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date: 21 August 2019

(p. 737) Index

(p. 737) Index

Note: Color plates are indexed P1, P2 etc.

A
acamprosate, measures of motor excitability 144
acoustic click 238
acoustic devices 238
action generation
intentional actions 465–71
motor cognition 463–78
action representation beyond visual modality 475–6
activation maps, simple sequential task P11
adrenocorticoid system, regulation 634
air core optimization 38–9, 41
AMPA receptors 613
amphetamine
effects on motor excitability 138
neuromodulator 226–8
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) 256
analgesia 717–19
anesthesia
contraindications to TMS 320–2
monitoring descending motor systems 291–5
response failures, single-pulse TMS monitoring MEPs 301
use-dependent neuroplasticity 224–5
angular gyrus
location 434
animal models
anxiety disorders 691–2
mania in bipolar disorder 665–7
preclinical studies on antidepressant effects of rTMS 633–5
antidepressants, effects of repetitive TMS (rTMS) 633–5
antipsychotics, atypical, increase of inhibition 130
anxiety disorders 685–95
animal models 691–2
normal behavioral dimensions of relevance 692
obsessive–compulsive disorder 373, 618, 685–90
panic disorder 691
post-traumatic stress disorder 690–1
applications of TMS see therapeutic TMS
asymmetry in neurodevelopment 347–9
ataxia 703
CMTC and MEP 267
potential therapeutic uses of TMS 703
atropine, effects on motor excitability 138
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 392–4
response to TMS 403–4
and Tourette's syndrome, decreased ICI 403
auditory hallucinations, schizophrenia 674–80
auditory sensations, TMS-induced 450–2
B
baclofen, effects on motor excitability 137
behavioral measures, effect of practice 223–4
Bienenstock–Cooper–Munro (BCM) rule 209
biophysics of TMS 33–74
biphasic vs monophasic waveforms 4–5, 7–8
biphasic pulse generation 15–17, 52, 240
biphasic vs monophasic rTMS 10, 52–3
bipolar disorder 661–9
animal models of mania 665–7
neurophysiology 373
right vs left prefrontal TMS 661–3
rTMS treatment 667
seizures in TMS 238
sham-controlled studies 663–5
uncontrolled studies 661
BOLD 578–83, 588
and lamotrigine 588–9
negative and positive correlations of signal changes, FEFs P14
boundary element solver 37
brain
as conductor 33–45
background information 34–5
Granger causality mapping (GCM) P15
induced electric field arrow plot modelling P2
brain-damaged patients
cerebellar lesion, MEP abnormalities 257
cerebral infarction, clinical neurodiagnosis, MEPs 265–6
connectivity studied with fMRI/TMS 587–9
language organization 493–5
brain development see neurodevelopment
(p. 738) brain mapping 537–608
electroencephalography (EEG) 593–608
fMRI and TMS 569–92
PET and TMS 549–67
PET/fMRI imaging and stimulation 539–47
causality 539–40
connectivity 540–4
precision of TMS 316–18
presurgical planning 315–20
brain stimulation
cortical surface area, blind vs guided stimulation P5
deep brain stimulation (DBS) 697–8
direct current (DC) stimulation 57–61
inducing neuroplasticity 201–17
electrical stimulation
descending drive from CT and muscle MEPs 67–8
electrode montage and current penetration 66–7
enhancing motor training effects 228–30
intermittent, movement disorders 698
invasive cortical stimulation (ICS) 706
neuroimaging 539–47
neurorehabilitation 705–16
system requirements 33
tools in neurorehabilitation 705–6
brain surgery
D-waves 73
MEPs 72–3
monitoring with TES 72–3
Broca's area 479
C
cabergoline, effects on motor excitability 138
caffeine, and motor excitability 144
capacitor 4–5
carbamazepine, effects on motor excitability 137
cauda equina 53–4
stimulation 269
central motor conduction time (CMCT) 247–53
calculation 244
CMCT-F and CMTC-M 248, 253
movement disorders 330
cerebellar inhibition (CBI) 120
interactions with LICI and SICI 126–7
cerebellar lesion, MEP abnormalities 257
cerebral infarction, clinical neurodiagnosis, MEPs 265–6
cervical nerve root stimulation 243
coil positioning 243
citalopram, effects on motor excitability 138
clinical neurodiagnosis, MEPs and clinical disorders 255–72
clinical procedure for TMS 20–1
requirements/components 20–1
safety 22
clinical trials
depression 635–49
design 621–31
outcome measures 627
safety assessment 627–8
schizophrenia 671–84
sham-controlled and meta-analyses 635–44
clozapine, GABAB
neurotransmission 123
CNS-affecting drugs, combined TMS and EEG 605
cognitive studies
action generation 463–78
fMRI and TMS 584–7
human motor cortex, DC brain stimulation 59
mathematical cognition 517–35
motor cognition, action generation 463–78
rTMS at individual alpha frequency (EEG) 604–5
compound motor action potentials (CMAPs) 77–87, 240
conductivity 33, 35–6
homogeneous vs inhomogeneous models 35–6
connectivity
fMRI/TMS, brain injury 587–9
PET/fMRI imaging and brain stimulation 540–4
contraindications to TMS 237–9, 603
conscious and anesthetized patients 320–2
exclusion criteria 238
cortical asymmetry, pediatrics 347–50
cortical current maps, visualizing EEG activity P18
