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(p. 915) Index

(p. 915) Index

Note: page numbers in italics refer to figures or tables.

Abe, Jun-ichi 145
Abeles, H.F. 468, 780
absolute pitch (AP) 81–91
defined 81
diathesis stress model 90–1
electrophysiological evidence 84–5
encoders (APE) 83
functional connectivity 88–9
functional neuroimaging 86–7
incidence 81
infancy and childhood 399–400
neural correlates 84–9
neuroanatomical evidence 85–6
neuropsychological evidence 89–90
origins 81–2, 440–1
structural connectivity 87–8
testing for 83
transfer to other skills 83–4
absolutism, vs. referentialism 215–16
absorption
in films, role of music 730–2
in music 752, 754
academic achievement, music training and 420–1, 778–9
accents 135–6
perception 362
Povel & Essens clock model 126, 127, 357–8
salience, marking time 135–7
subjective 126, 132
in theories of musical expression 622
accompanists 553
activating effects see energizing/activating effects
activity system, human 510–11
female choristers 519, 520
musical savant example 512–14, 515
adolescents
composition by see composition by children
musical identity development 765, 766, 767
musical mid-life crisis 495, 498
musical preferences 267–8, 404
parental support 495–6
peer group influences 485
school-based music learning 519–22
Adorno, Theodor W. 40, 225–6
adrenaline see epinephrine
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 190
advertising, musical fit in 797–8
aesthetic emotions 200, 233–4
aesthetic enjoyment 48, 251
aesthetic judgment 198
brain mechanisms 252–6
BRECVEMA framework 205, 207
philosophical approaches 40, 234
aesthetic pleasure 233
processing fluency theory 235
aesthetics 233–42, 897–8
brain mechanisms see neuroaesthetics
cognitive science 236–7, 241–2
definition 252
evolutionary 240–1
experimental 234–6, 247, 266, 897–8
meaning in music 37–9, 40–1
neo-hedonism 237–8
philosophers vs. neuroscientists 248–9
philosophical antecedents 233–4
plural pleasures 238–40
Aesthetics and Psychobiology (Berlyne) 235
Afanador, K. 735–6
affect 198
neuroaesthetics research 254
see also emotions
(p. 916)
affective contrast, law of 209
affective responses to music 895–6
Affektenlehre 216
Agawu, K. 509
age, of starting musical practice 450, 529–30
age-related differences
meter perception 132
musical preferences 267–8
parent–pupil–teacher interactions 500–1
peak experiences 751
aims, individuals’ 483
Aka Pygmy musicians 22
aksak meters, Bulgarian dance 23
Alain, C. 289
alap, Indian 23
Allen, G. 307–8
Alzheimer’s disease see dementia
amateur musicians 472, 482
American Music Therapy Association (AMTA) 837–8
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 63
amusia 13, 308–9, 310–19
acquired 308
aesthetics research and 251
childhood 309
congenital see tone-deafness
neuroscientific studies 310–13
theories of 313–17
analytic attending 130
anchoring, musical 96, 97, 99, 108
Anderson, S. 319
‘Angels’ (Robbie Williams) 47, 52, 55
anger 201, 601, 603
animal studies, rhythm perception 364
Ankney, K.L. 693–4
Ansari, D. 672–3
anthropology 5, 251
Anthropology of Music, The (Merriam) 48
Anthropology of the Body, The (Blacking) 573
anxiety
cognitive 639–40
induced by music 201, 204–5, 208
music performance (MPA) 639–42
somatic 639
anxioalgolytic music (AAM) 862–5
aphasia 307, 829
appoggiatura 605, 751
aptitude, musical
speech perception and 416
students’ compositions and 701
testing 438, 894
archaeology 11, 251, 902
arcuate fasciculus (AF) 87–8, 312
Ardipithecus ramidus 12
Aristotle 224, 761
Armstrong, Louis 493, 659
arousal 198, 203
background music and 780–1, 791
musical preferences and 269
music therapy and 861
responses to music 184, 199, 715
art, music as 37–8
art behavior, primary features of 249
articulation, emotional expression 221
Ashley, R. 671
associations
learned 24, 234
in memory 168
prenatal development 376–7, 380
associative chaining 559, 560–4
associative mood and memory training (AMMT) 831
asthma 810
athletes, listening to music 715
atonal music
memory for 172, 174
set-theoretical analysis 884
attack
role in instrument identification 116
time, logarithm of 115
Attali, J. 48
attention
to background music 781
meter perception 130
to music during other activities 720
neuroaesthetics research 252–3
rhythm/beat perception 360, 361
attributional styles, and motivation 484
audience response tool (ART) 736
auditory brainstem response to complex sounds (cABR) 346–7
auditory cortex
musical expectations 287–8, 289, 295, 296
plasticity 326, 329, 330
reward system interactions 297–8
auditory environment, fetal 374
auditory feedback disruption, amusia 315–16
auditory filters 65–6, 69
auditory memory 562
auditory-motor entrainment 737
auditory-motor interactions
effects of musical training 537
musical expectations 293–5, 296
rhythm perception 360–1
auditory pathways
higher, pitch perception 66–7
musicians vs. nonmusicians 326–8
auditory perception illusions 151
auditory perception training (APT) 831
auditory scene 64
auditory scene analysis 72–3
auditory streaming 72–3, 119
auditory stream segregation see stream segregation, auditory
auditory system
physiology 64–6
prenatal development 373
Australian Aboriginal song 25–6
Australopithecus 12
autism spectrum disorders (ASD) 89, 824, 826, 842–3
autobiographical memory see episodic memory
autobiographical memory technique 753
autobiographical work, listening to music 717–18
automaticity, during performance 576–7
autotelic personality 752
Averill, G. 53
awe 205, 208
Baba, Takashi 625
Bach, J.S.
chorales 204, 552
Italian Concerto 565, 566–7
Musical Offering 120
sketches 660
background music 905–6
in commercial settings 789–99
in educational settings 779–82
Baddeley, Alan 170
Badiou, A. 653
Bailey, Derek 659
Baily, John 671–2
Balkan epic songs 670–1
ballads, traditional 561
Ballanchine, George 734, 735, 736
ballet 734–5
Baltes, F.R. 733
Bamberger, J. 401, 407–8
Barbot, B. 695
Baroque harpsichord fantasia 23
Barrett, M. 689, 699
Bartlett, J.C. 156
basal ganglia 359, 360, 533
basilar membrane (BM) 64–5
Batt-Rawden, K. 717
Baumgarten, Alexander 233, 247
Baumgartner, H. 202
Baumgartner, T. 729
Baumrind, D. 499, 500
Bautista, A. 441
beat 22, 125–6
deafness 310
defined 363
perception 359–60
sensitivity 361
synchronization with conductors 581
see also rhythm
beauty 233, 240, 248
Becker, J. 750, 754
Beebe-Center, J.G. 209
Beethoven, Ludwig van 659, 660–1
behavior
defining musical 50–1
music as 6
behavioral support, parental 495–6
behaviorism 236
behavior therapies, performance anxiety 641
Behne, K.-E. 789–90
Beineke, V. 697
Bereitschaftspotential (BP) 533, 534
Berk, L.A. 417
Berkowitz, A. 672–3
Berliner, P. 670
Berlyne, Daniel E. 40, 207, 235, 272, 807, 897–8 (p. 918)
Bermudez, P. 83
Bernstein, N. 576
Bernston, G. 188
Bertalanffy, L. von 510
Berzonsky, M.D. 769
Besson, Mireille 347–8
Bharucha, J.J. 102–4, 106
Biasutti, M. 456–7
Bigand, E. 105–6, 151, 152, 174
bilateral arm training with rhythmic auditory cueing (BATRAC) 809
bimusical people, emotional responding 23–4
biochemical responses 190
biomechanics 637
biosocial model of interactions 464
bipedalism 11
bird song 51
Birdwhistell, R.L. 53
Birtchnell, J. 499–500
Blacking, John 6, 8, 39, 40, 52, 573, 672
blind musicians 90, 511–14, 515
blindsight 314
Boden, M. 654, 655
bodily behaviors in performance 573–88
communicating with audience 582–6
different cultures and genres 585–6
evolution over time 581–2
infant-directed singing 389–90
measurement 616–17
motor aspects 576–7
personal aspects 586–7
role in task performance 578–81
social-group processes 586–8
types 577–8
bodily responses to music 183–93, 583, 896
contemporary research 186–91
definitions of terms 183–4
film scores 729
inconsistent findings 185–6
body, improvisation and 668, 671–2
body-image schemas 35, 42
body-swaying movements 578, 585
body work, listening to music during 714–16
Boer, D. 271
Boerner, S. 732–3
Bohlman, P. 6, 53
Bolden, B. 690–1
Boltz, M. 130, 730
Bonneville-Roussy, A. 264–6, 268, 271, 273
boredom 201, 208
botulinum toxin 541
bouncing, infants 239, 389, 392, 735
Bourdieu, Pierre 685
Bouwer, F.L. 361
brain
development, child, early music training and 331–3
imaging see neuroimaging
responses, meaning in music 42
brain connectivity
absolute pitch possessors 87–9
amusia 312–13
musically trained children 333
musicians vs. nonmusicians 327
rhythm perception 359–60
brain plasticity 84, 325–34, 530, 899, 906
blind musicians 90
instrument-specific 328–9, 538–9
language and music overlap 346
