), 35, 59n2, 694, 728, 730
Orthodoxy, 41–2, 153, 420, 432, 441, 670
Pentecostalism, 235, 243–4, 289, 324, 359, 364, 414, 668, 669, 671, 673, 674–8, 679, 683, 684, 686, 688, 692, 694, 733, 795
global expansion of, 674–8
Pentecostal-charismatic Christianity, 669–70
prayer in, 282
Prosperity Pentecostalism, 671
Protestant Reformation, 215, 371, 391, 518, 542, 658, 706
post-, 11, 237
Protestantism, 3, 11, 25, 153, 180, 208, 215, 216, 219, 241, 243, 244, 274, 284, 306, 364, 373, 376, 387, 391, 408, 414, 432, 437, 438, 439, 440, 443, 447, 498, 502, 518, 519, 528–9, 533, 535, 542–3, 550, 601, 626, 627, 636, 639, 643, 647, 658, 727, 729, 733–4, 742, 760, 791
and capitalism, 244
protestantization, 394
Puritanism, 243, 500, 514, 640–1, 694
Redeemed Christian Church of God (RCCG), 676–8, 679
as religio licita, 38
salvation in, 626–7
Southern Baptist Convention (USA), 437
suspicion of sport, 475–6
Universal Church of the Kingdom of God (UCKG), 674, 678, 684–5, 687, 688, 694, 674
and violence, 544
Christianization of Europe, 653, 730
church, 27, 35, 42, 113–14, 151, 153, 165, 244, 264, 278, 281, 282, 310, 320 [link] , 321, 323, 334, 360–1, 364, 366, 369, 371, 375, 377, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391, 394, 395, 400, 421, 425, 436, 438–41, 442–3, 444, 450, 453, 473, 476, 477–8, 518, 543, 583, 599, 601, 614, 629, 644, 657, 659, 660, 666, 674–8, 683, 684–6, 691, 692, 703, 704, 705, 706, 711, 712, 729, 731
church–state relations, 118, 169, 636–41, 643, 811
separation of church and state, 91, 640–1, 644, 782
circular time, 341
class, 89, 91, 137, 140, 141, 142, 146, 176, 180, 190, 260, 404, 405, 406, 407, 408, 410, 436, 473, 519, 605, 612, 613, 614, 615, 617, 619, 622, 628, 636, 637, 695, 696, 708, 722, 758
as system of oppression, 140–1
struggles, 165–6, 169
classification, 43, 44
climate change, 419, 423, 488
cognition, 60, 63, 87, 97, 98–9, 100, 103, 104, 105, 135, 225, 275, 276, 285, 286, 295, 298, 304, 311, 384, 510, 515–6, 521, 529, 581, 624, 628, 725, 740, 745, see also by-product; evolution; predictive coding
distributed, 106, 200, 275, 297
embedded, 200
embodied, 99, 106, 200
embrained, 99, 106
emotion and, 516, 524
encultured, 106
event, 294
extended, 106
human, 99, 619
meta-, 565, 566
moral, 126
normative, 296, 298, 299
social, 101
types of, 200
cognitive
adaptations, 126
constraints, 98, 99, 106
continuity, 340–1
domains, 98
governance, 298
optimality, 726
resource depletion, 101, 106
cognitive semiotics, 294
cognitive theory, 62–3, 225
in anthropology of religion, 504–55
(p. 826) cognitive science (CS), [link]
history of, 111
impact of semantics on, 199–201
as revolution, 200
cognitive science of religion (CSR), [link] , 111, 515
foundational hypotheses in, 100
history in, 103–4
methodologies of, 100–5
coins, 387, 549, 687, 732
Cold War, 178, 179, 790
collectivity, 238, 348
enframing of, 243
colonialism, 57, 141, 221, 334, 376, 401, 403, 408–11, 413, 503, 525, 532, 697, 755, 779, see also decolonial studies; decolonization; postcolonialism
conquest by healing, 409
symbolic order of colonial period, 190
commercialism, 247
commodification, 357, 410, 411, 413, 478, [link] , 751, 752–3
of blessings, 749
and capitalism, 747, 748
vs. commoditization, 748
de-politicization of, 741
and globalization, 749–50
of healing, 406–8
of human relations, 748
of knowledge (Lyotard), 161
and market power, 748
of medicine, 401, 403, 407
and sacred symbols, 748
of tantra, 747
and the merit-making industry, 749
commoditization, 362, 403, 740, 748, 750, 751
and divine/material ontology, 749
