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date: 15 October 2019

(p. 671) Index

(p. 671) Index

Introductory Note

References such as ‘178–9’ indicate (not necessarily continuous) discussion of a topic across a range of pages. Wherever possible in the case of topics with many references, these have either been divided into sub-topics or only the most significant discussions of the topic are listed. Because the entire work is about ‘Roman law’ and ‘Roman society’, the use of these terms (and certain others that occur constantly throughout the book) as entry points has been restricted. Information will be found under the corresponding detailed topics.

abortion 428, 494
absens 250–1
absentee owners 629, 641
abuse, verbal 396–7
access to justice 266, 356–9, 644
accessio 522
accusations 119, 130, 273, 328, 337–9, 341–2, 368, 372, 428
acquisition of ownership 498, 538, 543, 545–6, 549
acquisitive prescription 538, 543
actio 192, 202, 318, 389–90, 574, 590, 596, 599, 602–5, 627
and obligatio 576–7
actio de dolo 192, 318, 596, 603, 605
actio de in rem verso 389–90
actio de peculio 389–90
actio empti 590, 666
actio furti 192, 286, 604
actio incerti 585, 589
actio iniuriarum 323, 325, 396–7, 600
actio popularis 317–18
actio Publiciana 531–3
actio quod iussu 389–90
actio rei uxoriae 155, 425, 473
actiones, legis 159, 224–5, 228, 252, 284, 525, 542, 549, 582, 585–6
actiones adiecticiae qualitatis 390
actiones populares 313–18, 320
actiones utilis 482, 602–3
actions
Aquilian 314–15, 602–3
civil 217, 225, 372, 585, 591
general 590, 603, 605
legal 27, 121, 159, 284, 300, 367, 371, 425, 445, 621
penal 250, 314–15, 319
personal 572, 577
praetorian 326, 478, 602, 604
actors 75, 173, 330, 352–3, 355, 363, 367–8, 388, 394, 413
legal 14, 443–5, 447, 449, 451, 453
adgnati 422, 424, 426
adjudication 14, 60, 171, 235–40, 242, 258, 289
administratio, libera 388, 390, 488
administration 101, 103, 107–8, 111, 121–2, 164–6, 168, 170, 488–9, 558–9
civic 642–3
free 388, 390, 488
Imperial 79, 98–111, 151, 159, 162, 266, 352, 354, 626, 653
of justice 31, 130, 266, 349, 356, 505
local 124–5, 127, 129, 131, 133
provincial 107, 111–13, 115, 117, 119, 121
(p. 672) administrative posts 151, 165–7, 171
administrative structures 6, 138, 164, 172–3
administrators 78, 151, 159, 164–5, 168, 339, 341, 468
adulterers 329–30
adulterium, see adultery
adultery 155, 206, 316, 318, 322, 328–30, 338, 421, 427–9, 438
female 428–9
adulthood 434, 488–9
advisers 87, 102, 164, 169, 172, 358, 490, 584
legal 121, 156, 160–1, 164, 168, 173, 341, 501
advocates 259, 277–81
aedilician edict 226, 665–6
Aegyptus, province of, see Egypt
aequitas 155, 195
affectio 425, 476, 615
Africa 129, 164, 287, 648, 653–4
Africanus, Lucilius 661–4
agents 77, 117, 146, 302, 328, 503–4, 602, 622, 626, 628–30
business 388, 637
ager privatus 556, 558, 647
ager publicus 526–7, 541, 556–7, 647
agnates 466–8, 505
agnatic and cognate relations 449, 466–9
