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date: 03 July 2020

(p. 733) Index

(p. 733) Index

Abbas, Ferhat 301, 305
’Abd al-Hamid ibn Badis 559
’Abd Allah al-Ta’ayishi 557
’Abd Allah Hasan, Muhammad 558
’Abd al-Qadir 478, 558
Abdelkrim 308
’Abduh, Muhammad 560
Abdülhamid II 48, 49
Abe, Shinzo 722
Abuja Proclamation (1993) 714, 715
Abyssinia 353
Aceh 422, 559
Acheampong, Colonel Ignatius Kutu 648
Achebe, Chinua 707
Things Fall Apart 8, 471
Acheson, Dean 428
Adams, Melinda 524, 529
Aden 75, 377, 464
Adler, Victor 36
Adoula, Cyrille 149
‘Manifeste de la Conscience Africaine 151
Advisory Committee on Education in the Colonies (1941) 522
Advisory Committee on Social Welfare (1943) 541
Afandi (Javanese artist) 399
Afghanistan 428
Africa 423, 424
African Bureau 459
African National Congress (ANC) 419, 465
anti-colonialism 446
British presence 67, 69, 71, 73–4, 77, 79, 485–6
Cold War and decolonization 488–9
East Africa 105, 526
Equatorial Africa 462
French presence 91, 93, 94, 485, 486
gender: nationalism, development and welfare colonialism 520, 521
German presence 103, 104, 107, 108–10, 116
humanitarianism and human rights 457
Africanization 471
African National Congress (ANC) 320, 363, 364, 419, 465
Afro-Asianism 447
Afro-Asian People’s Solidarity Organization (AAPSO) 447
Agency for Cooperation and Research Development (ACORD) 471
Ageron, Charles-Robert 305
Ahmad I ibn Mustaf (Bey of Tunis) 304
Ahmad, Muhammad 557
Ahuja, Ravi 254
Ainu (now Hokkaido) 213, 216
al-Afghani, Jamal al Din 560
al-Assad, Bashar 385
al-Azhari, Ismai’il 562, 564
Albania 51–2, 355
al-Banna, Hasan 560–1
Aldrich, Robert 692, 714–30
The Last Colonies 694
al-Fasi, ’Allal 564
Algeria 85–6, 88–90, 92, 94–8, 299–300, 304, 312, 320, 491
administrative ties to France 305
Algerian People’s Party (PPA) 300, 301, 308, 313
Arid Zone 377
Association of the Reformist ’Ulama 559, 564–5
centres de regroupement 504
(p. 734)
Cold War and decolonization 483–4
Communist Party (PCA) 301
Compagnie Generale Transsaharienne (CGT) 313
Constantine Plan 310–11, 542, 547
Constitution of 1963 313
Egyptian support 310
Etoile nord-africaine (ENA) separatist organization 301
Evian Accords (1962) 296, 303, 311
French Communist Party 491
French presence 85–6, 88–9, 90, 92, 94, 95, 96, 97–8
French Red Cross 460
French settlers 306–7
gender: nationalism, development and welfare colonialism 525
General Union of Algerian Muslim Students 308
governance 314
humanitarianism and human rights 461
independence 310
Jonnart Law (1919) 305
labour migration 301
lecons reçues 375
Libyan support 310
literature 702, 703
Manifesto (Ferhat Abbas) 305
Mouvement National Algérien 507
National Liberation Army (ALN) 308, 499
National Liberation Front (FLN) 17, 112, 295–6, 300, 303, 308–11, 313, 327, 483–4, 499–500, 502, 504, 562, 564–5, 602–3, 608–9
National Movement (MNA) 303
Ordinance (1944) 305–6
Organisation Armée Secrète (OAS) 303, 499, 603
People’s National Army of Independent Algeria 308
pieds-noirs 605, 606
post-colonial migrations to France 301, 602, 607, 608–9
refugees 583, 587
Regency of Algiers 300
repressive developmentalism 542
resettlement camp system 504
revolution (1954) 478
self-determination 303, 426
Sétif, seizure of 320, 478–9, 562
Specialized Administrative Sections 547
Thousand Socialist Villages plan (1973) 547
ulama 301
Young Algerians 300
al-Hajj ’Umar Tal 558
al-Hudaybi, Ismai’il 560
Ali, Mohamed 254
All-African Peoples’ Conference (1958) 155
All-African Women’s Conference (1972) 527
Alleg, Henri: La Question 702
Allied General Order No. 1 283, 285–6, 288, 289
All-India Students’ Federation 15
Allman, Jean 525
al-Mahdi, ’Abd al-Rahman 564
Almeida Santos, António de 172
al-Mukhtar, Omar 127
al-Qadhdhafi, Muammar 137, 565, 569, 727
al-Sadr, Muhammad Baqir 568
al-Sanusi, Muhammad Idris 562, 563
al-Sharif al-Sanusi, Ahmad 558
al-Tha’alibi, ’Abd al-Aziz 564
Altringham, Lord 376
Ambedkar, B.R. 444
Americas: French presence 91, 93
Amnesty International 114, 455, 459, 462, 466, 467
Anatolia 47, 53–4, 56, 58–9
Anderson, Benedict 222, 401
Anderson, David 504, 718
Anderson of Swansea, Lord 681
Anglo-Egyptian treaty (1936) 67
Angola 170, 326, 328
aldeamentos 504, 548
Bakongo people 165–6
Communist Party 165
Cuban aid 489, 490, 492
Cuban troops withdrawal 364
development plans 627–8
model villages 540
National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) 166, 173–4, 488–9, 507
(p. 735)
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) 166, 173–4, 488–9, 507
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) 165–6, 173–4, 339, 488–9, 490, 507
Portuguese presence 162–6, 169, 173, 175, 486, 488
post-colonial migrations to Portugal 602–3
refugees 588
repressive developmentalism 549
SGB 640
South African presence 488
Anguilla: British presence 680, 682, 685
Annam: French presence 95
Ansari, Sarah 266
Antarctic Treaty Area 693
anti-Bolshevism 36
anti-colonialism 1, 6, 7, 436–48
accommodation and self-rule 437
Africa 446
armed resistance 438
conferences 446
everyday life/everyday forms of resistance 437–40
geographic scale 438
intellectual history 440–4
peasant consciousness 439
radical thought and activism 436
self-determination 437–8, 441–2, 446
as statecraft and diplomacy 444–8
Subaltern Studies 439–40
summitry 446
unionization and labour strikes 439
Antigua: Labour Party 338
anti-Judeo-bolshevism 36
anti-Semitism 36, 104, 125, 580, 583, 585, 587 see also Holocaust by Nazi regime
Antonescu, Ion 186
apologies, restitutions and compensation 714–30
act of apology 719–23
apology and acknowledgement distinction 721
compensation 715, 726–8
concentration camps 722
confession, contrition, penance and absolution 719
confronting the colonial past 714–19
crimes against humanity and war crimes 715, 719
cultural property, acquisition of 724
death marches 722
displacement of populations 715
dispossession 714
ethics, morality and responsibility 719
extra-judicial executions 178, 714, 715
forced labour 722
Fourth World of stateless nomadic and tribal populations 717
frontier wars 715
genocide 718–19
gulags 718
holocausts 718
human remains, return of 725
land rights 715, 717
legal, financial and electoral repercussions 719
legitimate rights to a particular object 725
museums 724–5
pillage and plunder 714, 718, 723
racism and social disparity 717
rape of Nanking and comfort women as prostitutes (Japan) 718, 722
removal of children from their families 718, 719
reparative politics 715, 728–30
restitution of artefacts 714, 723–6
sexual abuse 718
slavery and slave-trading 714, 715, 716, 717, 720, 727
social activism and identity politics 716
social, cultural and economic disenfranchisement 717
statements of remorse, varying forms of and wording 720
torture 714, 715, 717, 718, 729
Arab Bureau of the Maghreb 308
