Abstract and Keywords
Bodily responses to music include an array of physiological and physical processes. Collectively called psychophysiological responses (PR), a term that recognizes the important role of the mind, these bodily reactions are of interest to music psychologists, especially as they relate to musical emotions. Current efforts to determine linkages between PR and musical emotions are meeting with mixed results. Some are unable to connect specific emotions and PR, while others have done so. An example of the latter is the finding that activation of zygomaticus (smile) muscles during music listening may be an indication of a positive emotional response. Recent trends include the examination of: (1) numerous PR to identify multivariate patterns, (2) musical structures that may mediate specific PR, (3) biochemical responses to music, (4) chills, and (5) PR among musical performers. Future research should focus on naturalistic settings and the length and complexity of musical excerpts.
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