agnatic ties 289, 449, 505
agricultural land 513, 557, 644
agricultural regulation 646–57
agricultural tenancy 639, 644, 649–52
agriculture 157, 388, 487, 583, 623, 646, 648, 653, 656
commercial 649–50
intensive 648
Alexander Severus 66, 425, 429, 482, 614, 652
Alexandria 57, 60, 66, 161, 478, 503, 561, 622
alien communities 283, 292
alieni iuris 350, 419, 448, 600–1
aliens 102, 284, 286–9, 473
resident 289, 403
ambiguities 46, 72, 153, 162, 210, 435, 469, 534, 627, 629
ambitus 228, 316, 336
amici 119, 168–70
Ammianus Marcellinus 342, 379
ancestors 85, 89, 274, 298, 467, 492, 575, 615
ancestral custom 71, 76, 371
animals 324, 326, 514, 518, 521, 526, 531, 599, 601–2, 665–6; see also res mancipi
dangerous 313
draft 650, 653, 665–6
annual magistracies 28, 227
Antioch 36, 160, 381, 668–9
Antoninus Pius 259, 265, 281, 304, 306, 428, 631, 661
Antonius Silvanus 501, 503, 507
apothecae 625, 630
appeal to the people 227, 334, 375
Appius Claudius 330–1
appointment 87, 99, 112, 140, 151, 504, 623, 627, 629–30, 638
appraisals 78, 224, 434, 609, 613, 616
Apuleius 272, 274–6, 278, 280, 300
Aquilian actions 314–15, 602–3
Arabia 160, 261, 428, 447
arable land 556–7
arbiter 130, 228, 241–3, 260, 327, 584–6
arbitration 113–15, 128, 234–43, 288
and courts 234–43
arbitrators 113, 235–9, 241–2, 260, 584
archaic institutions 87, 588
archives 35, 271, 562, 628, 649
property 554, 556, 560–2
arenas 47, 70, 75, 241, 436–7
argumentation 4, 28, 178, 181, 200–2, 209, 270, 272, 547
argument and evidence 270–81
rational 201–2, 212
rhetorical 194, 202, 207, 211
aristocracy 95, 152, 220, 222, 229, 328, 336, 465, 524
senatorial 221–3, 626
Aristotelian tradition 204–5
Aristotle 189–92, 196, 202, 271, 386
army 88, 90–1, 93, 288, 351, 353, 377, 553, 555, 611
arrest parties 300
Asia, province of 105, 108, 116, 261, 306, 661–3
Asia Minor 160, 300, 554, 653
assaults 228, 312, 329, 336, 394, 598, 600
assemblies 88–9, 93–5, 126–7, 129, 132, 137, 142, 220–1, 228, 230
popular 46, 85–8, 90, 93, 102–4, 106, 116, 126, 129, 220–1
associations 12, 139–40, 142–5, 305, 557, 579
social 12–13
associative law 137–8
assumptions 8–9, 15, 61, 181, 432–6, 440, 446–7, 450, 557–8, 562
Athenians 277, 280–1
attendants 297–8, 307, 444
atypical agreements 590
atypical contracts 590–1
auctions 226, 507, 558, 560, 613–14, 642
auctoritas 100, 271–80, 448, 525, 540
auditors 151, 153, 157–8
Augustan laws 353, 408, 425, 494
Aulus Gellius 71, 159, 327, 358, 598, 609
Aurelius, Marcus 47, 70, 103, 105, 108, 281, 341–2, 380, 428–9, 489
authorisation 50, 70, 337, 340, 351, 423, 425, 468, 488–9, 544
autonomy 4–5, 71, 246, 284–5, 299, 453, 483–4, 526, 529
of law 4–5, 15–16
private 500, 502
Avidius Cassius 342
bad faith 242, 383, 518, 522, 527, 549
Baetica 31, 49, 51, 105, 107, 261, 349
bailees 516, 518
bailments 516–18
banditry 300, 302–4, 316, 371, 383, 631
bankruptcy 389, 507
bargaining power 612, 650
behaviour 13–14, 16, 280, 406, 408, 423–4, 427, 429, 433, 438