Arabia 375, 377, 381
Arab League 308, 383, 502
Arab Red Cross 8, 472
Arendt, Hannah 106
Argentina 667
(p. 736) Arid Zone 373–86
Advisory Committee on Arid Zone Research 383
air policing 375
anti-colonial nationalism 376–7
Bedouin 375, 381, 383, 385
Central Arid Zone Research Institute (Jodphur) 383
cheap energy provision 382–3
costs of transformation 380
customary law 381
dam and irrigation projects 378–9, 386
demographic balance 386
denial: boosting habitability 382
desert administrators 375
desertification/desertification control 378, 384
detribalization 381
Egyptian Desert Institute 383
emptiness and remoteness as valued assets 379, 382, 383
environmental pollution 384
Karakum Canal project and Aral Sea disaster 378
land access rights 384
mega-engineering projects 379
military bases/installations 377, 379–80, 384
military testing 386
Ministry of the Sahara (Paris) 377
national resource 382
nomadic pastoralism 374, 383 see also Bedouin above
nuclear testing 379–80
Organisation Commune des Régions Sahariennes (OCRS) 377, 380, 382
Project GROMET - seeding clouds to break drought 378
safe havens 385
Sahara research station (Algeria) 383
sedentarization 381–2
self-determination 381
test facilities and research stations 379, 384
tribal law 381
tribal problems 375
ungoverned spaces 385
weaponized rainfall 378
weather modification experiments 378
Armenian people 53, 55–6
Arndt, H.W. 622
Aruba 338
Ascension: British presence 680, 681, 684, 686
Ashridge Conference on Social Development (1954) 541
Asia 446
British presence 69, 70, 71
French presence 86, 91, 92–3
German presence 104
Japanese presence 212, 214, 217, 219, 278–86 see also East and South-East Asia
Asianization 471
Association of North African Muslim Students (AEMNA) 307–8
Astrom, Sverker 463
Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal 312
Atkinson, Edward 200
Atlantic Charter 562
Attlee, Clement 69, 74, 251, 264
August, Bille: Goodbye Bafana 670
August Revolutions in India and Russia 281
Aussaresses, Paul 717
Australia 729
Aboriginal land rights 717
Arid Zone 379
British presence 67, 78, 81
Department of Foreign Affairs 426
Forgotten Australians (child migrants) 719–20
Mabo decision (1992) 717
McCulloch Tariff (1865)(Victoria) 203
Nauru 429
Papua New Guinea 429
Stolen Generations 719, 730
Wik decision (1996) 717
Austria 184
Austro-Hungarian Empire 29–30
Auxiliary Territorial Services (ATS) 344
Awakening of ’Ulama 561
Azikiwe, Nnamdi 353
Azores 691
Babu Abdulrahman Mohamed 444
Baghdad Pact (1955) 447
(p. 737) Bailken, Joanna 530
Baker, Christopher 259
Balafrej, Ahmed 308
Balbo, Italo 127
Balfour, Arthur 482
Balfour Declaration (1917) 30, 482
Balkans 28, 47, 50, 181, 582
Balkan Wars (1912–13) 45, 50–3, 585
Balogh, Thomas 354
Baltic States 31, 35, 37
Bamba, Abou B. 632, 633
Bamba, Amadu 558
Bandeira Jerónimo, Miguel 537–49
Bandele, Biyi: Half of a Yellow Sun 670
Bandung Conference (Asian-African Conference) (1955) 13–14, 76, 225, 326, 351, 444–7, 666
Bandung Declaration 359
Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar 265
Bangladesh Relief Assistance Committee 471
Banjul Charter on Human and People’s Rights 429
Bao Dai 292
Barbados 337, 487
Barelwi, Sayyid Ahmad 559
Barkatullah, Maulana 560
Barre, Siad 565, 569
Bartman, Saartje 725
Ba, Saer Maty 665
Basu, Bipasha 671
Batavophone islands 338
Batra, Ritesh: Lunch Box 672
Baudouin, King 146–7, 154
Bautis, Marta: Home is the Struggle 668–9
Bayly, Christopher 261–2, 279
Bayly, Susan 397
Bay, Muhammad Al Munsif 312
Beg, Ya’qub 239
Bek, Hamza 558
Belarus 183–4, 185, 186, 189, 190
Belgium 318, 319–20, 326
Société Générale de Belgique (SGB) 153, 639, 647, 651, 652 see also Congo
Belgrade conference of non-aligned states (1961) 447
Ben Bella, Ahmed 309, 311, 563, 566
Benenson, Peter 459, 460–1
Beneš, Edvard 35
Bengal 258–60, 262
Ben Messali Hadj, Ahmed 442
Bennett, John 69–70, 71, 80
Ben Youssef, Salah 309, 312
Berg, C.C. 404
Berlusconi, Silvio 727
Bermuda: British presence 680, 681, 682, 684, 690
Bernard, Paul 644
Bessarabia 186
Bessel, Richard 29
Beti, Mongo: Main basse sur le Cameroun 702
Betts, T.F. (Jimmy) 461–2
Beuve-Méry, Hubert 484
Bevin, Ernest 72
Bhashani, Maulana 265
Bhattacharya, Sanjay 259
Bhutto, Zulfikar Ali 569
Biafra 114–15, 328, 457
Bidault, Georges 293
Bieri, Alain 463
Bird, Vere 338
Blackaby, D.H. 343
Blackbourn, David 106–7
Blackburne, Kenneth 338
Black Power 716
Bloch, Marc 90
Bloembergen, Marieke 391–407
Blum, Léon 87
Bolshevism 36
Bonaire 333
Dutch presence 690
Bongie, Chris 711
Bongo, Omar 328
Bonneuil, Christophe 624
Bosch, Frederik D.K. 401, 403
Bose, Chandra 281
Boubeker, Ahmed 615
Boumediene, Houari 310, 313, 429, 563, 569
Bourgès-Maunory, Maurice 484
Bourguiba, Habib 300, 308, 309, 312, 426, 562, 563, 566
Bowman, Andrew 631–2
Boyer, Jean-Pierre 340
(p. 738) Boyle, Danny: Slumdog Millionaire 671
Bradley, Lloyd 346
Bradshaw, Robert 337
Braine, Bernard 687
Brandt, Willy 112, 716
Brazzaville conference (1944) 87, 94, 700
Briggs, Cyril 354
Britain 27, 65–81, 520, 678–90, 694
Aden 75
Africa 67, 69, 71, 73–4, 77, 79, 485–6
Anglo-American partnership 66, 69, 70, 72, 77, 79, 81
Anglo-Egyptian treaty (1936) 67
Anglo-Japanese Alliance 218
Asia 69, 70, 71
Australia 67, 78, 81
Black People’s Day of Action (1981) 344
Burma 70
Canada 67, 78, 81
Caribbean 69, 71, 74–5, 337, 340–1, 343, 347, 487
Chagos islands and dispute with Mauritius 682–3
China 70–1, 234, 244
citizenship rights 681
Cold War 477
Colonial Development Act (1929) 541, 624
Colonial Development Corporation (CDC) 626
Colonial Development and Welfare Act (1940) 318, 520–1, 541, 625
Colonial Office see Colonial Office (Britain)
Colonial Research Service 545
Commonwealth and Immigration Acts (1962 and 1968) 343, 608
Conservative government 74, 75, 77, 79
Coordinating Committee Against Racial Discrimination (CCARD) 344
Cyprus 75–6, 77, 79, 678, 679, 681, 684, 686, 689
defence agreements 79
defence and aid 689
Department for International Development (DfID) 689
Dependent Territories 681
Diego Garcia 681, 684, 685, 686
Egypt-Suez Canal Zone and Suez Crisis 67, 69, 76–7
enforced deskilling and employment inequalities of migrants 343–4
exceptionalism 66
export earnings 72
film and cinema 661, 663
Foreign Affairs Committee of the House of Commons Human Rights Annual Report (2008) 685
Foreign and Commonwealth Office 421, 726, 727
globalization 65–6
Gold Coast (Ghana) 71, 72, 74, 76, 77, 79
Guiana 487–8
Honduras (Belize) 487
Hong Kong handover to China (1997) 69, 681
humanitarianism and human rights 457, 461
imperial exceptionalism 65
imperialism 66, 67, 78–80
imperial reassertion and liberal and illiberal imperialism 71–6
India 65, 67, 68, 70, 71, 72, 73, 81
Ireland 67
Jamaica 74–5, 77, 680
and Japan anti-Russian alliance (1902) 214
Kenya 73, 75–6
Kuwait 77