commodity/commodities, 163–4, 174, 741, 744, see also capital
communication with god(s), 542, 548, 550, 554
communication, 2, 22, 58, 62, 63, 64, 196, 197, 208, 211, 224, 228, [link] , 293, 295, 304, 316–17, 318, 332, 362, 382, 394, 459, 464, 479, 497, 502, 551, 639, 644, 645, 647, 650, 651, 684, 748, 767, 776, 777, 807
boundaries of, 266–8
inner, 266–8
outer, 268
components of, 259
determination of context in, 259–60
dialogical, 213
embodied, 311
extension and limitation in, 264–5
functional context in, 260, 265
gift giving and, 553
media and, 385, 386, 396
self-description in, 266
self-reference of, 259, 266
semiotics and, 212, 214, 216
theories of, 258–61
communicative action, 258
sender–receiver model, 258, 259
speech-act theory, 259
communism, 165–8, 176, 230, 376, 442, 779
as a religion, 166–7
Communist Party, 438
community religions, 655, 656, 657, 659
competition, 36, 37, 55, 114, 115, 358, 361, 391, 656, 690, 709
Christianity with other religions, 657
over ownership of a place, 329
sports, 472–3, 474, 479, 481
theological, 44
complexity thesis (in religion/science nexus), 455–7, 465
computer-mediated communication (CMC), 684, 694, 595
confessionalization, 713
conflict thesis (in religion/science nexus), 465
Confucianism/Confucians, 41, 45, 46, 392, 697, 765, 785, 795
consciousness, altered states of, 311, 472, 525, 536, 538
consumer culture, 246–7, 249, 687
consumerism, 247, 248, 362, 410, 421
content analysis, 79
contextualism/formalism, 204, see also semantics
contingency, 18, 28, 163, 168, 173, 200, 221, 244, 257, 259, 260, 265, 266, 308, 309, 311, 312, 455, 464, 465, 506, 513, 702, 708, 728, 756, 764, 779
(p. 827) continuity, temporal, 340, 343, 344, 345, 346, 348, 349, 417
vs. change, 646–7, 723
convergence (in religion), 40, 648, 660, 661
among global flows, 689
of objectification and commodification, 747
conversion(s), 37, 41, 243, 267, 533, 652, 653, 659, 665, 669, 674, 679, 755, 760, 764
experience, 528–9
cosmic law, 368
cosmologies, 235, 248, 310, 417, 422, 454, 459, 780
dualistic, 688
other-worldly, 418
Western vs. non-Western and indigenous, 417–18
costly signaling theory, 128
creation, 39, 169, 170, 212, 213, 283, 322, 343, 345, 346, 348, 368, 418, 419, 422, 423, 453, 454
creation myths, 322, 346
creationism, 27, 453, 457, 458
creed(s), 39, 43, 167, 276, 284, 377, 497, 499, 782, 785, see also belief
creole religion, 759
creolization, 767, see hybridity
critical theory, 19, 58, 145, 157, 161, 176, 180, 197, 236, 743, 797
critical thinking, 183, 185–6, 740, 744
crypto-religions, 659
cult of the individual (Durkheim), 239
cultural anthropology, 502, 609
cultural memory, see memory
Cultural Revolution, 438, 788
culture(s), 2, 16, 39, 46, 50, 88, 89, 91, 92, 97, 104, 105, 106, 119, 124, 125, 128, 129, 150, 151, 185, 186, 191, 210, 214, 216, 217, 222, 225, 226, 238, 241, 244, 262, 265, 275, 290, 291, 293, 296, 297, 310, 316, 321, 328, 368, 374, 386, 389, 405, 408, 419, 454, 502, 503, 514, 516, 517, 518, 521, 533, 534, 536, 537, 538, 547, 560, 564, 568, 582, 583, 590, 592, 602, 638, 639, 641, 644, 659, 665, 668, 670, 678, 679, 689, 694, 756, 780, 805, 807, 808, 812, see also translation
African, 679
belief and, 502
Charismatic, 685
comparing, 184–5, 500
consumer, 246, 247, 249, 687
creole, 759
and economics, 243
European, 597
as exogenous factor, 355–6
Greek, 666
Hellenistic, 693
imperial, 178
Indian, 189
indigenous, 181, 184, 274, 609
Kwakwaka’wakw, 722
legal, 371, 372
literate, 295, 732
mass, 705, 757
material, 271, 272, 273, 275–6, 277, 278, 285, 728, 739, 741, 742, 748