sexual 328, 420, 427
beliefs 4, 349, 352, 423, 432, 435–6, 439–40, 577
Bellicius Sollers 661, 663–4
beneficiaries 351, 411, 482, 520, 574–6, 578
bequests 210–11, 258, 341, 395, 403, 482, 488, 504, 556
Berytus 33, 160–1
best interests 89, 139, 145, 490, 493–5
bestiarii 367–8
biological sex 432–3, 435
Bithynia 126, 129, 144, 305, 354
Bithynia-Pontus 144, 304
Black, Donald 13–14
blood relation 476, 506
Boethius 159–60
bona fide contracts 522, 616
bona fides 516, 549, 612; see also good faith
bona vi rapta 313, 603
bones 324, 597–8, 609
bonorum possessio 426, 478, 505, 508, 538, 544–5
borrowers 520, 570, 587, 591, 614
boys 276, 329, 434, 466, 474, 489, 495
breach of contract 237, 520, 631
bribery 274, 306, 356
bronze tablets 45, 49, 105, 115, 337, 340
brothers 77, 424, 466–8, 499, 503, 505, 508
buildings 51, 94, 104, 131, 285, 625, 627, 635, 637–43, 650
public 127, 129, 164, 300, 626
business 130, 132, 251, 253, 389, 391, 504, 507, 624–5, 628
activities 388, 447, 578, 621–3
legal 170, 224–5, 251
life 390, 447, 621, 623
public 129, 222, 229, 443
business agents 388, 637
business managers 390, 627–9
(p. 674) Caesar, Julius 116–17, 138, 140, 168–9, 219, 222, 312, 335, 337, 339
calendars 27, 44, 66, 221–2, 225
Campania 50, 230, 410, 623
Campus Martius 90, 94, 221
capacity 6, 422, 433–4, 444, 464, 474, 502, 542–3, 628, 630
capital 261–2, 302, 452, 475, 561, 612, 622, 639, 667
capital offences 334, 354
capital punishment 228–9, 325
Caracalla, Antoninus 57, 121–2, 142, 263, 278, 289, 340, 428, 548, 631
career, political 89–90, 92–3, 352
carmen 72–4, 79
Cassius 32, 157
Cassius, Avidius 342
Cassius Dio 103, 376, 379, 614
censors 86, 90–1, 94, 126, 224–5, 230, 298, 328, 352, 367
censorship 74, 87–8, 90
censuses 90, 128, 224, 226, 352, 403, 406, 561, 654
charioteers 394
charters 31, 120, 122, 287, 627
epigraphic 119, 125, 129
municipal 31, 49, 133, 287, 300
chattels 265, 323, 325, 514, 516, 518
childhood 392, 434, 490, 495–6
child-rearing 407–9
children 103, 106–7, 366–7, 406–8, 419–22, 424–6, 434, 436, 461–70, 505–8
best interest of 493–5
economic incapacity 488–91
freeborn 492, 494
illegitimate 478, 495
legitimate 438, 461, 466–7, 469, 495
male 419, 468
newborn 492
and parents 487–96
status 64, 404, 494–5
choice of law 285, 288, 290–1
across life histories 288–9
Christianisation 461–2
Christianity 342, 429, 463, 469
Christians 107, 277, 279–80, 304, 306, 341–2, 363, 371–2, 494, 618
Cilicia 116–17, 160
citizen body 159, 364–5, 383, 403, 405, 408, 475
citizen status 106, 405, 407–8, 410
citizens 88–90, 95–6, 119–22, 130–4, 224–7, 286–9, 325–9, 350–1, 364–6, 377–81
and foreigners 132–3
male 94, 126, 327, 419, 434, 439–40, 464
new 65, 405, 408, 427, 548
private 92–3, 221, 229, 371, 404
citizenship 51, 106–7, 121–2, 132–3, 284–7, 289–90, 350, 352–5, 364–5, 402–9
change of 288–9
grants of 106, 222, 287, 478
loss of 287–9
cives 114, 120–1, 556
civic administration 642–3
civic community 325, 330–1, 350, 475