music and child brain development 331–3
musicians vs. nonmusicians 326–8, 538–9
short-term effects of training in adults 329–31
brainstem reflexes, evoking emotion 203
brain work, listening to music and 713–14
Brand, E. 402
Brandt, A. 345
brass instrument players 450–1, 472
Brattico, E. 250, 255
Braxton, Anthony 659
BRECVEMA framework 207, 250
emotional responses 202–6
musical preferences 275–6
Breeze, N. 690, 695
Bregman, Albert 72
Brendel, Alfred 563
Broca, Paul 307
Broca’s area 66, 328
Brodsky, W. 440, 713
Bronfenbrenner, U. 408, 464, 510
Brophy, T.S. 675
Brower, C. 42
Brown, Helen 145
Brown, M. 655, 656
Brown, S. 10, 255, 309 (p. 919)
Brunswik, Egon 607, 608
Bryant, G.A. 10
Burnard, P. 408, 684, 685–6
burnout, music therapists 847
Butler, Christopher 237
Butler, David 145
Byrne, R. 655
Cacioppo, J. 188
Caclin, A. 115
Cage, John 6, 240, 653
calm 201
cancer, music therapy 846–7
cardiovascular responses 185, 186–7, 191, 192
car driving, listening to music 712–13
Carvalho, S. 693
Casals, Pablo 635
categorical perception 74
cathedrals, female choristers 518–19
caudate nucleus 297
central nervous system disorders see neurological disorders
cerebellum 359, 533
cerebral palsy 828, 858
Chadwick, F. 496–7
Chaffin, R. 565, 566–7, 581–2
chamber ensemble performers
bodily behaviors 579
rehearsals 582
Chanda, M. 190
Chang, E.C. 583
character, human, expression in music 224
Chew, E. 148–9
children
background music effects 781–2
brain changes after music training 331–3
composition by see composition by children
with exceptional musical potential 434–5
family support 493–503
improvisation by 407, 675–6
individual differences in learning 468–70
listening to music while studying 714
motivation to learn 482, 484, 485–6, 487
musical development see development, musical
musical identity development 764–8
music therapy 824–6, 862, 866
tone-deafness 309
chill passages 189–90
chills (thrills; frisson) 749
elements of music eliciting 751
expectancy violations generating 205
musical preferences and 269
neurobiology 297
pleasurable nature 239
role of musical structure 189, 190–1
Chin, T. 763–4
Chopin, F., preludes 100, 102, 883
choral singers/choristers
benefits of community music-making 777
female, UK cathedrals 518–19
psychophysiological responses 191
chords 98–9
expectations 291
MUSACT model 102, 103
priming experiments 106–7
tonal pitch space theory 101
choreography 734–6
chromatic circle of fifths 99
tonal pitch space theory 101–2
chromatic scale 95, 97
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) 810
chunking
memory 168, 173
by sight-readers 550
Church Lirrga songs, Wadeye 25–6
cingulate motor area (CMA) 531, 532
Clair, A.A. 806–7, 811–12
clarinet players 635
Clarke, E. 880, 881, 885, 890
classical conditioning, prenatal 375, 376
classical music
bodily behaviors in performance 585–6
consumer behavior and 795–6
factors supporting learning 516–18
peak experiences 750–1
clock model, Povel & Essens 126–8, 357–8
closed skills 547
C major chord/triad 98, 101 (p. 920)
C major key 97, 98, 99
event hierarchies and 108
mistuning study 104
modeling tonal hierarchies 101–2
C minor key 97, 98
cochlea 64, 65, 373
cochlear implant (CI) users, pitch perception 70–1
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 841
cockatoo/cockatiel, dancing 364, 737
cognition
background music effects 713–14
disorders of music see disorders of musical cognition
musical preferences and 269–70
neuroaesthetics research 253
role in motivation 481, 483–4
tonal 95–108
cognitive abilities, effects of music training 416–23
cognitive anxiety 639–40
cognitive appraisals 198, 236
emotions evoked without 237, 238
musical emotions and 202
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), performance anxiety 641
cognitive learning, music therapy 825–6, 830–1
cognitive neuroscience 236, 898–901
absolute pitch 84–9
aesthetics 237–40, 248
cognitive processing of music
domain-general mechanisms 20, 23, 26
domain-specific modules 20
neuroaesthetics research 253
overlap with language processing 345–50
research needs 907–8
cognitive psychology 877, 878
cognitive rehabilitation, music therapy 830–1, 860
cognitive science
aesthetics of music 236–7, 241–2
early school see cognitivist approach
emotional responses to music 41
later school see cognitive neuroscience
meaning in music 35, 43
cognitive state, regulation 54
cognitive support, parental 496–7
cognitive therapies, performance anxiety 641
cognitivist approach 236
aesthetics 236–7
emotions 184, 188, 237
Cohen, A.J. 725, 728, 729–32
collaboration
bodily mediated, in performance 578–81
in composition in schools 697
in improvisation 675
in research 912–13
commercial settings, background music in 789–99
common fate, principle of 73
communication
fetal–maternal 378–80
function of music 48, 51–3, 54
music as 909
music therapy addressing 825, 829–30
communication in performance 598–9, 909
bodily-mediated 582–6
emotional 601–10
modeling 621–5
musical structure 615–26
role of measurement in analyzing 620–1
transmission models 52
communicative musicality 761–2, 765
communion, state of 52–3
community music 775, 776–8
benefits of participation 777–8
music therapy vs. 776
compassion 237
completion, musical 106, 120
complex auditory pattern, language and music processing 347–9
complexity of music
consumer behavior and 794–5
emotional expression and 221
liking and 40
complex tones, pitch of 68–71
composition 651–62
cultural definition 651–2
imagining 657–8
improvisation and 658–60 (p. 921)
metaphors and models 656–7
motivation 652–3, 700
psychology and 653–4
research needs 911
traces 660–1
see also creativity
compositionality 34
composition by children 405, 681–703
assessment 695–7
collaboration 697
conceptual aspects 688–9
early childhood 699
external variables influencing 701
gender and motivation 700
literature review 686–701
process/product analysis 691–3
teachers’ attitudes/perceptions 698–9
teaching practice and 701–2
teaching process 689–91
use of technology 693–5
views of creativity 683–6
compound melody 72
Computational Emotion Rule Systems (CMERS) 624
computational models
creativity 655
improvisation 673–4
performance 542, 621–5
computer-based composition 661, 693–4
concentration, required for effective practice 456
concept, music as 6
conceptual blending 655–6
concerts, attending live 718–19
conditioned responses 202
conditioning
classical, fetus 375, 376
evaluative 24, 203–4
operant, prenatal 380
conductors
bodily behaviors 575–6, 578, 587
communication with audience 583, 584
ensemble coordination 578–9, 581
conflict, parent–child 498–9
Congado ritual, Afro-Brazilian 53
congruence-association model 729–30, 731, 736, 738
conscientiousness 267, 424
consciousness
fetal 374–5
reflective 374, 380
consonance
aesthetics research 235
infant preferences 390
perception 71, 106–7
tonal 71
consumers, effects of music 789–99
meta-analyses 789–91
product choice and musical fit 796–8
purchasing behavior 795–6
speed of activity and time perception 798–9
theoretical explanations 791–4
visiting behavior 794–5
contagion, emotional 204, 207
content addressable memory 559, 564–8
contextual asymmetry 105
contextual distance 105
contextual identity 105
continuity illusion 151
control
locus of 483, 484, 499
responses to music and 791, 792–4
control–responsiveness axis, parental 499–500
conventional signs, Peirce’s 34–5
Cook, Nicholas 175, 235, 719, 763, 881, 890
Cooke, Deryck 216
coordination between performers
bodily mediated 578–81
in expert performance 619
during improvisation 668–9
coordination in time to music see moving in time to music
corpus callosum 327, 333, 538
Corrigall, K.A. 400–1
corrugator muscles 187, 188
Corso, J.F. 116
cortical thickness
absolute pitch possessors 85–6
amusia 310–11
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) 379
cortisol 191, 379 (p. 922)
Cottle, M. 690
counterpoint, perception 72
creativity 438, 651
changing views of 683–6
children 405, 408
individualist approaches 683–4
locus of 684–5
socio-cultural approaches 683, 684–6
theories 654–6
Creech, A. 485, 486, 495, 497–8, 516–18
critical periods see sensitive periods
Cross, I. 10, 48–9, 737
cross-cultural perspectives
bodily behaviors in performance 585–6
diversity of music 19, 21
emotional responding 23–4, 208
functions of music 47–56
infant-directed singing 388
infant preferences for consonance 390
meaning in music 39–40
musical memory 172
musical preferences 270–1
research aspects 20, 21, 910–11
Crozier, G. 497
Crozier, J. 400
Csikszentmihalyi, M.