Labour government 69, 70, 74
liberal imperialism 65
Malaya 68, 70, 71–2, 75–6, 77
Malta 77
Mediterranean 71
Middle East 66, 67, 69, 71–2, 75, 77, 81
Military Administration 68
national identity 689–90
Nationality Act (1948) 343, 606–7
New Zealand 67, 78, 81
Nigeria 71, 72, 77
non-self-governing territories 678
North Borneo 77
Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) 74
nuclear missile development 72
Nyasaland (Malawi) 74
Overseas Food Corporation (OFC) 626
(p. 739)
Overseas Service Aid Scheme 79
Overseas Territories Act (2002) 681
Pakistan 65, 72
Palestine 71
post-colonial migrations 602, 608, 609–11
post-war developmentalism 72
Sarawak 77
Second World War and aftermath 68–71
self-determination 419–20, 422, 425, 426
Singapore 68, 77
Solomon Islands 680
South Africa 67, 78, 81
Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) 74
sovereignty disputes and displaced populations 682–3
Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 70
Tariff Reform movement 203
Trinidad and Tobago 74–5, 77, 680
tropical Africa 317, 318, 319–20, 323–5
British Antarctic Territory (BAT) 679, 680, 681, 689, 693
British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) 679, 681, 682, 685, 689
British Virgin Islands (BVI) 680, 682, 684
Brown, Gordon 719
Buettner, Elizabeth 601–15
Bugeaud, General Thomas Robert 98
Buisseret, Auguste 154
Bulgaria 33, 353, 360
Burbank, Jane 124–5, 139, 437
Burma 70, 281, 479
Burnham, Forbes 488
Burns, Alice 70
Burstall, Dr Sara 522
Burton, Antoinette 525
Bush, Barbara 519–30
Butler, Smedley Darlington 340
Cabral, Amilcar 166–7
Caetano, Marcello 162, 167, 169, 627
Cain, Peter 196
Calder, John 461
Cambodia 291, 481
French presence 95
Cameron, David 721
Cameron, James: Avatar 671
Cameroon 323, 326, 523, 702
French presence 90, 95
Campbell X
Fem 669
Stud Life 669
Camus, Albert 469
Canada
British presence 67, 78, 81
Conservative Party National Policy adoption (1879) 203
Galt Tariff (1859) 203
and United States 199, 203
Canary islands: Spanish presence 690
Cape Verde
Carnation Revolution (1974) 603
Portuguese presence 162, 172
post-colonial migrations to Portugal 613
Carde, Jules 622
Carey, Henry Charles 203
Carey, Mathew 203
Caribbean 333–47
American presence 195, 197, 202
anti-colonialism 343–7
black music and Calypso 345–6
British presence 69, 71, 74–5, 337, 340–1, 343, 347, 487
destruction of indigenous society 334
Dutch presence 333, 338, 690
economics and neo-colonialism 340–3
micro-states 338
migration 343–7
natural disasters 338
poets and writers and intellectual class 344–5, 346
repopulation 334
revolutions and constitutional change 335–9
tourist trade structural inequalities 341–2
women as political campaigners 344
Carter, Jimmy 488, 489–90, 492, 493
Casparis, J.G. de 396
Castelo, Cláudia 628
Castro, Fidel 339, 345, 489–90, 492, 704
(p. 740) Catherine II, empress 353
Caucasus 187, 188
Cauvin, André 154
Cayman Islands: British presence 680, 681, 682, 684, 685
Ceauşescu, Nicolae 364
Cecil, Lord 353
Central African Federation 156
Central Europe see Eastern and Central Europe
Centre for Political and Social Studies of the Overseas Provinces Research Board 545
Césaire, Aimé 89, 340, 346, 443, 701, 704, 707, 708–9
Cahier d’un retour au pays natal 705
Discours sur le colonialisme 705
Tragédie du roi Christophe 709
Ceuta: Spanish presence 690
Chad 377, 385
Chadha, Gurinder: Bride and Prejudice 671–2
Chadwick, Justin: Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom 670
Chagos islands and dispute with Mauritius 682–3
Chahine, Youssef
Cairo Station 669
Destiny 669
Chakrabarty, Dipesh 252, 439
Chakraborty, Abin 14
Chakravarti, N.P. 400
Chamberlain, Joseph 203, 622
Champalimaud group 641
Chandavarkar, Rajinarayan 257
Charles X 340
Chatora, Charles 463
Chatterjee, Bijan Raj 402
Chatterjee, Ramananda 402
Chatterjee, Sunit Kumar 397
Chatterji, Joya 251–69
Che Guevara 15, 113, 151, 339
Chelmsford, Viceroy Frederic Thesiger 255
Chiang Kai-shek 242–5, 263, 278, 282, 284, 285–6, 288–9
Chilembwe, John 441
China 231–45, 277–8
anti-imperialist nationalism 241
anti-Japanese communist forces 282
bilateral relations with Germany and United States 243
Boxer Uprising 236–7
British presence 70–1, 234
British retreat (1926) 244
civil service exams 237
Communist Party 241–2, 245, 282, 284–5
Communist victory (1949) 277
competition over land and resources 235
Confucianism 232, 234, 235
constitutional reform edict (1906) 237
co-opted traditional elites 233–4
demographic growth 235
divide and rule policy 239
dynastic collapse (1911) 244
economic depression 235
Eight-Nation Alliance 237
examination system 235
extraterritoriality abolition (1943) 244
First Opium War (1839–42) 234
First World War 241
French defeat of Chinese fleet 236
gunboat diplomacy 242
Han 232, 233
imperialism 240
International Settlement 241–2
Japanese presence 213–14, 217–20, 231, 233–4, 236, 241, 244–5, 276, 277, 278, 280
Korean presence 236, 285
Lifanyuan (Court of Frontier Dependencies) 233
local legal systems 233
Long March 278
Manchukuo 243
Maritime Customs Service 240
massacres 238
May 4th Movement (1919) 241, 243
May 30th Movement (1925) 242
Mongolian presence 233, 240
most favoured nation status 240
Mozambique rebels, aid to 478
multiple kingship 233
Nanjing Treaty (1842) 234
(p. 741)
Nationalist Party 231, 241, 242–3, 244, 245, 284–5
neo-Confucianism 232
New Policies (Xinzheng) 237–8, 240
Northern Expedition 242–3
North Korea, support of 277
nuclear testing at Lop Nor, Taklamakan 379
provincialization 239–40
Qing dynasty (Manchuria) and its demise 231–40, 243, 245, 278, 285
Red Army 285–6
Revolution (1911) 240
revolutionaries 238
Rhodesian rebels, aid to 478
Russian presence 278
self-determination 424
self-strengthening initiatives 235
Shanghai and Tianjin International Settlements 234, 285
Shanghai and Tianjin, Japan’s appropriation of 244
Shimonoseki Treaty (1895) 236, 243
Sino-French conflict (1884) 236
Sino-Indian War (1962) 447
state/society gulf 238
state-sponsored modernization 238
Taiping Rebellion 235
Taiwan 236, 239, 285
territorial leaseholds acquired by Russia, France, Germany and Britain 236
Tibet, occupation of 233–4, 240, 245
unequal treaties 234, 240, 243
United States involvement 241, 278
Uyghurs 233
Vietnam 285
Vietnam, support of 277, 478
Western techniques, use of 235
Xinjiang 233, 236, 239–40, 245
Zongli Yamen 237
Chirac, Jacques 716, 729
Chraïbi, Driss: Les Boucs 709
Christian Aid 460, 466
Churchill, Winston 36, 74, 262, 263, 285, 419, 477–8, 557
Clay, Henry 203
Clerides, John 460
Cleveland, Grover 200, 201, 202
Cobban, Alfred 424
Cobden-Chevalier Treaty (1860) (Britain and France) 202, 203
Cobden, Richard 200
Coedès, George: The Indianized States of Southeast Asia 406
Cold War 477–93
Africa (1970s) 488–9
Algeria 483–4
