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date: 21 November 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter distinguishes three modes of immanence and transcendence with reference to God: cosmological, epistemic, and ethical. Immanence affirms, while transcendence denies that God is contained within the world, and thus within the limits of human reason, or within the norms and resources of human society and culture. Hegel serves as the model of immanence within the nineteenth century. He affirms that spirit is the ultimate reality, and it turns out that he means the human spirit in its social constructions, its cultural self-understanding, and its historical unfolding. We can call this a humanistic pantheism. Kierkegaard develops the model of transcendence in the form of a personalist theism. God is personal as an agent (not merely a force or cause) and a performer of speech acts. As such God is a reality independent of and transcendent to human life in all its forms.

Keywords: immanence, transcendence, cosmology, epistemology, ethics, G. W. F. Hegel, Søren Kierkegaard

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