flow theory 668, 699, 719, 746–7
locus of creativity model 684–5
talented children 440, 496
cue abstraction theory 174
cues
expressing emotions 602, 603, 607–8
memory 168, 174, 175
performance 562, 566–8
cultural context
aesthetics research 235, 254
learning 509–10, 511
motivation to learn 485
musical composition 651–2
musical development 391–2, 407–8
musical preferences 270–1
research needs 909–11
Cunibile, J.C. 118
Custodero, L. 699
cystic fibrosis 810
Dalcroze eurhythmics 735
dance 7, 239, 294
infants 392
music therapy 822
role of music 725–6, 734–7
Danuser, B. 189, 192
Darwin, Charles 3–4, 240, 344
dastgah scale 74
Davidson, J.W. 437, 495, 578, 581, 585, 586
Davies, Stephen 38
Davis, N. 694
de Cheveigné, A. 115–16
declarative knowledge 669
Degé, F. 417
deliberate practice 436, 451, 452, 529
Deliège, I. 174, 175
Delsing, M.J.M.H. 267
demand characteristics, self-report 199
dementia 778, 827, 845–6
DeNora, T. 41, 717
depression, music therapy 843
design features, language and music 344
Deutsch, D. 151, 171
development, musical 399–409
contextual issues 408
cultural environment 391–2, 407–8
general skills 437
improvisation 675–6
individual differences 465–70
language interactions 344–5
musical expectations 292–3
musical identities 764–8
prenatal 371–81
processes and putative stages 764–6
production and performance skills 404–5
theory 405–8
understanding of music 399–404
developmental disabilities 824–6, 858
developmental psychology of music 879
developmental speech and language training through music (DSLM) 825, 830
de Vous, N.R. 468
diathesis stress model 90–1
diatonic scales 95
diatonic tones 97, 101
Dibben, N. 174, 175 (p. 923)
diegetic music 727
differentiated model of musical giftedness and talent 438–9
diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)
absolute pitch 87–8
amusia 312
musicians vs. nonmusicians 535
synesthesia 90
d’Indy, Vincent 99
Director Musices (DM) model 623–4
discourse, in music 688–9
disorders of musical cognition 307–20
defining 308–10
history 307–8
neuroscience 310–13
rehabilitation 319
speech and language deficits 317–19
theories of 313–17
Dissanayake, E. 10–11, 49, 240
dissociation 754
dissonance
aesthetics research 235
infant preferences 390
perception 71, 106–7
Distorted Tunes Test 308
distraction 712
distributional models, key-finding 145
dock-in model, cross-cultural perception 26
doctrine of the affections 216
domain-general processes 20, 23, 26
domain-specific processes 20
dominance, responses to music and 791, 792–4
dominant seventh chord 98
Donald, M. 662
dopamine 190, 238, 254, 295–7
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), absolute pitch 86
Dowling, W.J. 143–4, 154, 155–6, 202
dramatic works, role of music 732–4
driving, listening to music 712–13
drop outs 452, 487, 501–2
Dubiel, J. 882
Dueck, B. 55
Duffy, C. 516–18
Dunn, P.G. 264, 265
Dunsby, J. 880
Durkheim, E. 50, 52, 55–6
dutâr 672
dynamic attending theory (DAT) 128–33
accent salience 135–6
behavioral assessments 131–2
biological assessments 132–3
entrainment models 130–1
gestalt approach vs. 134
dynamic forces, perceived in music 224–5
Dys, S.P. 765, 769
dyslexia 348
dystonia, focal 534, 539–41, 635, 636
early right anterior negativity (ERAN) 291, 292
East Asian ethnicity, absolute pitch 81–2
echoic memory 168
ecological model, Bronfenbrenner’s 408, 464, 510
ecology of composition 689
ecstasy 746, 750
education, music 879
educational practices, music therapists 847–8
educational settings 775–83
background music 779–82
benefits of music-making 778–9
effervescence 50, 56
Ehresman, D. 117–18
Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. 240
Eitan, Z. 225
elderly
brain plasticity 334
community music-making 778
music therapy 826–7
music training and nonmusical abilities 422–3
electro-acoustic music, emotional expression 223
electroencephalography (EEG) 900–1
children 401
improvisation 673
meter/rhythm perception 132, 294–5, 361–3
planning and performance 533–4
short-term effects of training 330
(p. 924)
electrophysiological studies see neurophysiological studies
Elliott, D.J. 761
Ema, K. 727
E major key 99, 102
embedded time spans 125, 126
E minor triad 98
emotional development, music therapy and 826
emotional expression in performance 597–610
accuracy 601, 733
coding 599, 602–3
conceptual foundations 597–9
GERMS model 598
meaning in music and 38, 41
mechanisms 602–6
patterns 604, 605
research paradigms 600–1
theoretical approach 606–8
views of performers 600
emotional expression, perceived 216–23
children 403–4
empirical research 216–18
film scores 729
structural factors influencing 218–23
emotional intelligence, music training and 423–4
emotional memory 563
emotional responses to music 197–209
BRECVEMA framework 202–6
consumer behavior and 792
cross-cultural perspectives 23–4, 208
empirical evidence 199–200
film scores 729–30
history of research 895–6
individual differences 209
Juslin & Västfjäll theory 24
meaning in music and 41–2
mechanisms of induction 201–6
musical expectations and 24, 189, 204–5, 295–8
musical preferences and 269–70
musical structures and 189–90
peak experiences 749
practical applications 209, 716–18
prenatal development 376–7
prevalence 200
primary issues and methods 198–9
self-report measures 208
social context 200–1
tonal hierarchies and 107
types of emotions induced 200–1
emotional state, regulation 54, 209, 716–17
emotions
aesthetic 200, 233–4
basic 602–3
coding in music 602–3, 604
cognitivist perspective 184, 188, 237
collective 201
definition 198
enjoyment of negative 206–7
everyday 200
measurement 198
music therapy and 861
neuroaesthetics research 254
non-cognitively mediated 204
perception/induction distinction 197
phylogeny 377
prenatal associations 376–7
processing, in amusia 317
psychophysiological responses 186–8
refined 208
uniqueness 207–8
emotivist approach, musical emotions 184, 188–9
empathy 237
emphysema 810
empirical musicology 890
employment practices, music therapists 847
encoding theory, meter perception 126–8
encounter, notion of 53
endurance training 637–8
energizing/activating effects 186, 712, 715
Engeström, Y. 510, 512
enjoyment see pleasure
ensemble performers
bodily behaviors 575–6, 577–8
communicative performance 583
coordination and collaboration 578–81, 582
improvisation 674–5
rehearsal strategies 456–7
social-group processes 587
entertainment 48 (p. 925)
entrainment
dance to music 737
defined 363
evoking emotion 203
evolutionary aspects 7, 8, 12
function of music 51, 55, 712
meter perception 128–30
music therapy 860
universality 23
entrainment models, meter perception 130–3, 358
environment, effects of music on perceived 794–6
environmental influences
learning music skills 464–73
motivation 481, 485–6
research needs 909–11
environmental psychology, Mehrabian & Russell (M-R) model 792, 793
epinephrine (adrenaline) 190, 379, 639
episodic (autobiographical) memory 169
emotional responses to music 202, 204
neurobiology of music-evoked 254
equivalent rectangular bandwidth (ERB) frequency scale 66
ergonomic aids/advice 638
Ericsson, K.A.
practice 436, 451, 452, 453, 529
sight-reading 550–1, 552, 553
Erikson, Erik 765, 769
Essens, P. 126–8, 357–8
Esslen, M. 729
ethnic differences, absolute pitch 81–2
ethnomusicology 5–6, 902
aesthetics of music 251
functions of music 48, 49–50, 52–3
grouping of melodic contours 21–2
meaning in music 43
Etzel, J. 186, 187–8
eudemonia 750
evaluative conditioning 24, 203–4
Evans, P. 766–7
event hierarchies 95–7, 107–8
defined 97
memory for music 174
event-related potentials (ERPs)
absolute pitch 84–5
amusia 314
musical expectations 286–93
musical semantics 350–1
perceived emotional expression 729
rhythm/meter perception 132–3, 361–2
Every Child a Musician program 523
evoked responses
defined 363
musicians vs. nonmusicians 329
rhythm perception 362–3
evolution
defined 3
human 11–13
language and music 344
pitch perception 68
progressivist notion 4
evolutionary aesthetics 240–1
evolutionary psychology 9–10
evolutionary theory 3–5
classical Darwinian 3–4
contemporary 8–11
Evoy, J. 697
executive functioning, music training and 421–3
exercise
listening to music 715
music therapy and 822, 827
existential aspects, peak experiences 749
expectations, musical 285–99
early development 292–3
emotional responses and 24, 189, 204–5, 295–8
neurophysiological studies 132–3, 286–93
pitch, melody and harmony 288–92
priming of memory networks 171
sight-reading and 551–2
temporal 293–5, 296
tonal hierarchies and 106–7
universals 24–5
experience sampling method (ESM) 41, 272, 711, 793
experientialist theories, meaning in music 35, 42
expertise, musical
role of learning 436–7
skills underpinning acquisition 441
time spent practicing and 436, 451
expert memory 564–5 (p. 926)
Explaining Creativity: The Science of Human Innovation (Sawyer) 683–4
explicit memory 169–70
expression, musical 598
absolutism vs. referentialism 215–16
bodily mediated 582–6
of emotions see emotional expression
GERMS model 598
measurement 616–21
modeling 598, 621–5
other referential meanings 223–6
sight-reading and 552
structural influences on perceived 215–26
of structure in performance 615–26
views of performers 600
expression marks 602–3, 604
expressive timing 173, 620, 623
eye contact, between performers 575, 578, 579
eye–hand span, sight-readers 550
eye movements, sight-readers 548–50
F# major key 98
facial behaviors
in performance 578–80, 583–4
responses to music 187, 188
factorial design 606
Falk, D. 11
familiar music
neuroaesthetics research 254
preferences for 234, 271–2, 390
family support, for learning 485–6, 493–503
Fauconnier, G. 655–6
Fautley, M. 696
fearful music
communication to listeners 601, 603
responses to 189, 207
Fechner, Gustav 234, 247
Feld, S. 39, 51, 52
fellow feeling, promotion of 52, 55
female choristers, UK cathedrals 518–19
Feminine Endings (McClary) 573
fetus 373–7
auditory environment 374
consciousness 374–5
learning 375
maternal communication 378–80
motility and proprioception 373–4
musicality 251–2
film, music in 725, 726–32
fine arts, music and 823
Finnegan, R. 53
fission boundary 73
Fitch, W.T. 344
flash mobs 734
floating intentionality 8, 10, 42, 49
flow, state of 699, 746–7, 750
creative work 668
listening to music 719
motivating role 486
personality and 752
Flow in Musical Activities (FIMA) 699
Flow State Scale 753
focal dystonia 534, 539–41, 635, 636
focus
for effective practice 456
neuroaesthetic research 252–3
see also attention
Fogelsanger, A. 735–6
Folkestad, G. 688–9
form, musical
aesthetic value 235
children’s understanding 402–3