first wave 479–81
globalization of anti-colonial conflict 5, 11–15
last round 489–90
looking back 490–3
Middle East 481–3
second wave: sub-Saharan Africa 484–7
Western hemisphere 487–8
Collier, Paul 499
Collins, M. 343
Colombo Powers 13
Colonial Office (Britain) 73, 78, 522, 528–9
Agricultural Development In Africa Conference (1949) 541
Rural Economic Development Conference (1953) 541
Social Welfare Advisory Committee 520
Commission for the Protection of Individual Rights and Freedoms 509
communism
Algeria 301
Angola 165
Communist International (Comintern) 442
Eastern Europe 352, 354, 356, 359–60, 362–4
France 485, 491
India 266
Italy 135, 137
Japan 217, 219
Thailand 282
Vietnam 282, 287, 290, 293
concentration camps 110
Conference of Women of African and African descent (1960) 526
(p. 742) Congo 144–58
ABAKO 152
ANC party 147–8, 152
anti-colonialism 150
ASAC 544
BALUBAKAT 152
carte de mérite civique 152
Catholic Church and missions 151, 153–4
centres indigènes extra-coutumier 540
CEPSI 543
Charte coloniale (1908) 146
Christian education 154
Cold War 156–8
colonial administration 153
colonial enterprises 153
colonial issues 153–5
CONAKAT 152
Congo crisis 144–5, 146–9, 156
Congo-Katanga secession dispute 328
diversity and size of colony 151
Dragon Noir operation 149
Dragon operation 149
Ekafera 542
Fonds du Bien-Être Indigène (FBEI) 542, 548
Force publique 147, 153, 154, 548
foyer social - psychodrama and sociodrama 544
FULREAC 543
immatriculé or évolué status and 1953 decree overhauling granting of 152
imprisonment and banishment to agricultural penal colonies 154
independence (1960) 486
INÉAC 543
Institut de Sociologie Solvay 543–4
inter-empire issues 155–6
IRSAC 543
Kimbanguists 151, 154
Kitawala Team 548
Leopoldville riots 152
local developments 149–53
mining sector 149–50, 155, 157
MNC/MNC-K/MNC-L 147, 152
Mobutu coups (1960 and 1965) 148, 149, 158
Morthor operation 149
nationalism 150
ONUC 147, 149, 157
OTRACO 544
paternalistic policies 145
paysannats 627
paysannats agricoles 548
paysannats indigènes 540, 544, 547–8
plan décennal (1949–59) 149, 543, 548, 641
political parties, emergence of 152
political rights, denial of 150
politics, marginalization of women from 151
post-colonial migrations from Congo 602, 611
PSA 152
publications, debates in 151
Queen Elizabeth Fund for Medical Assistance to the Congo (FOREAMI) 540
Rumpunch operation 149
self-determination 151, 424, 425
Société Générale de Belgique (SGB) 153, 639
state of emergency 149
UMHK 152
United Nations 147–8
United States involvement 148, 157
voluntary associations and debates 151
Watchtower (Kitawal) movement 151
Connell, John: The Last Colonies 694
continuity thesis 252, 268
‘contradiction thesis’ 88
Cooke, Paul 661–73
Cooper, Frederick 89, 124–5, 139, 317–29, 393, 422, 437, 439, 613, 621, 624, 628–9, 634
Costa Gomes, Francisco da 168–9, 171, 173
Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast) 328
CFAO 643
Kossou hydro-electric dam 632
Parti Africain de l’Indépendance 323
RDA 323, 324
SCOA 643
Council of Regency in Warsaw 31
Coupland, Sir Reginald 65, 73, 80
Cowen, Michael 622
Craggs, Ruth 698
(p. 743) crimes against humanity and war crimes 57, 715, 719
criminal justice model 505
Cripps, Stafford/Cripps Mission 263
Croce, Benedetto 123
Cronin, Stephanie 375
Cuba
African intervention 347
Algeria and aid for FLN 339
alliance with Angola and MPLA 339
casino culture 342
Eastern bloc support 357
films and cinema 666, 667
PAIGC, assistance for 339
soldiers to Southern Africa 478
Soviet aid 492
Spanish-American War (1808) 335
United States presence 202
victory over South Africa 490–1
Cunningham, Kathleen Gallagher 499
Curaçao 333
Dutch presence 690
Curzon, Lord 33, 401, 681
Cyprus
British presence 75–6, 77, 79, 678, 679, 681, 684, 686, 689
National Organization of Cypriot Fighters (EOKA) 12, 460–1, 502
refugees 581, 583, 586, 587, 589, 591
Czechoslovakia 34–5, 37, 358
German occupation (1938) 353
National Committee 30, 31
Dadié, Bernard
Îles du tempête 709
La Ville où nul ne meurt 710
Patron de New York 710
Un nègre á Paris 710
Dakhlia, Jocelyne 312
Damais, Louis Charles 393–6, 400, 403–5, 406
Damas, Léon-Gontran 443
Poètes d’expression française 1900–1945 705
Retour de Guyane 702
Danquah, J.B. 321–2
Dar al-Islam 568
Dar-es-Salaam 468
Darwin, John 90, 689
d’Aspremont Lynden, Harold 157
Davis, Diana K. 373
death marches 722
De Casparis 403, 406
Decker, S. 643
decolonization
effective 454, 470
formal 454, 470–1
phases 470
second wave 470–1, 472
Decolonization Committee 428
Defense of Rights Association 58
de Gaulle, Charles 86, 94, 285–6, 288, 290, 303, 319, 339, 481, 484, 485, 499, 603
Del Boca, Angelo 138
democratic universalism 19
Denikin, General Anton: ‘Volunteer Army’ 35
Denis, Ernest 30
Denmark
Faroe Islands 691
Greenland 691, 712
Dennison, Stephanie 665, 666
Depretis, Agostino 123
De, Rohit 267
Dessalines, Jean-Jacques 333
Devasundaram, Ashvin 672
development 621–34
before settlement 622
colonial financial self-sufficiency 623
cooperative mechanization 631–2
economic crisis (1970s and 80s) 621
Great Depression 621, 623–4, 634
as guiding principle and administrative practice 8
human side of development - education and public health 623
ideology 627
infrastructure 626
land settlement schemes 628
land utilization schemes 627
late colonial developmentalist state (1930s-60s) 623–8
Lusotropicalism 627
as a means by which progress may be ordered 622
modernization 622
(p. 744)
origins of colonial developmentalism 622–3
plans 627
post colonial developmentalist state (1960s-70s) 628–34
post-war reconstruction 625–6
redeployment patterns of former personnel 633
rural modernization schemes 628
second colonial occupation after 1945 626
Second World War 621, 624
state planning and administrative services 625
strikes and riots 624
trusteeship 622–3
Devji 265
Devlin, Larry 157
Dewey, C. 255
Dexter, Helen 500
De Zwaan, Tjeerd 721
Dia, Mamadou 327
Diego Garcia: British presence 425, 681, 684, 685, 686
Diegus, Carlos: Ganga Zumbas 666
Dietrich, Christopher 428
Dillon Brown, J. 334
Dimier, Veronique 520, 633
Diop, Alioune: Présence Africaine journal 707
Diplomatic Conference on the Reaffirmation and Development of International Law (CDDH) 467, 468–9
displacement/forced removal of populations 1, 45, 182–3, 188, 344, 497, 504, 510, 584
after Lausanne treaty 592
India 587
Nazi regime and Jews 580, 583, 585, 587
Ottoman empire 52, 55
Russia 586
sub-Saharan Africa 587 see also population exchanges
Dixie Mission 282
Djajadiningrat, Hoesein 398
Dmowski, Roman 181
Doctors Without Borders 114
Dodds, Klaus 687
Dominican Republic 335
Dominik, Hans 116
Dovey, Lindiwe 662
Dubois, Laurent 442
Avengers of the New World 335–6
Dubois, Thomas David 10
Dulles, Allen 157
Dulles, John Foster 478, 480–1