civic duties 134, 434–5
civil actions 217, 225, 372, 585, 591
civil cases 117, 130, 241, 260, 319
civil law 152, 219, 223, 225, 285, 287, 289, 531, 533, 591–2
civil procedure 217, 245, 248, 254, 257, 262, 266, 357, 584, 586
possession in 540–4
Republican 245–57
civil rights 222, 366, 377
Civil Wars 91, 100, 102, 117, 219, 221, 229, 285, 302, 409
civil wrongs
developments in Republican and classical Roman law 600–4
origins of delictual obligations 596–9
scope and function 596–605
civitas 86, 115, 124, 290–1, 350, 354, 526, 573–4, 576, 592
claimants 238, 248–50, 254, 263–4, 266, 500, 505, 527, 539, 541
classical jurists 36, 176, 235, 386, 477, 481, 541, 545, 623, 632
classical period 284–6, 474, 501–2, 505, 516, 524, 533, 543, 546, 548–9
classical Republic 219, 221, 223, 227–8
Claudius 101–2, 104, 106, 118, 170, 259, 279, 287, 661
clausulae arbitrariae 252, 542
clementia 374, 379, 384
clients 29, 32, 166, 182, 235, 259, 272–3, 275, 277–9, 297
Clodius Pulcher 75, 92, 138, 140, 377
Cnidos 119, 303
codes 13, 23–5, 27, 29, 31–3, 35, 37, 39, 73, 161
Justinian’s 258, 490, 631, 662, 667
Theodosian 342
Codex Hermogenianus 36, 359
codification 10, 24–5, 33, 38, 58, 73, 176
modern 24–5, 37
co-emperors 48, 121
coemptio 421, 425, 502, 583; see also marriage, manus
coercive powers 222, 229, 371, 374
cognitio 257–66, 318–19, 340, 354, 357, 380
co-heirs 575–6, 586
collective interests 312, 317, 319
collegia 137–43, 145–6, 303
licit and illicit 140–4
colonies 30–1, 90, 125–6, 131, 274, 287–8, 526, 553, 628, 648
comitia 31, 45–6, 88, 93, 489
comitia calata 500
comitia centuriata 88, 94–5, 220–1, 224, 228, 403
comitia tributa 88, 94, 220, 222, 230
commentaries 28–9, 73, 78, 159, 177, 179, 181, 183–5, 627, 629–30
commerce 12, 63–4, 581–93
commercial agriculture 649–50
commercium 133, 350
Commodus 47, 279, 409, 429, 561, 667
communi consensu 430
communities 106–7, 114–15, 117, 119–21, 124–5, 128, 130–4, 299–300, 305–6, 502–4
agricultural 648, 654
civic 325, 330–1, 350, 475
local 115, 120, 124, 131, 171, 353
peregrine 115, 119, 125, 131
political 325, 327–8, 350
provincial 114, 119, 131, 289, 303, 350, 364, 668
compendiaria 625
compensation 315, 324–5, 390, 493, 523, 583, 592, 597–9, 602, 651
competence 102, 208, 221, 446–8
compilers 26, 38, 58, 444, 629
Justinian’s 25, 176, 327, 542, 573, 578, 667
complaints 303, 305, 356, 378, 392–3, 396, 612
compromissum 236–7, 241
concilium plebis 89, 220, 222, 230
concubinage 479, 481
concubines 393, 429, 479, 482, 503
condictio 576, 585, 589, 591
conduct 13, 15–16, 114, 227–8, 247–8, 352–3, 355, 359, 592, 598
sexual 328, 433, 438–9
standards of 303, 353
conductores 628, 630, 653
confiscation 230, 341, 557, 560
conflict resolution 235–6, 240–3
methods 235–8, 241
selection of method 239–41
conflicts 8–10, 13, 15, 99–101, 285–6, 289, 292, 447, 452, 653
confusio 522
consensual contracts 516, 531, 641, 649
consensus 76, 185, 328, 336–7, 396, 476, 481, 587, 597