emotional expression 221
long-term memory and 173
Forte, A. 880, 884, 888, 889
fossil record 11–13
Fox, A.A. 39
fractional anisotropy (FA) 87–8
Fraisse, P. 126, 173
Francès, R. 104, 172
Frege, Gottlob 34
frequency
analysis, auditory system 64–5
characteristic 65
coding 65–7
components 64
discrimination detection 67–8
fundamental 70, 75
modulation detection 67–8
pitch and 63–8
resolution 65, 68–9 (p. 927)
selectivity 65–6
Freud, Sigmund 652, 653
Friberg, A. 623–4
Friederici, A.D. 400
Friedson, S.M. 52–3
friendships, musical preferences and 268
frisson see chills
Frith, Simon 766
Fujioka, T. 289–91, 295
Fujiyama, S. 727
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 898
absolute pitch 86–7
amusia 311–12
brain plasticity 331
film music 729
improvisation 672–3
musical expectations 286, 291, 297–8
planning and performance 534, 535
rhythm 358–61
functional neuroimaging 898, 900
absolute pitch 86–7
brain plasticity 326, 327, 328, 330
functions of music
approaches to 48–50
communication 48, 51–3, 54
cross-cultural perspective 47–56
evolutionary perspective 10
four principal 54–5
self-chosen, for listening 712
vs. uses of music 48
fundamental frequency 70, 75
Gabrielsson, A. 747–8, 753
Gagaku music, Japanese 23
Gagné, F. 438, 439
gait rehabilitation 825, 828, 844, 858–9
Galant style 658
Gallaher, M.C. 735
Galton, Frances 433
galvanic skin response see skin conductance
gamelan music 74, 778
Gardner, H. 440
Garlin, F.V. 790–1
Gaunt, H. 464
Gebrian, M. 345
Geiser, E. 361
gender differences
adult musicians 473
children’s singing 518–19
instrument choice 468–9
musical preferences 267
peak experiences 751
perception of emotional expression 223
school-aged musicians 469
student compositions 700
General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) 696
generative model, Todd’s 624
generative rules, GERMS model 598
generative theory of tonal music (GTTM) 107–8, 174
genetic drift 8
genetics 8
absolute pitch 81–2
musical ability 251, 433, 439, 910
Geneva Emotional Music Scale (GEMS) 208
genius 654–5
genres, music
bodily behaviors in performance 585–6
eliciting strong experiences 750–1
liberalization of attitudes 762–3
George, D. 264, 265
geriatric population see elderly
GERMS model 598
gestalt principles of perception 234, 894–5
law of prägnanz 151
rhythm 133–4
gestures
mothers singing to infants 389–90
by performers 575, 579, 580, 581–2
self-stimulating/adaptive 586
gifted children, musically 435, 439–40
parental support 496–7
Giordano, B.L. 116, 117
glances, between performers 575, 578, 579
Glass, R. 736
glissando 604–5
G major key 98, 99
goals, setting 481, 483, 484
Goebl, W. 624
Goldstein, Avram 240
Gomez, P. 189, 192
good continuation, principle of 73
goosebumps 190
Gordon, E.E. 435, 438, 440
Gore, J.C. 83
Gosling, S.D. 264, 267
Goswami, U. 348
Gould, Glenn 586–7
grammars, language and music 901–2, 908
grammatical models
improvisation 674
performance 623
Granot, R.Y. 225
Greasley, Alinka 266, 267–8, 269, 270, 272, 716
Greece, ancient 36, 224, 573
Greenberg, D.M. 769–70
Greenwood, Donald 235
Greenwood, J. 694
Gregory, A.H. 732
Gretry, A.E.M. 184
Grewe, O. 188, 189
Griffiths, Paul 240
Grolnick, W. 494
group engagement model 587
grouping principles, perceptual
pitch perception 72–3
rhythm perception 133
role of timbre 118–19
universals 21–2
groups
bodily behaviors of musicians 587–8
bonding/solidarity 10, 52–3, 55, 56, 423
music-makers in see ensemble performers
music psychotherapy 822
growth point theory 574
Guthmann, S.E. 691–2
habituation, fetal 375
Hagen, E.H. 10
Hagendoorn, I. 736
Haimson, J. 419
hair cells 64, 65
Hall, E.T. 587–8
Hallam, S.
concepts of musical ability 441–3
motivation to learn 483, 485, 486
practicing 436, 449, 451–2, 454, 455–6, 464
hand movements
brain areas representing 330, 331, 535, 538–9
conductors 579, 584
dystonic 539, 540
pianists 579–80
Hanslick, Eduard 216, 234, 236, 238, 240
happiness
as conditioned response 203
expression in music 601, 603, 604
induced by music 199, 200, 201
major mode expressing 219
strong experiences of music 750
happy music, bodily responses 185, 187, 189
Hargreaves, D.J.
consumer behavior and music 791, 794–5
musical communication 52
musical creativity 686
musical identities 765, 766
music psychology vs. education 879
reciprocal feedback model 263, 273, 275
harmonicity 73
harmony
childhood understanding 399–401
emotional expression 220
expectations 288–92
perception 72
perception in amusia 314
pitch patterns producing 71–2
Haroutounian, J. 441
Harwood, D.L. 202
Hatano, G. 402
He, C. 292, 293
head movements, communicative 583–4
health
benefits, community music-making 777
performing musicians 633–42
hearing
inner, sight-reading 551
physiology 64–6
prenatal development 373
heart rate (HR) 185, 186, 191, 203, 896
hedonism 237–8, 239, 750
Heidegger, M. 652–3
Heider, F. 726 (p. 929)
heightened tonal memory (HTM) 83
Heise, G.A. 73
Helmholtz, Hermann von 113–14, 235, 893
hemiparesis 812–13, 858, 859
Herbert, R. 720, 754
Heschl’s gyrus 326
Hess, Myra 563
Hettema, J. 464, 465
heuristics 797
Hevner, Kate 602
Hevner’s adjective circle 603, 895
Hewitt, A. 694
Hewitt, L.Y. 793–4
Hickey, M. 676, 702
hierarchical organization, music 95–100
higher education (HE)
individuality in learning 470
supporting music learning 515–18
Hinton, S.C. 419
Hirstein, W. 249
history of music psychology 893–902
home environment 493–503
motivating learning 485–6
musical development and 465–8
hominins, evolution 11–13
Honing, H. 890
Hopkins, M.T. 698
hormones, maternal 379–80
Hotson, L. 292, 293
housework, listening to music 715
Howe, M. 495
How the Mind Works (Pinker) 9
Huang, C. 694
Hughlings Jackson, John 307–8
Hume, David 37
Huron, D. 25, 205, 248
iconic memory 168
iconic signs 34–5
identities, musical 759–72
in applied contexts 770–1
concepts of musicianship and 762–4
definitions 760
development 764–8
ethical and conative dimension 761–2
expression in music 224
function of music 55, 56, 717–18
improvisation and 674–5
individual differences 768–70
musical preferences and 268, 769
music ensembles 587
musicians 470, 482, 483
as performative and social 761
personality and 769–70
identities in music (IIM) 760, 764
identities, music in (MII) 760–1
illusions, musical 574
Ilmoniemi, R.J. 289
imagery, music 823
imaging see neuroimaging
imagining 657–8
imbrication 884
immunoglobulin A, secretory (s-IGA) 191
implicit memory 169–70, 375–6
improvisation 667–76
body and 668, 671–2
by children 407, 675–6
composition and 658–60
constraints on 667–9
interaction, and identity 674–5
in jazz 669–71
models 673–4
neuroscience 672–3
research needs 911
Imreh, G. 454, 566, 581–2
independent learning, transition to 495–6
indexical signs, Peirce’s 35
Indian music 23, 74, 586
individual differences
adult musicians 470–3
bodily behaviors in performance 578
early years and home environment 465–8
emotional responding 209
impact of background music 780–1
interactionist approach 464, 465, 466, 467
learning musical skills 463–73
motivation to learn 481–4
musical identities 768–70
musical preferences 266–70
school years 468–70
training-related brain changes 333–4
individualist approaches
composition by children 687, 688
creativity 683–4
induced response 363 (p. 930)
infant-directed singing 344–5, 388
gestures during 389–90
infant preferences 388–9
infant-directed speech (IDS; motherese) 252, 387
evolution 11
gestures during 389–90
infant preferences 377, 388–9
learning of language 344–5
musical nature 387–8
phylogeny of musical behavior 371–2, 377, 378, 380
prenatal conditioning of responses 380
terminology 372
infant musicality 371, 387–93
innate vs. learned 378
neuroaesthetics 251–2
universals 26, 391–2
infants
bouncing 239, 389, 392, 735
individual differences in learning 465–8
interactions with mother see mother–infant interactions
language and music perception 344–5
memory for music 390–1
moving in time to music 392
musical expectations 292–3
musical identities 761–2
preferences for consonance 390
singing by 392–3
understanding of music 399–404
visual engagement with music 389–90
inferior frontal gyrus
amusia 311, 312–13
musicians vs. nonmusicians 328
syntax processing 349
information transfer 52, 53
In Harmony program 523
injuries, playing-related 633–8
prevention 636–8
treatment 635–6
types 634–5
innateness
infant musicality 378, 407
preference for consonance 390
rhythm perception 133, 134
inner ear 64–5
inner hair cells (IHCs) 64, 65
institutions
influence on practice 457
motivation of students 485
supporting learning 509–23
instrumental learning
institution-based 521, 522–3
motivation 482, 484, 485, 486
parental support 493–4, 495–7
time spent practicing 450–1
instrumental music, meaning in 37
instrumental performers
bodily behaviors 575–6, 577, 578, 579–80
communication with audience 583–4
playing-related injuries 633–8
instruments, musical
archaeology 11, 902
brain plasticity and specific 328–9, 538–9
factors influencing choice 468–9
gender stereotyping 468–9
identification via timbre 116–17
injuries related to specific 634, 635
orchestration 119–21
intellectual difficulties see learning difficulties
intellectual support, parental 496–7
intelligence, students’ theories of 484
intelligence quotient (IQ), transfer of music training 332, 418, 420–1
intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP), performance anxiety 641–2
intentionality 35
interest, induced by music 200, 208
inter-key distances 99–100, 101–2
internal models (neural) 533
international affective picture system (IAPS) 729
International Conference of Music Perception and Cognition (ICMPC) 878–9
inter-onset time intervals (IOIs) 126, 129, 131, 132, 134
interpretation, musical 597
developing 453
varied approaches 471
intervallic rivalry theory 145
intervals 98
emotional expression 220, 222 (p. 931)
intra-key hierarchies 97–9
modeling 101, 102–4
inverse-mapping model, poor pitch singing 309, 316
involuntary musical imagery (INMI) 24
irritation 208
Ishizu, T. 255–6
Ito, T. 188
Ivaldi, A. 41, 711
Iversen, J.R. 348, 362
Iverson, P. 119
Iwamiya, S. 727, 728–9
Jackendoff, R. 107–8, 174, 225
Jacobsen, T. 249–50
Jacques-Dalcroze, É. 734–5
Jäncke, L. 361, 576, 729
Japanese classical musicians 586
Järvinen, T. 670
jazz
communicative performance 586
improvisation 659, 669–71
Jentschke, S. 349–50, 400
Johnson, M. 35, 657
Johnson-Laird, Philip 673–4
joint accent structure (JAS) 136
joint action 52–3, 55
joint injuries 635
Jones, M.R. 130, 135, 136
Jørgensen, H. 450–1, 452, 453, 457
jouisance 653
Journal of Music Therapy 838, 839
joy 208
Juslin, P.N.