Durah, Rajinder 665
Durnovo, Peter 179–80, 185
Dutschke, Rudi 112, 113–14
Dutt, Utpal: Invincible Vietnam 15
Duvalier, François 342
Dwyer, Rachel 670, 671
Dyer, General Reginald 256
East Africa 526
German presence 105
East-Central Europe 27, 31–3, 35, 37 see also Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe 351–65
academic institutions, proliferation of 356
anti-imperialism 356, 359–62
civilizational racism 359–60
Cold War 362
colonialism 362–4
Communist regimes 352, 354, 356, 359–60, 362–4
connections, creation of 355–7
Fascism 353
globalization 357
intelligence training and energy products, focus on supply of 358
internationalism in theory 352–5
military aid 358
professional expertise 356
remaking the global economy 357–9
self-determination 356
Soviet control 351
tripartite industrial projects in Africa and Middle East 359
(p. 745) East and South-East Asia 276–96
Chinese presence 277–8
Cold War 276–7, 286–95
First World War 276
global wars and decolonization 276–7
Japanese empire, rise of 277–8
Japanese imperial defeat and contested sovereignties in Asia 282–6
Japanese presence 219
Japanese wartime surge across Asia 278–82
Second World War and break up of Asian-Pacific imperial states 276, 277–86
Vietnam 286–95
East Timor 427
and Indonesia 426
Japanese presence 279
Portuguese presence 162, 163–4, 174, 175
Revolutionary Front of Independent East Timor (FRETILIN) 174
Eboué, Félix 319
Eckel, Jan 418
Eckert, Andreas 102–16
Eden, Anthony 74–5, 76, 77, 361, 567
Egypt
Anglo-Egyptian treaty (1936) 67
Arid Zone 375, 381, 382
Aswan Dam 379
British presence 67, 69, 76–7, 327
Free Officers Group 562, 563
French and Israeli invasion attempts 327
Suez Canal Zone and Suez Crisis 67, 69, 76–7, 379
Eichmann, Adolf 716
Eight-Nation Alliance 237
Eisenhower, Dwight D. 156, 157, 310, 478, 480–1, 484, 491–2
Eisner, Kurt 36
Ekpo, Margaret 525
Elkins, Caroline 485, 491, 718
Emmanuel II, King (later Emperor) Victor 128
Employment and Conditions of Work of African Women 522
Equatorial Africa 462
Eritrea: Italian presence 125–6, 128–9, 131, 133–4, 137
Erzurum Congress (1919) 57–8
Estonia 32, 353
Etambala, Zana Aziza 145
Etemad, Bouda 125
Ethiopia: Italian presence 123–4, 127–35, 137–8
Ethiopia-Eritrea secession dispute 328
Etzdorf, Hasso von 104
Europe 27–37, 424
Austro-Hungarian Empire 29–30
Balkan states 28
Baltic States 31, 35, 37
Britain 27
Bulgaria 33
Czechoslovakia 30, 31, 34–5, 37
Dual Monarchy 29–30, 37
East-Central Europe 27, 31–3, 35, 37
empires during World War I 28–31
Estonia 32
Finland 32
France 27
Germany 29
Germany-Austria 33
Habsburg Empire 27, 29–30, 35
Hohenzollern Empire 27
Hungary 33, 35
imperial paradox of 1918: dissolution and expansion 31–7
Lithuania 32
Poland 30, 31–4, 37
Romania 34
Romanov Empire 27–8, 32–3, 35–6, 37
Ukraine 32, 35
Weimar Republic 33, 37
Western Europe 27
West Galicia 35
Yugoslavia 34, 37 see also East-Central Europe; Eastern Europe
Evans, Martin 483
Evian Accords (1962) 296, 303, 311
exclusive economic zones (EEZs) 682, 686, 693
extended continental shelves (ECSs) 693
failure to decolonize 679–81
Faisal, Emir 56
Falkland Islands: British presence 488, 680, 681–2, 683, 685, 687–8, 689, 690, 693
(p. 746) Fanon, Frantz 340–1, 440–1, 443–4, 509, 564, 663, 699, 701–2, 703, 704, 705–6
The Wretched of the Earth 112–13
Fascism 220, 353
Fatton, Robert Jr 336
Faulkner, William 472
Fay, Jennifer 663
Fedorovna, Alexandra 184
Ferdinand, Franz, Archduke 53
Fieldhouse, D. 640
film and world cinema 661–73
African cinema 669
armed guard by revolutionary guerrillas 667
black and queer filmmakers 669
Bollywood 664, 668, 670–3
Bongowood in Tanzania 670
Brazil’s Cinema Novo 666
cinema of resistance 666
cultural imperialism 662
diversification 672
documentary tradition 666
European auteur film-making 667
experimental and underground film-making 666
film festivals 667, 670
film history and colonialism 661–4
Film Studies programmes of Western universities 668
First Cinema 667–8
French nouvelle vague 666
‘Gaekwar incident’ 661, 663
government information films 663
historical dramas 670
Hollywood 662, 664
Hollywood and Bollywoodization 671–2
Hollywood and China link 672–3
Hollywood ‘Dream Factory’ 673
Hollywood independent subsidiaries 672
Indian Indie or hatke 762
Indian Parallel Cinema 668
Italian Neorealism 665, 666
Kanywood in Nigeria 670
makeshift underground cinemas 667
Middle Cinema 671
mobile cinema units with translators 664
mode of exhibition 664
Neorealism 668
new forms of counter-culture 669–73
Nollywood from Nigeria 670
Parallel Cinema 671, 672
regional film cultures and modes of production 672
Riverwood in Kenya 670
Second Cinema 667
Slow Cinema in Mexico 665
soft power 662
spectatoral schizophrenia 663
Third Cinema 666–9, 671
Third World Cinema 666, 668
US Indie films 672
Vendawood in South Africa 670
video-based high-volume production industries 670
womens’ film-making 668–9
World Cinema 672
Finland 32
Finot, Louis 403
First World Festival of Black Arts (FESMAN) 708
Fischer, Joschka 104
Flagler, Henry 342
Flaiano, Ennio 124
Fletcher, Robert S.G. 373–86
flying geese theory 225
Ford, Gerald 426, 492
Forsdick, Charles 697–711
Foucher, Alfred 401, 403
France 27, 85–98, 520
Africa 91, 93, 94, 485, 486
Ancien Régime 92–3
Asia 86, 91, 92–3
associated states 607
Brazzaville conference (1944) 87, 94
CFAO 640
Chinese fleet, defeat of (1884–5) 236
citizenship and equality 94, 95, 96
Code de l’indigénat (native code) 94, 98
Cold War 477
collectivités d’outre-mer á statut particulier 691
colonialism 90
Colonial Loan Acts (1931) 625
(p. 747)
colonial rule of law 92
Comité central de la France d’Outre-mer 645
Communist Party 485, 491
conflicting visions 86–9
constitutions 92–7, 607
counterinsurgency 88–9
equality and difference 96–7
exclusive economic zones 693
FERDES 625
FIDES 625, 626
Fifth Republic 93, 95
films and cinema 662
Foreign Ministry 92
Fourth Republic 92, 93, 94, 95
Françafrique 88
Franco-Algerian War (1954–62) 717
Franco-Vietnamese War (1945–54) 277
Free French administration 94
French Community 93
French Constitutional Council 97
French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789) 418, 442
French Muslims/Islamism 85
French Southern and Antarctic Lands (TAAF) 693
French Union 93, 94
Gaullism 88
globalization 88
High Colonial Council 93
humanitarianism and human rights 457, 461
Iles Éparses (Scattered Islands) 692
imperialism 90
Labour Code (1952) 628
Lamine-Guèye Law (1946) 94, 96
Les Indigènes de la République 715–16
literature 700, 707
Loi-cadre (1956) 95
Mandates 92
Manifesto of the Natives of the Republic 85
Ministry of Colonies 92
Ministry of the Interior 92
Ministry of Overseas France 625
Ministry of War 92
multi-layered process 90–1
National Assembly 93, 94
National Front 85, 613
nationalism 88