consent 407, 422, 425, 427, 465, 476, 481, 483, 502, 519
formless 476, 481
consorts in law 474–7
consorts in life 477–9
conspiracies 227, 318, 338, 374
against the Emperor 378–9
conspirators 377–9
Constantine 36–8, 195, 263–4, 307, 362, 381, 409, 469, 483, 652–3
Constantinople 111, 160–2, 262, 380, 669
Constitutio Antoniniana 57, 63, 65–6, 353–4, 476, 548, 553, 652
constitutional structure 138–9, 141, 143, 145
(p. 676) constitutions 30–1, 37–8, 85–6, 95, 106–7, 260, 262–4, 617, 652, 655–6
formation 86–9
Imperial 36–8, 57–8, 62, 158, 262, 265, 285, 354–5, 388, 502
Republican 71, 76, 89, 93
consular edicts 225
consular power 86–7, 98
consular year 91, 94, 112, 278
consulship 74, 87–8, 90–2, 98, 104, 116, 241, 274, 277, 468
continuity 37, 66, 85, 189, 193, 195, 405, 411, 487, 491
contiones 28, 78, 93, 95–6, 221–2, 225
contracts 51–2, 571–2, 575–9, 581–93, 612–14, 617–18, 621–3, 627–8, 630–1, 638–42
atypical 590–1
bona fide 522, 616
breach of 237, 520, 631
hire and lease of 627, 630
letting and hiring of 639, 643–4
and obligatio 578–9
of sale 61, 179, 452, 531–3, 581, 660
contractual practice 29, 64, 179, 445
contractual system 585–6, 591–2
contributions 15, 86, 154, 172, 212, 271, 275, 421, 425, 560–1
control 98, 100, 146, 279–80, 519–20, 548, 609–11, 613, 617–19, 647–8
actual 528, 549
effective 537–9
factual 525, 534, 542
imperial 161, 231, 653
loss of 279–80
physical 388, 525, 527, 538–9, 541, 546–7, 553
social 13–14, 139, 395, 500, 507
conubium 106, 133, 350, 425, 474–6, 478
conventus 59–60, 118
conveyance 521, 581–2, 588
convictions 129–30, 137, 140, 276, 314, 338–9, 341, 355, 363, 367
co-owners 522, 560, 576
Coponius, Marcus 499–501, 503
corporal punishment 226–7, 350
Corpus Iuris Civilis 24, 37, 161–2, 419, 451, 663
corpus possidendi 388
councillors 129, 132, 134, 359
town 352–3, 358
councils 86, 100, 120, 127, 129, 132, 342, 558
local 50, 126, 128, 668
countryside 297, 300, 322, 393, 526, 528, 655–6
courts 74–5, 115–16, 238–40, 262–4, 266, 270–3, 280–1, 283–7, 289–90, 367–9
appellate 129, 260, 263
criminal 228, 352, 357
hierarchy 262–3, 266
jury 354, 378
local 284, 290–1, 306
permanent 91, 93–4, 228, 335, 354, 357
and private arbitration 234–43
public 312, 317–19
standing 228–9, 340, 439
creativity 70
credibility 87, 275–6, 278
creditors 59, 266, 389–90, 507, 556, 562, 587–8, 611, 648, 650
credits 61, 143, 275, 326, 389, 452, 583–4, 586, 628
crimes 299, 303–5, 311, 314, 323–5, 327–9, 333–5, 337–43, 597, 599
against the individual 322–31
against the state 333–43
Republic 333–7
criminal courts 228, 352, 357
criminal jurisdiction 130, 230, 302, 358
criminal law 9, 159, 224, 310–20, 363, 366, 374
Roman formal categories 312–15
substance of offences 315–19
criminal proceedings 45, 330, 358
criminal trials 30, 231
crops 324, 382, 612, 642, 651, 653–4
crudelitas 374, 379, 384
cruelty 304, 331, 374
culpa 602, 604, 631, 640
cultivation 514, 557–9, 646, 653–4
rights 558, 653
(p. 677) cultivators 558, 653–4, 656