aesthetic judgment 205, 252
BRECVEMA framework 202–6, 207, 250, 275–6
emotional expression 349, 598–9, 601, 602–3, 604, 605–6
emotional responses to music 24, 200–1, 202
GERMS model 598
Kakigi, R. 289
Kaluli, Papua New Guinea 39, 51
Kämpfe, J. 790
Kant, Immanuel 37–8, 41, 233–4, 237, 240
Karajan, Herbert von 191
Kaschub, M. 681, 689, 701–2
Kaviani, H. 421
Keenan, J.P. 85
Keil, C. 52
Kenrick, D.T. 464, 465
keyboard players 329, 538–9, 577
see also pianists
key-finding models 144–9
combination approaches 148–9
distributional 145
empirical support 145–8
structural-functional 144–5
keys 97–100
anchoring tones 97, 99
distances between 99–100, 156
emotional expression 218–19
hierarchies within 97–9
memory for 175
MUSACT model 102, 103
profiles 97, 98
tonal pitch space theory 100, 101–2
Khalfa, S. 187–8, 192
kinematic models 623
kinematics, conductor hand movements 584
kinesthetic-image schemas 35
kinesthetic sense 531, 725–6
kin selection 8
Kirschner, S. 401
Kivy, P. 206–7
Kneiter, Gerard 252, 254
Koelsch, S.
harmonic perception in children 400
language–music relationships 343, 344, 345, 349–50
meaning in music 42
musical expectations 291
neural basis of music perception 253
processing emotions in music 204, 254
Kogan, N. 10
Konečni, Vladimir 235
Kopiez, R. 553, 554
Koutsoupidou, T. 407–8
Krampe, R.T. 436, 529
Kratus, J. 675–6, 689
Krause, Amanda 792–3 (p. 932)
Krumhansl, C.L.
dance and music 735
melodic processing 145, 152, 156
psychophysiological responses 188–9
tonal hierarchies 97, 99, 101, 105
Kulezić-Wilson, D. 729
Kurth, Ernst 225, 894–5
Lacan, J. 653
Lakoff, G. 35, 657
lamella 653
Lamont, Alexandra 270, 272, 716, 749–50, 767
Langer, Susanne 216
language
design features 344
evolution 12–13, 344
function of pitch 75
meaning in 34, 36
music as 902, 908–9
relationship with music 7–8, 10, 343–51, 908–9
semantics 350–1, 901
tonal see tonal languages
see also speech
language impairments
music processing 348, 349–50
music therapy 829–30
language processing
amusia 317–18
overlap with music processing 345–50, 901–2
transfer of music training 346, 349, 416–18, 778
Large, E.W. 128, 130, 131, 358, 362
Larsen, J. 188
Larson, S. 42, 225
Laski, M. 746, 751
Laukka, P. 349, 601, 606
learning
absolute pitch 82
background music and 779–82
deficit, amusia 316–17
family support for 485–6, 493–503
independent, transition to 495–6
institutional and teacher support 509–23
instrumental see instrumental learning
language and music 345
meter perception 131, 132, 133
motivation for 479–88
musical expertise and 436–7
parent–pupil–teacher interactions and 501–3
planning and performance 535–7
prenatal 375
rhythmic patterns 134
sight-reading 552–4
social 606
statistical see statistical learning
student composition in see composition by children
styles, school years 469–70
varied approaches 471
learning difficulties 778, 781, 811, 824
learning environment
individuality of musicians and 464–73
role in practice 457
Leary, T. 500
LeBlanc, A. 268, 272–3, 274, 766
Lebrun, M.A. 309
LeDoux, Joseph 236
Lee, J.I. 553
legato 221
Legg, R. 700
Lehmann, A.C. 452, 453, 550–1, 552, 553
leitmotif strategy, Wagner’s 203
lens model 607–8
expanded 608, 609
Lerdahl, Fred 100–2, 107–8, 174, 225
Leung, B.W. 700
Levelt, Willem 71, 235
Levitin, D. 190
Lewin, D. 882, 889
lexical tone agnosia, in amusia 318
lifespan approach, musical identity development 767–8
Liljeström, S. 272
limbic system 256, 532, 533
Lindström, S. 753
Lindström-Wik, S. 747–8 (p. 933)
linguistic memory 564
listeners
communication with see communication in performance
deep 750
determinants of musical preferences 266–70
interactions with music and contexts 271–6
listening to music 711–20
body work 714–16
brain work 713–14
emotional work 716–18
everyday, strong experiences and 754–5
at live events 718–19
musicianship of 763–4
self-regulation function 54
technological advances and 711–12, 907
travel 712–13
Liu, F. 318, 319
live events, attending 718–19
long-term memory (LTM) 169–71
associative nature 168
experiments addressing 174–6
musical form and 173
sight-reading 551
theories of 174
types 169–70
universals 24–6
Lopukhov, Fedor 734
Lord, A. 670
loudness
emotional expression 219, 222
speed of customer activity and 798
Loui, P. 317, 318–19
low pitch 70
Lowther, D. 402
Lubart, T. 695
lullabies 388
Lundin, Robert 235
MacDonald, R. 52, 675, 686, 765
machine-learning performance models 623, 625
Madell, Geoffrey 238
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
absolute pitch 85
amusia 310
diffusion tensor imaging see diffusion tensor imaging
planning and performance 534–5
magnetoencephalography (MEG) 900–1
amusia 312
brain plasticity 329, 330
musical expectations 294, 295
rhythm processing 361–3
Mailman, J. 881–2, 889–90
Mainwaring, J. 440
Major, A.E. 690, 696
major chords 98–9
major keys 97, 99–100
major mode, emotional expression and 218–19, 222
Malagarriga, T. 692–3
Malloch, S. 437, 761–2, 765
Mandarin Chinese 75, 318, 347
manual therapy, soft tissue injuries 636
Marcia, J.E. 765, 766, 769
Margulis, E. 881
Marks, L.E. 83
Marozeau, J. 115–16
Marshall, S. 726, 728, 729–30
Martindale, C. 272
Martino, G. 440
Maslow, A.H. 745–6, 750–1, 753
mastery learning 484
mathematical abilities 419–20, 778
McAdams, S. 115, 116–17, 118, 120–1
McAuley, D.J. 132
McClary, S. 40, 573
McClelland, J.L. 102
McDonald, K.L. 289
McGurk effect 574
McLean, K.C. 765, 769
McMullen, E. 343, 345
McNeill, D. 574
McPherson, G.E.
developing musical potential 436, 441
modal of musical giftedness 438–9
musical identity development 766–7
parental support for learning 437, 494, 496
meaning enhancement 712 (p. 934)
meaning in music 33–43
aesthetic perspective 37–9, 40–1
compared to language 7–8, 36
film scores 729–30
non-Western contexts 39–40, 43
psychological approaches 40–2, 43
social and cultural context 39–40
theories of meaning 34–6
Western intellectual tradition 36–7
measurement of performance 616–21
hardware 616–17
role in theories of performance 618–21
software and analysis methods 617–18
medical settings, music therapy 846–7, 857, 862–6
Mehrabian & Russell (M-R) model of environmental psychology 792, 793
Melen, M. 175
melodic accents 136–7
melodic contour
in melody perception 143–4, 150–6
models 149–50
in musical memory 152–6, 171–2
in perceptual organization 150–2
tonal hierarchies and perception 104–5
universals in processing 21–2
see also pitch contour
melodic intonation therapy (MIT) 829, 859–60
melodic processing 143–7
language processing and 347–8
models of tonality and contour 144–50
tonality and contour in 143–4, 150–6
melodic similarity, modeling 150
melody 143
childhood understanding 399–401
compound 72
emotional expression 220
expectations 288–92
memorization, tonal hierarchy and 105–6
memory 171–2
pitch patterns producing 71–2
recall 172
recognition 171
tonality see tonality
memorized performance 559–68
associative chaining 559, 560–4
content addressable memory 559, 564–8
sight-reading vs. 547–8
memory 167–71
activation 170–1
auditory 562
chunking 168, 173
content addressable 559, 564–8
echoic 168
emotional 563
encoding 167
episodic see episodic memory
expert 564–5
explicit 169–70
functional types 168–71
iconic 168
implicit 169–70, 375–6
linguistic 564
long term see long-term memory
motor 562
music training effects 421–3
semantic 169
semi-activation 171
short term 168
sight-reading and 550–1
structural 562–3
transnatal 375–6
visual 563
working see working memory
memory deficits
music therapy 810–11
see also dementia
memory for music 167–76
infants 390–1
melodic contour and 152–6
melody 171–2
rhythm 172–3
theories of long-term representation 174
tonality/tonal hierarchy and 105–6, 156, 172
Menard, E. 698
mental disorders see psychiatric disorders
mental health, benefits of community music 777
mental practice/training 455, 537
mental rotation task, amusia 315
mere exposure effect 204, 234, 271–2
Merker, B. 10
Merriam, Alan 6, 48, 56, 251 (p. 935)
meta-analysis 841
metacognitive strategies 456, 484, 781
meter
children’s understanding 401–2
defined 363
expectations 294–5
nonperiodic 23
universals 22
meter perception 125–33
dynamic attending theory 128–33
encoding theory 126–8
entrainment models 130–3, 358
infants 391–2
rhythm perception vs. 131, 133–4
metric binding hypothesis 128–30, 131
accent salience 136
evidence for 132
metric clusters 129, 130
metric hierarchies 125, 126
Metz, Christian 730
Meyer, Leonard 202, 204, 215–16, 285, 298, 897
Meyer, Max 234
middle ear 64–5
middle temporal gyrus (MTG)
absolute pitch possessors 87, 88
synesthesia 90
MIDI pianos 616, 617–18
mid-life crisis, young musicians 495, 498
Miell, D. 52, 686, 765
Mikiten, T. 807
Miklaszewski, K. 453
Miller, Geoffrey 9–10
Miller, George A. 73, 168
Millikan, R.G. 43
Milner, Peter 238
minor chords 98–9
minor keys 97, 99–100
minor mode, emotional expression and 218–19, 222
Minsky, M. 654
Mirbaha, H. 421
mirror neuron system 204, 237, 328, 537, 736
MIR Toolbox 617
mismatch negativity event-related potential (MMN) 286, 287–93, 332–3, 361
mistuned notes, perception 104, 400
Mitchell, R.W. 735
Mithen, S. 10, 52
Miu, A.C. 733
Miyazaki, K.I. 82
mode, emotional expression and 218–19, 222
modularity, emergent 343, 345
Monson, Ingrid 670, 675
Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) 308, 309
mood 198
induced by music 199–200
regulation, listening to music 716–17
Moore, K. 272
mordent 604–5
Morehouse, P. 699
Moreno, S. 418
mother–infant bonding 378–9
mother–infant interactions
evolution 10–11
expressive styles 606
musical identities 761–2
musical nature 387–8
phylogeny of musical behavior 371–2, 378–9
prenatal influences 380
mother schema, prenatal development 376–7
motion
perception in music 224–5
principles, GERMS model 598
motivation
for attending live events 718
cognitive factors 483–4
to compose 652–3, 700
environmental factors 481, 485–6
framework for understanding 479–81
individual factors influencing 481–3
lack of 487
to learn 452, 479–88
music therapy and 861
motor control
computational model 542
fetal 374
motor cortex
primary (M1) 531, 532, 535
secondary 531
motor homunculus 532
motor memory 562 (p. 936)
motor primitives 535
motor programming 576–7, 618–19
motor rehabilitation, music therapy 825, 828–9, 858–9
motor skills, fine 530
acquisition 535–7
brain plasticity 329, 538–9
motor systems
auditory interactions see auditory-motor interactions
body movements in performance 576–7
planning and performance 530–3
plasticity 327, 329, 538–9
rhythm perception 358–9, 360
movement, music and, therapeutic 822
moving images, role of music 726–32
moving in time to music
function of music 51, 53, 55
infants 392
role of expectations 294
universals 22–3
Mozart, W.A. 493, 547, 560, 658
Symphony no. 40, K. 550: 882, 883
Mozart effect 332
MP3 format 711–12
multimedia experience, music in 726–37
multiple sclerosis 811, 828, 844
Münsterberg, H. 726
MUSACT model 102–4
MUSCI (Musical Self-Concept Inquiry) 768, 769
muscle injuries, musicians 634–5
music, definition 50–1, 763
Musicae Scientiae (journal) 878
musical attention control learning (MACT) 830
Musical Creativities in Practice (Burnard) 685–6
musical disorders, cognitive see disorders of musical cognition
musical executive function training (MEFT) 831
musical mnemonics training (MMT) 831
musical neglect training (MNT) 831
musical sensory orientation training (MSOT) 830
musical speech stimulation (MUSTIM) 829
music analysis 880–90
Music-COMP project 691–2
Music Genres-Clips-Test (MG-CT) 266
musicians
amateur 472, 482
brain plasticity 325, 326–9, 538–9
defining 763–4
family influences 493–504
gender differences 473
health optimization 633–42
individual differences 463–73
language and music processing 346–8
mid-life crisis of young 495, 498
motivation 479–88
musical expectations 289, 290, 291
musical identities 470, 482, 483
peak experiences 751
perception of emotional expression 223
personality 472
productive vs. receptive 763–4
professional 471–2
psychophysiological responses 191
rhythm perception 360–2
roles of institutions and teachers 509–23
speech perception 416
views on expression 600
music information retrieval (MIR) systems 149–50
music in identities (MII) 760
MUSIC model 264, 267, 770
musicogenic meaning 42
Music Perception (journal) 878
music performance anxiety (MPA) 639–42
music theory 880–90
music therapy
bodily responses and 183–4
children 824–6, 862, 866
clinical practice 819–32
community music vs. 776
components 819–20
definitions 819, 839–40
geriatric population 826–7
history 820–1
medical settings 846–7, 857, 862–6
neurological disorders see neurologic music therapy (p. 937)
overlap with music psychology 879–80
pain therapy 715–16, 862–6
psychiatric disorders 821–4
rationales and models 805–14
treatment process 820
music therapy research 837–49
discipline 839–40, 841–7
foundational 840, 848–9
meta-analyses 790, 841
profession 840, 847–8
publications 838–9
quantitative and qualitative 839
reviews 840–1
Musikpsychologie (Kurth) 894–5
Näätänen, R. 289
Nadal, M. 254–5, 255
Nagel, J.J. 481
naloxone 240
National Association for Music Therapy (NAMT) 837
National Curriculum (NC), UK 520, 696
nativist fallacy 202
Nattiez, J.-J. 52
natural musical abilities (gifts) 439–40
natural selection 4, 8, 240
natural signs, Peirce’s 34–5
nature–nurture debate 909–10
absolute pitch 81–2, 90, 440–1
infant musicality 378, 387
musical potential 433–4
see also innateness
neo-hedonism 237–8
neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), music therapy 846
nerve compression disorders, musicians 635
Nettl, Bruno 6, 48, 49, 55, 659
neural excitation pattern 65
neuroaesthetics 247–56
defined 249
frameworks for research 249–52
historical development 247–8
philosophers vs. 248–9
review of research 252–6
neurobiology see neuroscience
neurochemistry
music 190, 254
pleasure 238
neurocinematics 725
neuroeconomics 298
neuroimaging
absolute pitch 85–6
aesthetic appraisal 253, 254, 255–6
amusia 310–11
history 898–900
musicians vs. nonmusicians 326–8
planning and performance 534–5
neurological disorders
musicians 635
music therapy see neurologic music therapy
neurologic music therapy (NMT) 806, 857–62, 899–900, 906
clinical applications 827–31, 858
cognitive rehabilitation 830–1, 860
outcome studies 844, 858–60
scientific models 806–14, 860–1
sensorimotor rehabilitation 828–9, 858–9
speech rehabilitation 829–30, 859–60
neurophysiological studies
absolute pitch 84–5
children 400, 401
language and music overlap 350–1
meter perception 132–3
musical expectations 132–3, 286–93
planning and performance 533–4
neuroplasticity see brain plasticity
neuropsychological studies, absolute pitch 89–90
neuroscience
absolute pitch 84–9
approaches to music therapy 806–14
disorders of musical cognition 310–13
future directions 908
history of research 898–901
improvisation 672–3
meaning in music 42
musical expectations 285–99
planning and performance 530–42
rhythm 358–64
newborn infants
language and music perception 344–5
musicality 378, 401
(p. 938)
Nichols, J. 700
Nietzsche, Friedrich 226, 894
noise, vs. music 51
nondiatonic tones 97, 101
non-diegetic music 727
North, A.C. 791–2, 793–5, 797–8
Northern Ewe culture, Ghana 509
nostalgia 200, 201, 204, 205, 208, 717
notation, music, perception 550
note density, emotional expression 218
nucleus accumbens 297
nursery rhymes 151
occupational settings, listening to music 714
Ockelford, A. 776, 881–3, 885–6
octave scrambling 171
odd-ball paradigm 84
Odena, O. 698–9
Office for Standards in Education (Ofsted) 519
Ohgushi, K. 348
older adults see elderly
Olds, James 238
olivocochlear system 65
omega sign 329
Omigie, D. 317
O’Neill, S. 41, 499, 711
ontogeny, musical behavior 371, 373–7
open-earedness, age-related changes 268, 404, 766
openness-to-experience 267, 424
open skills 547
opera 732–3
OPERA hypothesis (Patel) 346
operant conditioning, prenatal 380
opiates, endogenous 238, 240
oral motor and respiratory exercises (OMREX) 830
oral traditions 561
orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), aesthetic appraisal 255–6
orchestration 119–21
Origin of Species (Darwin) 3
ornamentation 96, 604–5
oscillations, neural
meter/rhythm perception 128–31, 134, 358, 362–3
musical expectations 287, 294–5, 296
Oura, Y. 402
outer hair cells (OHCs) 64, 65
overuse injuries 634–5
prevention 636–8
treatment 635–6
Overy, K. 348
Owen, K. 790–1
oxytocin 238, 379
Paananen, P. 403, 675
Paavilainen, P. 289
pain management, music for 715–16, 862–6
acute pain and stress 862–5
chronic pain 865–6
Palmer, C. 316
Pantev, C. 289
Panzarella, R. 746, 750–1, 753
Papageorgi, I. 516–18
paralimbic system 256
parallel 5ths and 8ves, avoiding 73
Paraskeva, S. 120–1
Paravicini, Derek 511–14, 515
parent–infant interactions see mother–infant interactions
parent–pupil–teacher interaction 499–503
categories 500, 501
control and responsiveness 499–500
differences among clusters of types 500–3
parents 493–504
behavioral support 495–6
cognitive/intellectual support 496–7
personal support 497–8
potential for conflict 498–9
prevention of performance anxiety 642
role in child’s motivation 485–6
supportive involvement 494–8, 503
parietal lobe 86, 327, 328, 531–2
Parker, Charlie 670
Parker, Evan 659
Parkinson’s disease (PD) 359, 828, 858, 859–60
Parncutt, R. 622
Partch, Harry 74
partials 64
Partti, H. 697 (p. 939)
part–whole transfer of training 454
Pasiali, V. 806–7, 811–12
Patel, A.D. 346, 348, 349, 350, 362, 364
patterned sensory enhancement (PSE) 812, 828–9
pattern-matching model, pitch perception 68–9
pauses, emotional expression 221
peacefulness 208
peak/strong experiences 745–55, 906
everyday listening vs. 754–5
factors influencing 750–3
in literature 745–7
nature 747–50
neurobiology 238, 295–7
study methodology 753–4
Pearce, M. 250, 254–5
peer group influences 485
Peirce, C.S. 34–5
pelog scale 74, 391
perception, music
grouping and segmentation 21–2
history of research 894–5, 897–8, 899, 901–2
influences of tonal hierarchies 104–7
melody 143–7
neuroaesthetics research 253
pitch 63–76
research needs 907–8
timbre 113–21
perceptual models, musical expression 623
perceptual span, sight-readers 550
Peretz, I. 13, 317
perfect pitch see absolute pitch
performance, musical
bodily behaviors 573–88
communication through see communication in performance
computational model 542
development in childhood 404–5
emotional expression 597–610
measuring 616–21
from memory see memorized performance
modeling 598, 621–5
musicological studies 625–6
music therapy 822
planning and 529–42