mediatization of, 386
mindsharing (Donald), 99
modern, 543
mythic (Donald), 62
vs. nature, 210, 416, 418
oral, 297, 695, 729
popular, 359, 420, 473, 477, 478, 479, 513, 609
premodern, 603, 706
Protestant, 498, 519, 636
Scandinavian, 720
segments of, 41
sonic, 318
study of, 274, 275
understanding, 275
Western, 145, 629, 653
cybergnosis, 394
cybernetics, 220. 224, 226, 228, 231
cyberplatonism, 394
cyberspace, 695
Dalai Lama, 420, 463–4, 483, 484
Dalits, 612, 613, 710
Daoism (Taoism), 41, 46, 458, 570, 601–2, 795
daoshi, 601–2
Darwinian theory, 125, 131, 460, 463
data, 4, 56, 69, 128, 131, 139, 217, 331, 396, 457, 459–60, 465, 485, 503, 776, 795
anthropological, 241
archaeological, 104
biological, 515
databank, 416
databases, 100, 104–5
empirical, 116, 705
ethnographic, 520
hard, 462
historical, 34, 103–4
neuroscientific, 460
survey data, 75–6
and theory, 52, 67–8, 518
verbal, 79
De vera religio (Augustine), 267
death, 18, 64, 102, 117, 127, 128, 144, 168, 169, 213, 214, 235, 236, 240, 245, 260, 261, 264, 311, 332, 340, 342, 344–7, 374, 389, 402, 407–8, 463, 475, 543, 546, 553, 561, 562, 566, 571, 584, 586, 592, 613, 623, 624, 625, 643
of author (Barthes), 154, 220
Buddha’s, 569
Christ’s, 215, 543, 545, 627
of religions, [link] , 727
rituals, 349
as sacrifice, 542, 627
and salvation, 625–6
symbolic, 343, 585
tragic, 571
decolonial studies, 179
vs. postcolonial, 178–80
decolonization, 178, 182, 789
as de-religionization, 182
deconstruction, 36, 157, 183, 220, 228–9, 230, 231, 273
de-differentiation, 238, 485, 635, 641–2
defilement, 613–15, 622
definitions
conceptions of, 12–13
definienda/definiens, 29
equivalence/elucidation, 29
functional, 17–18, 19, 29
functions of, 10–12
homeostatic cluster, 20–2
importance of, 25–6
lexical, 14, 17, 19, 29
monothetic, 18–20, 29
nature of, 200
objectual, 14, 19, 29
polythetic, 18–20, 29
real, 16, 25, 29
stipulative, 17
substantive, 17–18, 19, 29
types of, 16–24
universal, 23–4
value-free, 23–4
dehumanization, 180, 743, 745, 750, 753
deictic/indexical, 212, 217, 261, 263, 337
deification, 563, 570, 571, 581
de-individualization, 709, 711–13
deinstitutionalization, 265
deism, 187
delegitimation, 355, 430, 434, 763
dema, 560, 571–2
democracy, 166, 169, 191, 221, 386, 440–1, 442, 547, 641, 689, 804, 805, 811
Christianity and, 441
foundations of, 434
Indian, 187
lack of, 441
post-apartheid, 333
religion and, 440–1
(the) demonic, 167, 568, 601
demonic forces, sexuality and, 616
demons, 141, 285, 388, 568, 601, 697
designer religion, 421
de-traditionalization, 487, 705, 709, 710
deviance, 405, 641, 702, 706, 712, 736
devotion/devotees, 152, 273, 274, 276, 278–82, 283, 318, 319, 335, 360, 388, 420, 474, 499, 519, 533, 550, 563, 568, 569, 628, 671, 728, 764, see also bhakti
devotio moderna, 706
embodiment of, 278–84
sports, 472, 473, 476–8
objects, 359, 547, 549t36.1, 656, 711, 749
songs, 320
dharma, 44, 267, 368, 610, 619
dharmasastra(s), 368–9, 612, 619
dialectical negativity, 182, 191
diaspora(s), 329, 331, 336, 337, 651, 652, 660, 684, 689, 692–4, 697, 755
locative/supralocative/translocative configurations of, 693
as virtualized community, 695
différance, 224, 230, 231
(p. 829) differentiation, 4, 89, 91, 243, 247, 257, 268, [link] , 644, 687, 712
as decomposition, 638–39
and de-differentiation, 238
Durkheim on, 638
as element of modernization, 641–2
functional, 432, 637, 638–40
and loss of social control, 641
gods from their domains, 567
institutional, 436
internal, 713
macro- and micro-level, 241
Parsons on, 703–5
purity, 242
relationships with, 640
