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date: 02 July 2022

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter examines the global history of Islamic movements in anti-imperial struggles, spanning from West Africa to Southeast Asia. It demonstrates that Islamic movements, ranging from messianic to reformist groups, were at the very centre of the struggles against the European empires across the lands of Islam. It traces the diverse forms of anti-colonial resistance adopted by the various Islamic movements, including violent opposition, which ranged from guerrilla insurgency to open revolt, and peaceful protest. The fall of the European empires and the creation of post-colonial states are usually seen as an era of secularism and Western ideologies, ranging from nationalism to socialism, not as a period of piety and religious upheaval. Questioning this master narrative of secular decolonisation, the chapter argues that Islamic movements, though at times overshadowed by other anti-colonial groups, must be taken seriously. This is crucial for our understanding of not only the history of decolonisation, but also the history of Islamic movements in the modern age.

Keywords: Islam, Muslim, revolution, empire, anti-colonialism, religion, imperialism

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