‘necessity of history’ 86–8
Négritude 443
neo-colonialism 86, 88
nuclear testing in Sahara 379
Office de la Recherche Scientifique Coloniale 545
overseas departments 90–1, 94, 95, 97, 607, 691
overseas peoples 96–7
overseas states 95
overseas territories 90–1, 94, 95, 97, 607, 691
paternalism 86
Popular Front 318
Popular Front: Blum-Viollette plan (1936) 88
post-colonial migrations to 602, 607, 608–9, 611, 613
Protectorates 92
regionalism 97
repressive developmentalism 538
SCOA 640
Second World War 93–4
self-determination 93, 97, 425, 426
Senatus-Consulte (1854) 93
special laws and rules 93
special legislation 92–3
systemic discrimination 92
Third Republic 93
Union Française 92, 94
unity and diversity 92–6
violence 97–8 see also Algeria
Franz Joseph, Emperor 29
Frederick the Great, king 353
French Polynesia 97, 690, 691, 692
Freyre, Gilberto 162, 627
Frick, Caroline 336–7
Friendship and Alliance Treaty (China and Russia) 285–6
Froude, J.A. 203
Fund for Economic and Social Development (FIDES) 542
Fund for Population Activity 461
Furnivall, J.S. 259
Gabriel, Teshome H. 666, 668
Gairy, Eric 337
Gallagher, John 8, 195
Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand 256–8, 263, 440–1
Indian Home Rule 443–4
Gangoly, Ordhendra Coomar 397
Garvey, Amy Ashwood 525
Garvey, Marcus 321
Garvey movement 321
Gasprinski, Ismai’il 560
Gates, Scott 507
Gat, Julien 148
Gatrell, Peter: A Whole Empire Walking 183
Geeraerts, Jef: Gangrene 154
gender: nationalism, development and welfare colonialism 519–30
colonial welfare and development policies 520–1
divide and rule tactics, gendered 525
economic development 524
female education 521–2, 526
feminist orientalism 520
feminization of international organizations 527
funding issues 524
gender discrimination 524
gender roles and relations 52
international feminism 520
international humanitarianism 520
nationalism 521, 525
patriarchy 523
political consciousness 527
political status 525–6
post-independence nation-building 525
powerful female agency needing to be controlled 524
status of women, raising 523
training for colonial wives 527–9
Geneva Conventions (1949), revisions of and Additional Protocols 9, 75, 467, 468, 472, 510
genocide 102, 104, 106, 498, 500, 585, 716, 718–19, 727
George, Edward 339
Georges-Picot, François 30
Gerlach 504
German Democratic Republic (GDR) 352, 355, 358, 360–1
Berlin Wall, fall of 363
Germany 29, 102–16
Africa 103, 104, 107, 108–10, 116
Africans, status of in post-colonial Germany 108–10
Asia 104
Askaris 107
bilateral relations with China 243
Bill of Rights 589
‘Black Horror on the Rhine’ 108
black revolutionaries 108–9
Cold War 104
colonialism: prefiguring the Third Reich 105–7
colonial legacy 115–16
colonial racism 104
colonial revisionism: interwar years 105–10
concentration camps 110
contract workers from Mozambique and Angola 115
economic exploitation 104
Federal Constitution (1949) 589
Federal Ministry for Expellees, Refugees and War Victims 589
films and cinema 662–3
Foreign Office 108
‘Generation of the Scholl Siblings’ 112
German Africa Show 109–10
German-German relations 111
German Society for the Study of Natives 108
‘guest workers’ from Turkey and Southern Europe 104
Hallstein Doctrine 111
Herero genocide in Southwest Africa 102, 104, 106, 116, 500, 718, 720
Holocaust and anti-semitism 102, 103–4, 106
Nama genocide 500
National Socialism 102, 106, 112, 114
nation state 103
Nazi regime 102, 103–4, 106–7, 109, 319
Negro Bureau 109
Nuremberg Laws 110
(p. 749)
payments to Jews after the Holocaust 715
post-colonialism 102–3, 116
race anxieties 108
Red Army Faction (RAF) 113
refugees 587
Reich Theatre Chamber 110
reparations agreement to Israel for atrocities committed by Nazi regime 716
and Russian/Romanov Empire 183–4, 185, 188
social historical studies 103
Sonderweg 103, 106
student movements 111–13, 114–15
Third World 111, 115
Versailles Treaty 105, 108, 110, 116
Weimar National Assembly 105
Weimar Republic 105, 107
Germany-Austria 33
Gerwarth, Robert 27–37
Getino, Octavio 668–9
The Hour of the Furnaces 667
Towards a Third Cinema 667
Ghatak, Ritwik
A River Called Titas 668
Reason, Debate and a Story 668
Ghosh, Durba 15
Giap, Vo Nguyen 290–4
Gibraltar: British presence 679, 681–2, 683–4, 685, 688, 689, 690, 693
Gide, André 707
Gilroy, Paul 345, 615
Gingeras, Ryan 43–60
Giolitti, Giovanni 126
Girard, Philippe 336
Gizenga, Antoine 148, 149, 152
Gleijeses, Piero 339, 477–93
Glissant, Edouard 705
Monsieur Toussaint 708
globalization
and decolonization relationship 5, 15–18
post-colonial (post-war) 15
Global South 351, 352, 354–5, 358, 359, 362, 418
Glubb, Sir John 376–7
Gmelch, George 341–2
Gold Coast (Ghana) 318, 321–2, 325, 328
Ashanti Goldfields Corporation 648
British presence 71, 72, 74, 76, 77, 79
Convention People’s Party (CPP) 417
films and cinema 664
National Liberation Movement (NLM) 417
United Gold Coast Convention 321
Goldwyn, Samuel 662
Gonard, Samuel 462
Gonsalves, Ralph 726
Goodwin, Richard 487
Gordimer, Nadine 707
Gordon, April 523
Goscha, Christopher 276–96
Gould, William 266
Gowon, General Yakubu 328
Gracey, Douglas 288–9
Gramsci, Antonio 134, 439
Graziani, General Rodolfo 127
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere 220, 223, 279–80
Greece
Greco-Turkish War (1919–22) 36, 585
refugees 584, 585–6, 588–9, 592
Greene, Graham: The Comedians 342–3
Greenhill, Sir Dennis 683
Grenada 335
United Labour Party 337
Griaule, Michel 707
Grierson, John 666
Grieveson, Lee 663
Griffiths, D.W.: The Birth of a Nation 662
Grimm, Hans: ‘Nation without Space’ 107
Grob-Fitzgibbons, Benjamin 75
Group of 77 429
Grove, Richard 373
Grzimek, Bernhard
No Place for Wild Animals 111
Serengeti Shall Not Die 111
Guadeloupe
French presence 91, 94, 97, 691
Liyannaj Kont Pwofitasyon protestors 338
post-colonial migrations to France 609
Guam 423
American presence 198, 278, 282, 690, 691
Guantanamo base - United States/Cuba treaty 488
Guha, Ranajit 439
(p. 750) Guiana
CIA intervention 487–8
French presence 91, 94, 97, 691, 692
Kourou Space Centre 692
Guinea-Bissau 170, 324, 326, 588
African Party for the Liberation of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) 162, 166–7, 172
independence (1974) 488
Portuguese presence 162, 166–8, 169, 175, 486, 548–9
post-colonial migrations to Portugal 602–3
gunboat diplomacy 213–14, 217, 222, 226–7, 242, 287
Gutiérrez Alea, Tomás: Memories of Underdevelopment 667
Habsburg Empire 27, 29–30, 35, 352
Hached, Farhat 301, 303
Hadj, Messali 303
Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907) 509, 510
Hague, William 726
Hailey, Lord 541
Haiti 333, 335–7, 339, 340, 342–3, 346–7
French presence 91
literature and intellectuals 343, 697, 702, 704, 705, 708, 709, 710
Revolution (1791–1804) 442 see also The Black Jacobins under James, C.L.R.