religion/science, 453, 462
seasonal, 229
secularist, 90
social, 240, 241, 250, 266, 268, 505, 636–8, 703–4
accommodation of, 637
and loss of social control, 641
pluralism from, 637
in religious marketplace, 643
structural, 248
supply-side approach to, 643
transcendence/immanence, 266
diffuse religion, 421
digital media, 383
digital religion (Campbell), 696
dimensional model, 59
din, 42–3, 44, 368
directionality, 237, 242, 243, 247, 249, 337
discipline (academic), 464, 472, 506, 703, 742, 761, 775–7, 798
contextual factors in development of the, 794
establishing the, 781–6
discipline (asceticism/habituation), 401, 414, 475, 498, 505, 614, 685, 687
discourse, 16, 19, 21, 23, 26, 37, 57, 61, 139, 144, 145, 156, 161, 170, 186, 190, 203, 285, 292, 294, 299, 301, 341, 440, 450, 458–61, 465, 531, 592, 612, 711, 743, 780
academic, 383, 430
analysis, 204, 291, 459, 485
authoritative, 185
community of, 780
definition of, 458
discursive entanglement, 461, 465
discursive knot, 459, 460, 465
and meaning-making, 462
discursive practice(s), 14, 61
discursive study of religion and science, 465
emic, 485
ideological, 171, 172, 687
performative dimension of, 208
political, 165, 439, 441, 502, 767
postcolonialism as, 178, 183
on religion and science, 459
religion as category of, 32
religion-making, 184
ritual, 213
on sacrifice, 544
scientific, 461, 462
secrecy as, 590
secular, 182
sexuality and, 144
sociological, 705, 709
spirituality, 78
study of science and religion, 465
discrimination, 367, 437
gender, 141
distributed cognition, 106, 200, 275, 297
diversity, 11, 18, 23, 36, 40, 75, 103, 115, 129, 130, 186, 187, 226, 237, 375, 406, 413, 416, 637, 640, 643, 644, 645, 657–8, 695, 697, 701, 795
language diversity, 649–50, 651, 655, 659
super, 690
dividualism, 706
divination, 268, 334, 545, 596, 598, 607, 691
divinization, 570, 571, 573
domains
cognitive, 98, 101
of human action/agency, 277, 767
of human meaning-making, 63
of human thought, 53
in language, 650
of law, 365, 373
of meaning, 294
the numinous, 560
of objects/commodities, 748
of politics, 432
(p. 830) other than religions, 767
religion as distinct domain, 36, 61, 365, 432
religion not as distinct domain, 57, 60, 63
of religions, 18–19, 61, 209, 213, 365, 432, 485, 723, 725, 728, 738
of ritual, 546, 626
of science, 416, 461, 471
of social life, 46, 688, 757
of society, 651
domain-specific modules, 98, 106
domination, 181, 277, 301, 370, 433, 740, 744
colonial, 750
male, 746, 747
matrix of (Collins), 140
purity and, 619
religious, 487
situations of, 768
social, 192
technological, 240, 250
the West’s, 168
Draper–White thesis, 454, 465
Druze community, 660
dual inheritance theory (DIT), 124, 125, 129–30, 135
dualism, 276, 286, 458, 565, 742
cosmological, 688
good vs. evil, 562
intuitive, 127
non-, 152, 628
religion vs. magic, 600
subject-object, 277
duality, illusion of, 592
dynamic systems theory, 217
dynamism thesis (in religion/science nexus), 458, 465
Earth
as living creature, 459
creation myths, 169, 170, 346, 546, 570
Earth Charter, 418–19, 424
flat, 196, 453
Gaia, 349
heaven and, 45, 167, 269, 281, 417, 571, 734
as living being, 459, 464
spaceship, 688
spirituality, 429
summits, 422
turbah, 282, 283
ecology, 277, 278, 282, 460, see also environment(s); nature
acoustic, 323
behavioral, 125, 127–9, 131
conceptual, 105, 296
eco-paganism/religiosity/spirituality, 420, 421, 422, 424, 425
religion and, 417–25, 425
economics, [link] , 346, 356
economic anthropology, 741
neoclassical, 120, 355
of religion, 120, 356
theory, 119, 355–6