culture 9, 43, 71, 156, 310, 362, 367, 432–3, 495, 554
legal 5–6, 9–11, 14, 16, 36, 38, 154, 164, 506, 609
Roman 200–1, 362, 513, 581, 588
rule-based 159, 162
cura minorum 64, 489–90
curator ventris 428, 494
curators 155, 428, 489
curule aediles, see aediles
custodia 179, 494, 516, 624, 627, 630
customers 625–7, 629–31
customs 4, 12, 15, 71, 85, 224, 291, 364, 427, 612
damage 277, 314–15, 368–9, 371, 388, 597–605, 609, 614–16, 623–4, 651; see also damnum iniuria datum; delict; lex Aquilia
physical 371, 602
to property 313, 315–16, 518, 599–600, 605, 616
reparation of 596, 599–600, 604
damnum iniuria datum 313, 323, 601–2, 605; see also lex Aquilia
daughters 329–31, 419, 421–2, 465–6, 468, 490–1, 503, 505, 508, 600
adulterous 329
de iniuriis aestimandis 600, 609
de pecuniis repetundis 228–9
death penalty 94, 300, 334, 350, 355, 429, 599
debt slavery 224, 325
debtors 59, 62, 64, 264–5, 323, 437, 577–8, 586, 592, 601
decemviri 26–7, 87, 331
decemviri stlitibus iudicandis 230
declamation 76–8, 154
declamations, public 129, 201
decrees, senatorial 44–5, 98, 101–2, 104–5, 140, 142–3, 336, 338, 661, 664
decurions 50–1, 120, 129–30, 133, 351–2, 355, 366, 370, 668
defamation 312, 327, 338, 396, 600
defects 612–13, 665–6
latent 226, 666–7
defences 71, 77, 253, 273, 376
affirmative 252
judicial 587, 589
deference 279–80
degradation 322, 324–6, 329, 331, 408
delatores 106, 339
deliberative oratory 73, 76, 78
delictual obligations 573
origins 596–9
dependants 326, 330–1, 411, 488, 491
descendants 338, 352, 419, 422, 436, 505–6
disinherited 508
detentio 545, 547
deterrents 342, 371–2
dictatorship 90, 93, 223, 375
dignity 279, 327, 336, 349, 351, 396
Diocletian 36–8, 48, 66, 121–2, 557, 562, 648, 652, 654, 667–9
market interventions 617–18
Diocletian’s edicts 49, 610, 612, 614, 618, 668
Dionysia 59, 61, 445–6, 452, 483
Dionysius 26–7, 86, 621
disabilities 249, 350, 366–7, 387, 403, 440, 447
discharge
dishonourable 353, 367
honourable 45, 289, 475, 478
discourse 71–3, 152–3, 177, 182–4, 328, 374
dishonour 86–7, 90, 355, 403–4, 407
dishonourable discharge 353, 367
disorder 36, 142, 299, 303, 649
disputants 113, 236–40, 242, 358
disputationes 180–1, 183, 185
dispute resolution 14, 113, 242, 283, 317
distributive justice 362, 369
disturbances 144, 333, 380, 529, 538, 541, 639
divided interests 513, 517–21
divorce 155, 329–30, 422, 425, 428–30, 465, 479–83, 493–4, 560, 637
unilateral 483
(p. 678) doctrine 3, 5, 10, 12–13, 32, 157, 208–9, 538–9, 543, 546
history of 3, 5
documentary evidence 247, 532, 622
documents 44–52, 56–8, 60, 107, 141, 241, 246–7, 263–4, 627–8, 661
legal 12, 43, 45, 52, 154, 356, 444, 500
written 263–4, 271, 482, 588, 592
dolus 315–16, 318, 357, 596, 601, 603, 622, 631, 640
domanial markets 662, 664
domestic jurisdiction 328–9, 331
dominance 173, 538, 577
dominica potestas 388, 419
dominium 524, 526–8, 530–2, 534, 538, 541, 548, 553–4, 556, 588; see also ownership
dominium ex iure Quiritium 524, 541, 553, 588, 648