preparation strategies 455
performance anxiety, music (MPA) 639–42
performance arts, music in 725–38
performance cues 562, 566–8
performance plan 453
Performance Worm 624
periodicity pitch 70
Perry, M. 670
Persian music 74
personality
expression in music 224
impact of background music and 780–1
musical identity and 769–70
musical preferences and 266–7
musicians 472
music training and 423–4
peak experiences and 751–2
personal support, parental 497–8
personhood 761
Peruvian highland music 47, 49
Pfordresher, P.Q. 309, 316
phase locking 67
Phillips-Silver, J. 310
phonological awareness, music training and 416, 417
phrasing 622
phylogeny, musical behavior 371–2, 377–80
physical activity see exercise
physical force schemas 42
physical responses to music 183, 748–9
physiological measurements, performance 616–17
physiological responses to music 183, 896
dissonance 235
film scores 729
musical preferences and 269
music-evoked emotions 199
research findings 185, 186–7
physiological state, regulation 54
pianists
acquisition of motor skills 535–6, 537
bodily behaviors 577, 579–80
brain plasticity 329, 538
focal dystonia 534, 539, 540
measurement of performance 616, 617–18
parental support 495
practicing 450, 451
sight-reading 551, 552, 553
synchronized duets 580–1
(p. 940)
Piano Camera 616
Pinker, Steven 9, 657
pioneering axon theory 88
pitch
absolute see absolute pitch
awareness, in amusia 314–15, 318–19
children’s understanding 399–401
defined 63–4
emotional expression 219–20
expectations 288–92
features encoded in memory 171
frequency and 63–8
in improvisation 670–1
instrument identification and 117
intra-key hierarchies 97–9
patterns 71–2
proximity 25, 72–3, 150–1
relative 82
residue (periodicity, virtual, low) 70
scale-step context 171
in speech 75
structuring into scales 73–5
timbre relations and 115–16
pitch chroma 95
pitch classes 95, 101
pitch-class set analysis 880, 884–5, 888
pitch contour
emotional expression 220
expectations 289, 290
maternal–infant communications 345
melody perception 150–1
speech 75
pitch height 95
emotional expression and 219–20, 222
understanding in childhood 400
pitch intervals
chords 98
expectations 289, 290
in musical memory 171, 172
musical scales 97
pitch perception 63–76
amusia 314
auditory system physiology 64–6
childhood development 399–400
cochlear implant (CI) users 70–1
complex tones 68–71
higher-order processing and organization 71–5
pure tones 67–8
pitch reversal 25
Pitts, S. 482, 485, 486
place coding, frequency 65–6, 67–8
placental hormones 379–80
planning and performance 529–42
acquiring fine motor skills 535–7
brain plasticity 538–9
disrupted see focal dystonia
neuroanatomy and neurophysiology 530–5
Plantinga, J. 402
planum temporale (PT) 85–6, 326
plasticity, brain see brain plasticity
play 380, 653, 762
pleasure 238
aesthetic 233
from making music 486
musically evoked 239–40
pluralism 238–40
Plomp, Reinier 71, 235
Poehlmann, K. 188
polyphonic music, expectations 289, 290
polytonality, perception of 151
poor pitch singing 309
pop music, consumer behavior and 795–6
Porter, S.Y. 468
positive psychology 767
positron emission tomography (PET) 295–7, 898
absolute pitch 86
improvisation 672
planning and performance 534
posture, musicians 637
potential, musical 433–43
actualization 441–3
children with exceptional 434–5
differentiated model 438–9
measuring 438
natural musical abilities 439–41
nature–nurture debate 433–4
role of learning 436–7
Potter, J. 516–18
Pournaseh, M. 421
power 208
powerful impact of music 905–6
practice, musical 449–58, 529–30
acquisition of fine motor skills 535–6
age of starting 450, 529–30
deliberate 436, 451, 452, 529
effective, defined 449
individual differences 470
learning environment effects 457
metastrategies 456
monitoring effectiveness 455–6
motivation to 452
organization 452–3
parental support 495
planning strategies 452–3
quality 452–6
rehearsals in small groups 456–7
role in expertise 436–7
sight-reading 553
strategies for conduct of 454–5
variable 454
prägnanz, gestalt law of 151
praxis 761
precentral gyrus 531
predictive timing 294–5, 296
preference for prototypes theory 272
preferences, musical 198, 263–77
childhood/adolescence 267–8, 388–9, 404
degree 266
interrelations of factors shaping 271–6
listener-related factors influencing 266–70
musical identity and 268, 769
musical styles influencing 263–6
situations and contexts influencing 270–1
premotor area (PMA) 531, 532, 535
prenatal development 371–81
auditory and vestibular function 373
emotional responses 376–7
influences on postnatal behavior 380
research needs 910–11
Prespa Albanian song 49
Pressing, J. 26, 674
Price, H.E. 583
pride 200, 204
priming
background music-induced 792
memory 171
music perception 106–7
timbre perception in children 402
Prince, V. 441–3
private study, listening to music during 714
probe tone method 97, 99, 145–8
procedural knowledge 669
procedural memory 169–70
processing fluency theory of aesthetic pleasure 235
prodigies, musical 251, 434–5, 439, 440
production, music
development 401, 404–5
disorders of 308, 315
program music, emotional expression 223–4
prolactin 717
proof-reader’s errors 552
proprioception, prenatal development 374
prosody 36–7, 348
emotional 349
protomusical behavior 11, 372
prototypes
musical memory 175
theory of preferences for 272
proxemics 587–8
Pruett, K. 493, 498–9
pseudo-polyphony 72
psychiatric disorders
diathesis stress model 90
music therapy 821–4, 843–4
psychoacoustics 63, 654
psychobiological theory, Berlyne’s 40, 235, 272
psychocinematics 725
psychological health, performing musicians 638–42
psychology of music
history and research 893–902
interfaces with other disciplines 877–90, 912–13
meaning in music 40–2, 43
Psychology of Music (journal) 877–8, 879
Psychomusicology (journal) 878 (p. 942)
psychophysiological responses to music 183–93, 896
during chills 191
to emotions 186–8
inconsistency of findings 185–6
multivariate approaches 188–9
musical excerpt length and complexity 192
in musical performers 191
naturalistic settings 192
pain management 863–5
role of musical structures 189–90
psychotherapy
music 822
for performance anxiety 641–2
public transport, listening to music 713
pulse rate see heart rate
purchasing behavior, effects of music 795–6
pure data Director Musices (pDM) 624
pure tones 64, 67–8
qualitative music therapy research 839
quantitative music therapy research 839
Quinn, I. 149
ragas, North Indian 74
Raglio, A. 845
Ramachandran, V. 249
Randles, C. 702
random fluctuations, GERMS model 598
Rathunde, K. 496
rational-scientific mediating model (R-SMM) 806–11, 828
neurological foundations of music 808–9
physiological foundations of music 809–10
psychological foundations of music 810–11
Rauscher, F.H. 419
reality orientation therapy 827
recall
melody 172
rhythm 172–3
reciprocal feedback model of musical response (RFM) 263, 273, 275
recognition heuristic 797
recognition memory 170
reference, and meaning 33, 34
referentialism, vs. absolutism 215–16
refractory period, auditory neurones 67
rehabilitation
amusia 319
neurological disorders 829–31, 857–62
soft tissue injuries 636
rehearsal
evolution of bodily gestures 582
small group strategies 456–7
Reid, A. 471
relative pitch (RP) 82
relative timing 363
relaxation
listening to music during 715
musical, role of timbre 120–1
music therapy programs 823
religious faith 226
reminiscence 717, 827
Renkewitz, F. 790
Rentfrow, P.J. 264–7, 269, 271, 769–70
repetition, musical 235, 883
Repp, B.H. 362, 615, 617, 620
representative design 605–6
research
collaboration 912–13
historical development 893–902
methodological limitations 912
music therapy 837–49
residue pitch 70
resonance, neural 129, 131, 358
respiration
during chill responses 191
entrainment to tempo 186, 187
respiratory disorders, music therapy 809–10
rest, for overuse injuries 636
restaurants, background music in 795–6, 798
retail settings, background music in 789–99
Réti, R. 885, 888–9
retraining, for physical injuries 636
reward system 295–8
rhetoric, science of 36
rhythm
accelerating 23
children’s understanding 401–2
defined 363
emotional expression 221
expectations 294–5
in expert performance 620 (p. 943)
‘free’ 23
in improvisation 671
memory for 172–3
music therapy and 808–9, 860
rhythmic auditory stimulation (RAS) 825, 828, 844, 859
rhythmic entrainment see entrainment
rhythmic groupings 125, 126
rhythmic speech cuing (RSC) 829, 859
rhythm perception 133–5, 357–64
infants 391
meter perception vs. 131, 133–4
models 357–8
neuroscientific studies 358–64
RICH (retrograde inversional chain) 882, 889
Rickard, N.S. 763–4
Riley, P. 692
ritardando 623
ritual 6, 49, 380
rondo form 235
Roseman, M. 50, 54
Rosenberg, J.C. 348, 350
Ross, B. 289, 291
Ross, D.A. 83
Ross, S.L. 455
Rothschild, I. 225
roughness, auditory 120, 121
Rousseau, J.-J. 51, 344
Royal College of Music, London 890
Rubinstein, Anton 568
rule-based models
expressive performance 623–4, 625
rhythm perception 357–8
Rumelhard, D.E. 102
Rytkönen, M. 289
Saarinen, J. 289
sad music
bodily responses 185, 186, 187–8, 189
pleasure from listening to 206–7, 717
sadness 208
expression in music 601, 603, 604
induced by music 200, 201, 204
Saffran, J.R. 343, 345
Sagan, O. 421
Sahasrabuddhe, Veena 54