Halliday, Jon 213
Hallstein Doctrine 111, 355
Hallstein, Walter 111
Hall, Stuart 116
Hamilton, Alexander 199, 203, 214
Hammarskjöld, Dag 147, 149, 458
Handelsvereniging Amsterdam (HVA) 652
Hani, Chris 364
Harahap, Soetan 399
Harlem Renaissance 708, 716
Harlow, Vincent 73
Harper, Tim 261–2, 279
Hart, Richard 338
Hasan, Abdullah 569
Hassan II 312
Hatta, Muhammed 394, 406
Hawaii
American presence 198, 202, 278
Pearl Harbour attack by Japanese 263, 278
Hazeu, G.A.J. 398
Heath, Edward 678
Heinemann African Writers Series 707
Helsinki Accords 362
Higbee, Will 665
Higman, B.W. 335
Hinds, Donald 345
Hirohito, Emperor 282
Hispaniola 335, 339
historicizing decolonization 5, 6–11
Hobhouse, Sir John 644
Ho Chi Minh 281, 282, 283, 286–7, 289–91, 292, 294–5, 319, 419, 440, 480
Hochschild, Adam: King Leopold’s Ghost 145, 718
Hodge, Joseph Morgan 8, 520, 621–34
Hofstedter, Richard 201
Hohenzollern Empire 27
Hollande, François 721
Holocaust by Nazi regime 102, 103–4, 106
Honduras (Belize): independence (1981) 487
Hong Kong 423
British handover to China (1997) 69, 681
Japanese presence 279
Hopkinson, Henry 679
Hopkins, Tony 3, 15, 196
Horthy, Miklós 31, 186
Houphouët-Boigny, Félix 324, 328
Hourani, Albert 566
Hove, Chenjerai 8, 472
Howard, John 719, 729
Huggan, Graham 706
Huggins, Molly 528
Hughes, Langston: Masters of Dew 346
Hull, Cordell 205
Hull, Isabel 501
humanitarianism, human rights and decolonization 6, 9, 16–17, 453–73
armed conflict 467–9
citizen activism 455
Cold War 459
decolonization revisited and reframed 469–73
humanitarian imperialism 455
humanitarian minimalism 466
(p. 751)
imperial humanitarianism 455, 457
integrating disparate and disconnected historiography 455–6
intelligence and security agencies, involvement of 459
international aid agencies 461
international humanitarianism 457, 520
judicial activism 459
material support given to fighters 463
moral politics 454
multilateral aid 471
national branches, pressure exerted by 461
national liberation movements and non-state armed groups 460–6
new global order 469
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 454, 455, 457, 458, 459, 462, 466, 471
non-state humanitarianism 471
political detainees, protection of 466
post Second World War 456–9
post-war international order 454
prisoners, protection of 467
refugee work and greatest need principle 457
self-determination 458, 459
state humanitarianism/state aid 471
Human Rights Covenants 429
Human Rights Year (1968) 361–2
Humphrey, John 458
Hungary 33, 35
academic institutions 356
Ausgleich (1867) 29
multi-party democracy 363
Uprising (1956) 361
Hunter, Emma 630
Huntington, Samuel P. 365, 441
Hurgronje, Christiaan Snouck 398, 404
Hussein, Saddam 569
Idriss, King 133
Ighilahriz, Louisette 717–18
Iléo, Joseph: ‘Manifeste de la Conscience Africaine 151
imperial business interests and post-colonial diversification 639–53
Americanization 647
capitalisms converged 652–3
colonial capitalism 639
crony capitalism 649
diversifications 647–52
geographical diversification 650
indigenization of management 646
indigenization schemes 649
indigenous enterprise 642
insurgencies 641
internationalization of dependence 649
intra- and inter-imperial integration 650
Japanization 647
labour indiscipline 642
labour mobilization and national politics, link between 642
manufacturing enterprises 651–2
Marxist-inspired regimes 648
mass violence towards expatriate enterprise 641–2
new imperialisms and second colonial occupations 640–3
realignment of colonial frontiers 650
socio-cultural traditions 644
strikes 641–2
wage hikes 642
imperialism 438
cultural 662
of decolonization 679
humanitarian 455
informal 445
of knowledge 538
professional 538
imperialism of free trade thesis 195
İnan, Afet 59
India 251–69, 319, 326
Aligarh school 559
anti-establishment politics 269
anti-recruitment propaganda 261
army, recruits persuaded or press-ganged into 261
August revolutionaries 264
Bengal 258–60
Bengal famine (1942–3) 262
Bengal Rationing Order (1943) 262
(p. 752)
Black Rowlatt Bill 256
British imperial alliances with collaborators 253
British presence 65, 67, 68, 70, 71, 72, 73, 81
Chauri Chaura 257
civil disobedience 258
Communists 266
Constitution of 1920 258
continuity thesis 252, 268
corruption/anti-corruption 266
Cripps Mission 263
death toll 268–9
Deoband school 559
dominion status and right to withdraw its own constitution 263
film and cinema 668, 671
First World War 254
Foodgrains Control Order (1942) 262
French presence 94
Goa 425
Government of India Acts (1920 and 1935) 258
Great Depression 259–60
Hindus 258, 265, 269
HMG in London and Government of India, discord between 255
independence 261–7, 479, 490
Indianization of government- dyarchy 258–9
Indian States Committee 260
inter-war years - deceleration 258–60
Jama’at-i Islami 565
Khilafat movement 254, 256
Krishak Praja party 259
Lahore Resolution (1940) 262–3
Limited Denial policy 262
loyalty/disloyalty 266
mass migration/refugees 265–6, 268–9
Muslim League 262–4, 267–8
Muslims 265
National Army 264, 280
National Congress 67, 256–7, 258–60, 263, 264–5, 268, 563
nationwide campaign (hartaal) or strike 256
non-cooperation movement (1921–2) 257
nuclear testing in Thar desert 379
and Pakistan partition 251–3, 261–7, 268, 351, 479, 490
population exchanges with Pakistan 581, 584, 585–6, 587, 588–9, 591, 592
post-colonialism 268
post-colonial migrations from 602
princes/princely states 260, 267
Punjab 255, 256, 258–9, 261
Quit India movement 251
Quit India speech (Gandhi) 263–4
refugees 583
relationships based on extraction of labour 253
religious fundamentalism 268
road building 261
Second World War 261–4
self-determination 422, 423, 424
sepoys recruited for wartime duty outside India 254–5
Sikhs 267
Tamils 259
tariffs 255
taxation 257
tripartite negotiations 264
United Province 258
universal adult suffrage 266–7
war work 262
Indian Ocean 423
Indochina 281, 423
American presence 205, 480–1
French presence 87, 90, 92, 94, 97
Japanese presence 279
relinquished by France 277, 319
Indonesia 281, 391–407
academic culture 392
Act of Free Choice 425
All-India Orientalist conferences 397
American presence 480
Archaeological Commission 401
Archaeological Service 395, 397, 399
Banten Uprising (1888) 559
Batavian Society 397
closed doors and open ends of colonial heritage networks 405–6
Colonial Archaeological Service of the Netherlands Indies 395, 398
(p. 753)
and East Timor 426
EFEO installation in French Indo China 401, 405
Greater India 392, 395, 396–400, 405, 406–7
Greater India Movement 402–3
Greater India Society 397