dominus 388–92, 404, 525, 528–9, 531, 533, 601–2, 625, 628, 631; see also owners
Domitian 107–8, 120, 128, 339
donations 58, 132, 473, 476–7, 479, 506, 527, 544
draft animals 650, 653, 665–6
duties 126, 365–6, 489–90, 515, 558, 569–71, 581–4, 588, 591–3, 597–8
civic 134, 434–5
moral 193, 259, 612
social 577
eclecticism 188, 190, 192–3, 196–7
economic activities 48, 363, 452, 621, 623, 626
economic life 451, 488, 617, 669
economic loss 602–3
economic structure of property law 358, 513, 515, 517, 519, 521, 523, 545
economic transactions 402, 449, 582–3
economics 44, 49, 635, 637
edicta 32, 34, 45, 225
edictal powers 250, 665
edicts 28–9, 58–60, 106–7, 118–20, 179, 182–5, 225–6, 245–8, 250–1, 617–18
aedilician 226, 665–6
Diocletian’s 49, 610, 612, 614, 618, 668
perpetual 33
praetorian 25, 28, 72, 76, 156, 158, 503, 505–6, 529, 533
prefectural 58–60
provincial 116, 118, 121, 141, 143, 261, 630
education 70, 188, 200–1, 272, 274, 278, 363, 391, 393–4, 411
rhetorical 36, 155, 201, 204, 209
educative fictions 75–6
effective control 537–9
effects, legal 377, 422, 474–5, 478, 505, 577, 592, 640
Egyptians 61, 290, 476, 556
Ehrlich, Eugen 11–13
elected magistrates 129, 133, 220, 334
elections 90–1, 100–1, 112, 126, 129, 352
electoral bribery 140, 228, 316, 336
eliminatio 204–5
elites 78–9, 96, 152, 165, 201, 228–9, 351, 353–9, 363–6, 368–70
local 160, 166, 300, 351, 354
provincial 353, 524
senatorial 101, 327, 626
social 85, 90, 357
eloquence 79, 275, 277
emperors 101–8, 117–19, 127–30, 141–6, 169–73, 258–60, 300–7, 338–41, 378–81, 661–4; see also individual emperors
conspiracies against 378–9
law and imperial administration 98–111
and military police 301–3
emphyteusis 534, 655–6
emphyteutic possessors 653, 656
Empire 31–6, 111–12, 117–19, 121–2, 124–5, 302–3, 337–8, 363–5, 379–84, 654–6
coordination of police authorities 306–7
early 157, 219, 226, 248, 257, 317, 487–8, 494
high 276, 284, 290–1, 326, 362
late 4, 129, 382, 668
legal education 153–60
legally marginalised groups 362–72
(p. 679) and maiestas 337–42
and provinces 117–21
riots 379–81
empirical analysis of law 12–14
employees 315, 604, 622, 625, 629
empowerment 227
emptio venditio 532–3, 588, 622, 649; see also sale; consensual contracts
enactments 25, 37, 103, 246, 336, 340, 483, 604, 610, 618
imperial 36, 342
enemies 206, 238, 301, 303, 334, 336–7, 377, 386, 428
external 334, 341
enforcement 86, 143, 241, 250, 259, 265, 363, 370, 583, 592
enfranchisement of freedmen 402, 404–5, 409
enjoyment 525, 528, 533, 588, 590, 630, 641
peaceful 525, 527
enslavement 325, 356, 382, 386
enthymeme 202–4
epicheireme 202–3
epigraphic charters 119, 125, 129
epigraphic evidence 51, 138, 143, 395, 477, 479, 501, 503
epigraphy 43–53, 56
equality 26, 195, 328, 349, 368, 444–5, 589
equestrians 118, 166–70, 224, 229, 338, 351–4, 366, 403
equity 155, 195, 219, 240, 500, 506, 516
estate owners 436–7, 646, 655
estates 467–8, 499–508, 544, 546, 559, 646, 648, 650, 652–3, 655