economy/economies, [link] , see also economics; gift/gifting
cultural framing of, 362
disempowerment of women, 746
embeddedness of, 355–6
ethics, 357, 361
exchange-value, 744, 751
inequality, 178, 408
Islamic, 361
power, 548, 552, 602, 740, 747
religious, 359–61
of salvation, 627, 630
of scale, 688
types of, 362
education, 185, 250, 357, 359, 360, 385, 453, 479, 547, 553, 601, 606, 639–41, 666, 672, 725, 741, 750, 775, 776, 786, 790, 794, 804, 805, 810–11, 814
colonial, 186–8
Islamic, 672, 678
scientific, 457
of women, 672
educational institutions, 672
effervescence, 103, 242, 256
efficacy, 236, 410, 685
bodily, 404
causal, 213
performance/ritual, 300, 305, 560
sonic material, 322
effort
human, 551, 572
(p. 831) human and salvation, 624
self-effort, 628
egalitarian(ism), 394, 587, 636, 644, 722, 793
vs. hierarchical, 237
in Islam, 673
Eleusinian mysteries, 589, 595
embodied rhythms, 340
embodied subjects, 245, 247
embodied time, 340–1
embodiment, 72, 146, 209, 238, 241, 242, 244, 271, 273–4, 275, 276, 278, 282, 285, 289, 304, 305, 308, 316, 319, 320, 329, 331, 348, 404, 408, 500, 521, 617, 668, 679, 695
and emotion, 510, 516–17
as a process, 282
as religious formation, 284
sense of, 403
vs. text, 310–11
emergence, 56, 721, 736
of category of religion, 690
of fundamentalism, 90
mechanisms of, 726–7
of modern state, 432
of modern understanding of belief, 500
of monotheism, 568
myth, 146, 333, 349
of new religious landscape, 731
of personal spiritualities, 479
of religion, 60, 61, 129
of study of religion\s, 505, 781, 786
and tradition, 723, 733
and ubiquity, 727
of unbelief, 91
emic/etic, 78, 79, see also insider/outsider
emotion, 85, 106, 176, 249, 274, 301, 311, 315, 320, 362, 405, 407, 422, [link] , 521, 530, 658, 762, see also feelings
affecognitive, 517
affect theory, 517, 521
as blending of cognitions and feelings, 520
collective in religion, 520–21
conceptualization of, 519
constructivist view of, 514
cultural construction of, 514
cultures of, 519
exploitation of, 246
historicity of, 514
influence of doctrine on, 515
objectification of, 519
in religious settings, 514
repression of, 521
study of, 512–16
emotional experiences, 505
emotional expression, 517
emotional transactions, 519
emptiness, 262, 530, 534
enactment(s), 312
material culture of, 281–82
of obligations, 241
re-enactment of myths, 501
ritual, 343
enchantment, 238
dis-enchantment, 94, 239, 244, 246, 274, 473
re-enchantment, 246, 357, 422
enframing, 238, 240, 243, 245, 246, 250
of experiences, 247, 249
Enlightenment, the, 284, 432, 511, 518
American, 318
attack on, 181
and counter-Enlightenment, 253
and emergence of modern state, 432
legacy of, 284
print and, 391, 730
and Reformation, 215, 391
resistance to, 518
science and, 451
enlightenment, 76, 292, 534–5, 536, 537
entrepreneurs, 687, 689, 694, 697, 718, 727, 728
evangelical, 678
Indian, 695
priests, 360
scholars, 783, 790
small, 710
spiritual, 357, 358–9
entrepreneurial strategies, 696
entrepreneurship, 357, 363
entropic, 231
enunciation, 187, 189–90, 191
environment(s), 126, 127, 128, 129, 131, 132, 225, 238, 259, 266, 268, 269, 277, 285, 325, 418, 483, 485, 488, 638, 655, 675, 678, 692, 744, 758, see also ecology
affordances of, 278
aural, 323
commoditized action, 362
cultural, 437, 441, 449–52
engineered, 277
Hindu, 334, 519
natural, 515
social, 130, 436, 606, 712
sonic, 323
environmental consciousness, 499
environmental pilgrimage, 421
environmentalism, as religion, 11, 420–22, 425, 701
epidemiology of representations, 100, 724
episodic memory, 348, see memory
epistemology,