heritage and heritage networks 392, 394–6
Hindus-Buddhists 392, 395, 397, 399
intellectual elites 397–9
Islamic Union 561
Japanese presence 395, 404
Japanese surrender 480
Java Bank 640, 644
Java Institute (Surakarta) 399
journals 399
Kern institute at Leiden 400–3
knowledge exchange 392
local colonial restrictions 396–400
Madiun affair 293
moral geographies 392
Muhammadiyya movement 568
Muslims 394
Nahdat al-’Ulama 565, 568
Netherland’s loss to Japan 319
New Imperial approaches 392
Operation Produce 640
Padri War (1803–37) 559
post-colonial migrations to Netherlands 603–4
re-Indianization 400–3
scholars, scholarly institutions and scholarly debates 397–8
self-determination 422, 423, 428
Shell 648
Siva temple 394–6, 400, 404
and West Papua 425–6
youth groups 281
integrated territories 690–3
interdependence, declarations of 17
International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) 459, 461, 467
International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) 462–3, 464, 467, 468
Code of Conduct for non-state armed groups 463
Executive and Assembly 462
International Court of Justice 34
International Labor Organization (ILO) 219, 383, 522
International League for Human Rights 423, 459
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 340
International Red Cross 457
International Women’s Day Committee (1950): ‘Struggle of the Women in Africa and Asia for Freedom and Happiness’ 527
Iqbal, Muhammad 444
Iran
Anglo-Iranian (Persian) Oil Company 75, 380, 428, 641
Arid Zone 377
Khuzistan lowlands 378–9
Tobacco Protest (1891) 560
Iraq
Arid Zone 375
British presence 481
nominal independence (1930) 482
petroleum nationalization 429
Shi’a Islamic Call Party 568
Sunni Iraqi Islamic Party 567
Ireland 67
Isaacman, Allen 439, 630
Isaacman, Barbara 630
Islamic revolutionaries 555–71, 615
colonialism and the rise of resistance 556–61
confrontation 557
emigration 557
guerrilla insurgency 570
internationalism 568
Islamization 568
Mahdist movements 557, 570
marginalization of resistance 561–5
mass organizations 560
Messianic movements 557–8
modernists/modernization 559, 565
Mohammedanism 557
Nasserism 565
nationalism 565
nationalization 568
open revolt 570
pan-Islamism 560, 567
(p. 754)
political activism 560
political forces 556
political mass associations and parties 568
post-colonial states and Islamic resurgence 565–70
radicalization 568
reformism 557, 558, 559, 570
religious forces 556
revivalism 557, 558–9, 567–8, 570
secularization 565
shari’a law 558, 567
social welfare activities 560
socioeconomic forces 556
submission 557
Sufism 570
suppression 565
territorialization 568
’ulama 557, 559–60, 566–7
violent opposition 556
westernization 565
Islamic Society 560–1
Islamization 568
Israel 448, 586, 587
Italiander, Rolf 111
Italy 123–39
Africa 125, 128
anti-Semitic legislation 125
colonialism 123, 129–30
Colonialism Reparation 715
colonial sentiments 129–30
Communist party 135, 137
decolonization as a passive revolution 134–5
economics and budgets 128–9
exceptionalism 123–5
exclusionary principle 131
Left 135, 137
Liberalism 124, 127, 129, 133
Libya 124, 126–34, 137
local brokers 130–2
Ministry of Foreign Affairs 135
Policy of the Statutes 133
racial segregation 124–5, 131
Republicanism 129
Risorgimento 134
social actors 136–8
Socialism 129, 137
termination of empire 138–9
treaty settlement (1947) 139
uncertain settlers 132
Jackson, Richard 500
Jacobs, Justin 381
Jadidism 559
Jagan, Cheddi 487
Jama’at-i Islami 567, 568
Jamaica 338, 340, 487
British presence 74–5, 77, 680
James, C.L.R. 336, 338, 344–5
The Black Jacobins 334–5, 337, 442, 702, 704, 705, 708
Jamfa, Leonard 720
Janssen, Émile 153
Japan 212–27, 277–8
Ainu (now Hokkaido) 213, 216
Allied Siberian Expedition (1918) 218
American nuclear bombs and surrender 276
Andaman and Nicobar Islands 279
Anglo-Japanese Alliance 218
anti-Russian alliance with England (1902) 214
assimilation and separation projects 216
Bonin (now Ogasawara) 213
Burma taken from the British 279
client state/client empire 222–7
Cold War 212, 222, 223, 225, 227
Communist Party 217, 219
crypto-imperialism 226
defensive modernization/defensive imperialism 213–17
demilitarization 223
democratization 223
in Dutch Indonesia 279
Fascism 220
First World War 212
(p. 755)
Germany’s Asia-Pacific empire, takeover of 218
Great Britain, rivalry with in China 218
Great War 217
Guam taken from United States and Britain 279
gunboat diplomacy 213–14, 217, 222, 226–7
historical revisionism 226
imperial defeat and contested sovereignties in Asia (1945–7) 282–6
imperialists against imperialism 217–22
Imperial Rule Assistance Association 220
and Indian National Army 280
international ‘law of the jungle’ 215–16
‘iron triangle’ 223
Kurile 213
Liberal Democratic Party 223
‘little Japan’ 216–17
Macau 279
Malaya from the British 279
Manchukuo 220–2
Manchuria 212, 214, 218, 219, 220, 225, 278
Mariane, Midway and Solomon Islands 279
Meiji foreign policy 215
Micronesia 218
militarism 226
new imperialism 226
Pacific Islands 225
pan-Asianism 221, 226
Papua New Guinea 279
Pearl Harbour attack (Hawaii) 278
Philippines taken from the United States 279
puppet-state colonialism 212
racial equality clause (League of Nations) 219
rape of Nanking and comfort women as prostitutes 718, 722
Russo-Japanese War 214, 216
Ryukyu Kingdom (now Okinawa) 213, 216, 219
Self Defense Forces under US command 223
Shanghai International Settlements 279
Singapore taken from the British 279
Sino-centric tribute system 226
Sino-Japanese War 216
Socialist Party 217, 219
socio-economic crisis (1930s) 220
Southeast Asia 219, 222, 223–6
Tokugawa Shogunate 213, 215
Tokyo Imperial University 217
treaty ports 226–7
ultra-nationalism 221
unequal treaties 213–14
United States bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 282, 723
United States-Japan alliance system 221–2
United States-Japan Mutual Security Treaty 225
United States occupation of home islands 284
United States and permanent military occupations 222–3, 224
war responsibility 226
Yamato race 216
Yasukuni War memorial 722
Yen bloc 220, 223–4, 226
Jarrett-Macauley, Delia 344
Jinnah, Mohammad Ali 262–3, 265, 268, 563, 564
Joeden-Forgey, Elisa von 110
Joffé, Roland: The Lovers 671
Johann, A.E. 110
Johar, Karan
My Name is Khan 671
Sometimes Happiness, Sometimes Sadness 664, 671
Johnson, Chalmers 222
Johnson, Lyndon 378, 486
Joint East and Central Africa Board 645
Jones, Cecile 727
Jones, Claudia 344–5
Jones, Matthew 13
Jones, Violet Creech 528
Jordan, Jenna 507–8
Juara, Prasenjit 217
Julien, Charles-André 303