imperial 118, 305, 307, 613, 646, 652–3
esteem, social 351–4, 358–9, 423
ethics 76, 191, 195, 569
etymology 190, 205, 335, 538, 569, 571
evidence 143–4, 164–6, 250–3, 261–2, 264–6, 270–1, 285–6, 290–1, 358, 661–5
and argument 270–81
documentary 247, 532, 622
explicit 170, 298
legal 143, 362, 404, 636
excellence 272, 275, 277, 529, 587
exercise of jurisdiction 114, 122, 299, 314
existimatio 322, 355, 396
expectations 12–13, 15–17, 238, 270–1, 280, 374, 378–9, 405, 501, 505
social 76, 466, 491, 493, 502, 507
expenses 130, 132, 247, 301, 356, 368, 370, 425, 644
expertise 44, 165, 172, 413, 462
legal 6, 165, 167–9, 172
experts 27, 33, 151, 168, 170, 177, 224, 290–1, 396
legal 3, 5, 61, 165, 170, 172
extortion 228–9, 274, 305–6, 316, 336, 358
extra ordinem 45, 257, 261, 371
fact-finding 15, 264
factional strife 140, 144, 380
false witness 325, 334
falsum 316, 318, 336, 339
familia 289, 350, 353, 355, 358, 366, 464, 488, 493, 636–8
family 461–70
imperial 338, 351, 366, 559, 626
rights and obligations of family members 465–6
family law 223, 351, 358, 369, 468
family members 229, 326, 393–4, 562
family property 468, 488, 498, 500
farm leases 649–52, 656
farm tenancy, see agricultural tenancy
farmers 557–8, 613, 653, 655
state 557–9
farms 240, 649–52
father’s power, see patria potestas
fault 330, 369, 429–30, 602, 631
intentional 601–2
fear 145, 297, 299, 349, 408, 516
fees 129, 259, 520, 618, 661
female adultery 428–9
female slaves 192, 420, 435–7, 448
festivals 128–9, 223, 467
fictions 49, 75–6, 78, 131, 286–8, 404, 528, 533, 586, 663
fideicommissum 258–60, 410, 490, 504
fideiussor 574–5
fiducia 51, 520, 587
filia familias 464–5
filius familias 464–5
fines 125, 130, 132, 313, 439, 610, 655
Fiscus 646, 648, 653–4
fixed penalties 600, 609
flamen 338, 421
Fontes Iuris Romani Anteiustiniani (FIRA) 298, 421–3, 548, 562, 597, 639
food shortages 667–9
force 24, 26, 275, 278, 426, 429, 612, 614, 618, 660
armed 366–7
forced labour 428
forced sale 250, 614
foreigners 132, 192, 227, 283–4, 286, 288, 531–2, 582, 584, 587–8
and citizens 132–3
forgery 312, 316, 336
formal manumission 406, 410
formalities 73, 105, 249, 258, 261, 443, 500–1, 516, 521, 525
formally rational law 10–12
former slaves 402–7, 410–12, 466; see also freedmen
formless consent 476, 481
formulary procedure 228, 248, 250, 252, 254, 257–63, 357, 584, 586, 591
Fragmenta Vaticana 37–8
fraud 77, 318, 357, 363, 367, 612, 615, 617, 622, 631
free administration 388, 390, 488; see also libera administratio; peculium
free marriage 483
free persons 121, 331, 387, 391, 402, 419, 448, 477, 575, 603
free women 356, 387, 438, 448
freeborn children 492, 494
freeborn citizens 129, 466
freeborn status 494, 496
freedmen 50–1, 102, 326, 350, 352–4, 358, 366, 403–13, 475, 638; see also manumission
enfranchisement 402, 404–5, 409
freedom 73, 95, 113, 116, 118, 395–6, 403–4, 406–7, 411–12, 502–3
of contract 518, 521
of speech 73–4