Saldanha, E.L. 116
Savage, J. 696
savants, musical 251, 434, 435
case example 511–14, 515
Sawyer, R. Keith 675, 683–4
scale illusion 151
scales, musical 74–5, 95
infant sensitivity 391
memory for music and 172
scary music see fearful music
Schäfer, T. 264, 265, 266, 271
Schellenberg, E.G. 332, 402, 403, 420–1, 765, 769
schemas, memory 169, 170, 171, 560–1
Schenck, D.L. 735
Schenker, H. 884–5
Scherer, K. 733
schizophrenia 843
Schlaug, G. 85, 317
Schmuckler, M.A. 145–8, 149, 152, 153–5, 156, 157
Schoenberg, A. 74, 117, 652, 653, 884
Schön, Daniele 349
schools
background music 779–82
benefits of music-making 778–9
composition by students 682–3, 689–99, 700–2
learning music skills 468–70
motivating students to learn 485
supporting music learning 519–22
Schopenhauer, Arthur 226, 893–4
Schouten, J.F. 70
Schröger, E. 289
Schubert, E. 207, 273–5, 603
Schwarzer, G. 417
Scruton, Roger 38
Seashore, Carl 256, 438, 616, 894
sedative music 184, 185
Seddon, F. 456–7, 675
Sedlmeier, P. 264, 265, 266, 790
segmentation, perceptual 21–2, 174
self, incremental theory of 494
self-concept (self-image) 50, 761
development 765
dimensionality of musical 768–9
role in motivation 482, 483
self-determination model 794
self-determination theory 494, 766–7 (p. 944)
self-efficacy beliefs 482
self-esteem 761
self-identity 761
self-system 761
semantic memory 169
semantics, language and music 350–1, 901
semantic theories, meaning 34, 35, 38
semiotics 35, 52
sense, and meaning 33, 34
sensitive (critical) periods
absolute pitch development 82
music training 330, 530
sensorimotor rehabilitation, music therapy 828–9, 858–9
sensory homunculus 532
sensory motor systems, plasticity 538–9
sequential auditory streaming 72
serial changes 135
serial time spans 125, 126
serotonin 190, 254
sexually differentiated roles 9–10
sexual selection 4, 8, 240
Shaffer, L.H. 577, 616, 618–19
shared syntactic integration resource hypothesis (SSIRH) 349
Shavinina, L.V. 435
Shibazaki, K. 698
shivers 189, 190, 239
short-term memory (STM) 168
Short Test of Musical Preferences (STOMP) 264, 267
revised (STOMP-R) 264–6, 268
Siebel, W.A. 345
sight-reading 547–55
eye movements 548–50
inner hearing 551
learning 552–4
memory processes 550–1
problem-solving processes 551–2
signature tunes, maternal 387
significance, of music 33
Silverman, M. 761
Simmel, M. 726
Simonton, D.K. 727, 732
simultaneous auditory streaming 72
sine tone 64
singers
bodily behaviors 575–6, 577–8, 586
communication with audience 583–4
singing
benefits of community-based 777
communication via 54
development in childhood 392–3, 404–5, 466–8
distinction from speech 51–2
gender differences 518–19
gender stereotyping 469
infant-directed see infant-directed singing
poor pitch 309
therapeutic (TS) 830
therapeutic value 809–10
Sistema-type programs 523
sketches, composer’s 660
skills, musical
development 404–5, 437
individuality in learning 463–73
innate, in infancy 378, 407
role of memory 169–70
skin conductance 187, 188, 191, 199, 583, 896
Skov, M. 249
slendro scale 74
Slevc, L.R. 345, 350
Slobin, M. 39
Sloboda, J.A.
chills/strong experiences 189, 751, 752, 753
composition 653, 654, 658, 660, 883
experience sampling method 41, 711
features of a research program 249, 256
memory for music 172
music education vs. music psychology 879
parental support 495
practicing 451, 453
sight-reading 548, 550, 552
small-world networks, absolute pitch subjects 88–9
Smith, B.K. 115
Smith, J. 681, 689, 701–2
Snowball (the cockatoo) 364, 737
Snyder, J.S. 358, 362
Soares, J. 694
social behavior, evolution of human 12–13
social bonding/cohesion
functions of music 52–3, 55, 56
human evolution 10
musical preferences 268 (p. 945)
music-making in schools 779
music training and 423
social context
emotional responses to music 200–1
musical form reflecting 225–6
musical meaning 39–40
musical preferences 270
strong experiences with music 752–3
social dance 736–7
social development, music therapy interventions 826
social ecology theory 510
social-emotional skills, music training and 423–4
social functions of music 906
cross-cultural perspective 47–56
evolutionary aspects 6, 10–11
social learning 606
social psychology of music 791
social science model, music therapy 805
sociocentric self 50
socio-cultural approaches
composition by children 687, 688
creativity 683, 684–6
solfège instruction 82
solo performers, bodily behaviors 575, 577–8, 580, 581–2, 585
somatization/somatoform disorders 636
somatosensory area, primary (S1) 531–2
somatosensory feedback 531
somatotopic representation 532
song see singing
Sosniak, L.A. 495
sound
music as 6
nonmusical vs. musical 51
perception see hearing
source identification 116–17
source identity, recognition 116–17
Spackman, M.P. 727
spatial abilities
amusia 315
music training effects 418–19
special musicians 251
specific language impairment (SLI) 348, 349–50
spectral centroid 115
spectral flux 115
spectral irregularity 115
spectrum, emotional expression 219
speech
distinction from song 51–2
function of pitch 75
infant-directed see infant-directed speech
production, in amusia 318–19
rehabilitation 829–30, 859–60
see also language
speech perception
in amusia 317–18
music training and 416–17
speed of customer activity, effects of music 798
Spencer, Herbert 4, 606
Spencer’s law 606
spiral-array model of tonality 148–9
sportspeople, listening to music 715
spreading activation 273–5
Spychiger, M.B. 768–9
stability, musical, tonal hierarchy and 106
staccato 221
Stalinski, S.M. 403
standard paradigm, emotional expression 600–1
statistical-ideographic approach 209
statistical learning
amusia 316–17
language and music 345, 349
musical structures 25–6
prenatal 375
steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs), rhythm perception 362–3
Steedman, M. 674
Steinbeis, N. 350
stereotyping
gender-appropriateness of instruments 468–9
music fans 268–9
Stewart, L. 317
stimulative music 183–4, 185
psychophysiological responses 189–90
Stoeckig, K. 106
Stravinsky, Igor 216, 657, 660, 662, 669
Petroushka 151
streaming, auditory 72–3, 119 (p. 946)
stream segregation, auditory
melody perception 150–1
pitch perception 72, 73
role of timbre 119
strength training 637–8
stress
maternal–fetal communication 379
music for alleviating 862–5
performing musicians 191, 638–9
stretching 638
striatum 295–8
Stringham, D. 701, 702
string players 329, 472, 538–9, 577
see also violinists
strong experiences see peak/strong experiences
Strong Experiences with Music Descriptive System (SEM-DS) 747, 748–50, 754
Strong Experiences with Music (SEM) project 747, 751, 752, 753–4
structural-functional models, key-finding 144–5
structure, musical
aesthetic value 235
children’s understanding 402–3
defined 215
emotional expression and 218–23
expression and communication in performance 615–26
hierarchical, in Western music 95–7
memory for 562–3
music theory/music psychology interface 885–90
other referential meanings 223–6
performance modeling and 622
psychophysiological responses and 189–90
statistical learning 25–6
Stumpf, Carl 235, 894
styles, musical
children’s understanding 404
consumer behavior and 795–7
liberalization of attitudes 762–3
preferences for 264–6
stylistic unexpectedness, GERMS model 598
subcortical processing, language and music 346–7
Sugarman, J.C. 49
Sundberg, J. 623–4
superior longitudinal fasciculus 87–8
superior temporal gyrus (STG)
absolute pitch 85–7, 88
amusia 311
pitch perception 66
superior temporal sulcus (STS), absolute pitch 86–7
supplementary motor area (SMA) 531, 532, 535
surface, musical, in memory formation 173, 174, 175
surprise 204–5, 208
Suzuki method 332, 494
Swain, D. 419
Swami, V. 267
Swiss army knife metaphor 237–8
symbolic communication training through music (SYCOM) 830
symbolic domain 35
symbolic representation 55
synchronization
childhood development 401
emotional responses to music 199
ensemble performances 580–1
syncopations 751
synesthesia 89–90, 657
syntax, language and music 349–50, 908
systematic design 606
systematic reviews 840–1
systems theory 499, 510
tachistoscopic presentation 550
taksim, Turkish 23
tal 22
Tan, S.-L. 727
tapping 22, 128, 363
taste, musical 263
Taylor, Cecil 659
teachers, music
attitudes to composition 698–9
career pathways 471–2
influence on practice 457
motivating students 485, 486
parent and pupil interactions 499–503 (p. 947)
supporting learning 509–23
teaching, composition in schools 689–91, 701–2
technique, maladaptive 637
technology
impact on availability of music 711–12, 762, 907
use in composition by children 693–5
teleosemantic theory 43
television, music in 725, 730
Temiar, Malaysia 47, 50
Temperley, D. 881
tempo
bodily responses and 186–7
children’s understanding 401–2
defined 363
emotional expression 218, 222, 604
practicing to increase 454–5
sight-reading studies 549
speed of consumer activity and 798
temporal accents 136–7
temporal coding, frequency 67–8
temporal coherence boundary 73
temporal lobe 673
temporal model, pitch perception 68–9
temporal structures
children’s understanding 401–2
nonperiodic 23
universals 22–3
see also meter; rhythm
tenderness 200, 208, 601, 603
tendon injuries, musicians 634–5
tension
evoked by music 200, 208
musical 120–1, 221–2
Tenzer, M. 26
Terv