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date: 05 December 2020

Abstract and Keywords

For theological education, the nineteenth century was one of the most creative and tumultuous periods in the history of Christian thought. Patterns of both deconfessionalization and theological renewal, changes in Church–state relations, the rise of the modern research university in Berlin, and new fields like religious studies all contributed to the displacement of theology as the ‘queen of the sciences’ in the wake of the Enlightenment, the French Revolution, and the Napoleonic era. This chapter examines some of the major developments, including the institutionalization of Protestant theology in the modern research university, key issues confronting Catholic scholarship, and the inception of the seminary in North America. Finally, it discusses the challenges modern academic theology faced in its increasing appeal to the political community of the modern nation-state and the academic community of science, rather than Christianity’s historic creeds, confessions, and traditions of ecclesiastical authority.

Keywords: theological encyclopaedia, academic theology, theology as science, modern research university, religious studies, seminary, history of higher education, history of universities, theological education

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