cortical inhibition see intracortical inhibition
cortical inhibitory circuits
and excitatory circuits
interactions 119–33
summary 127–30
simultaneous activation 121
cortical magnetic stimulation, wakefulness vs deep (S3/S4 state) sleep P17
cortical short-term plasticity
combined TMS and EEG 605
MEP inhibition 330
cortical silent period (cSP) 91–102
drug actions 136–40
duration 255
in pathological conditions 96–9
modulation of duration 95–6
motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) 254–5
site of origin 91–3
threshold 93
TMS measures of corticospinal excitability 91–102
cortical surface area, blind vs guided stimulation P5
corticobasal degeneration
CMCT 267
MEP abnormalities 256
corticobulbar MEPs, intraoperative, eliciting/recording MEPs 65–6
corticospinal tract (CST)
descending drive from CST and muscle MEPs 67–68
electrical stimulation 63–74
vs magnetic stimulation 34, 239
multipulse
eliciting MEPs 63–5
recording MEPs 65–6
excitability 75–234, 463
anatomical and physiological considerations 285–91
biphasic vs monophasic rTMS 10, 52–3
cortical silent period 91–102
effect of practice 223–4
epidural spinal cord recordings 153–69
interactions between inhibitory and excitatatory circuits 119–33
neuroplasticity induced by DC stimulation 201–17
paired-pulse measures 103–17
pharmacology 135–51
pulse configuration and current direction 10–11
repetitive TMS 185–200
size of MEPs 77–89
use-dependent plasticity 219–34
and voluntary motor function 171–84
refractory period, electrical stimulation, paired medium and high intensity TES 69
crossmodal functions 447–61
crossmodal sensory integration 454–9
normal subjects 456–9
tools of study 449–50
D
D-waves 65, 67–9, 153–69, 286
brain surgery 73
collision technique 68–9
general anesthesia 71
deep brain stimulation (DBS) 697–8
depression
clinical development program 625–7
clinical trials 635–49
design 621–31
intervention studies with TMS 588
major depressive disorder 617–18, 633–60
neurophysiology 369–73
preclinical studies of antidepressant effects of rTMS 633–5
rTMS and antidepressant effects 633–5
tDCS 213
dextromethorphan
effects on motor excitability 137
use-dependent plasticity 224
diazepam, effects on motor excitability 137
diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) 338
direct current (DC) brain
clinical applications 213–14
human motor cortex
cognitive effects 59
effects on mood and affect 59–60
motor effects 58–9
sensory/perceptual effects 59
inducing neuroplasticity 201–17
monitoring 202–7
pharmacological intervention 207–9
safety 59
stimulation 57–61
use-dependent neuroplasticity 201–17
l-dopa, effects on motor excitability 137
dystonia 331–3
CMCT 267
intracortical inhibition (ICI) 402
MEP abnormalities 256
potential therapeutic uses of TMS 700–3
E
echo-planar imaging (EPI), fMRI and TMS 571–5
electric fields (EF)
low-threshold sites 50–2
path 47–9
radial 49
spatial derivative 50
electrical safety 29
electrical stimulation (TES) 63–74
application 63
vs magnetic stimulation 34, 239, 312
electroconvulsive therapy 622–3
vs rTMS 644
electrodes
corkscrew 63
heating, TMS–EEG 594
montages 63–5
current penetration within brain 66–7
electroencephalography (TMS–EEG) 593–608
after contralateral frontal stimulation P19
amplifiers 595–6
artifact problems 596–7
coil click and somatic sensation 597
cortical long-term potentiation (LTP) 605
electrodes and preparations for study 595
eye-movement artifacts and blinks 597
generation mechanisms, explanation 597–603
historical aspects 594
large-scale neuronal networks 601–3
monitoring 603–4
muscle artifacts 596–7
novel applications 604–5
cortical short-term plasticity 605
demonstrating cortical LTP 605
enhancing cognitive performance with rTMS at individual alpha frequency 604–5
studies of CNS-affecting drugs 605
treatment efficacy 604
overview of imaging studies 542–4
recording techniques 594–6
reflecting local and global neuronal state 603
responses 599–600
safety 603–4
signal deflections 598–9
synchronous oscillatory EEG activity, alpha and beta frequencies 600–1
electromagnetic induction 3–5
electromagnetism 3–5
electromotive force 3
electromyography (EMG), suppression see cortical silent period
endophenotypes
MEP as endophenotype 393
serotonin transporter promoter as endophenotype 402
TMS study of cortical node of cortical–subcortical circuits 393
epidural electrical stimulation 697
epidural spinal cord recordings 153–69
epilepsy
clinical neurodiagnosis, MEPs 267–8
contraindications to TMS 238
drug testing, TMS measures 143
duration of cSP 97
and EEG–TMS, safety 603–4
focal, tDCS 213
episodic memory studies 506–11
Erb's point, triple stimulation technique 80, 82
essential tremor 333
CMCT 330
potential therapeutic uses of TMS 703
ethanol, effects on motor excitability 137
etomidate, SSEP wavelets 292–4
exclusion criteria for TMS 238
F
facial nerve stimulation, coil positioning 242, 243
Faraday's law 37
flumazenil, effects on motor excitability 137
focal epilepsy, tDCS 213
focal hand dystonia, tDCS 213
(p. 740) foramina
electric field (EF), path 47–9
foramen model 48–9, 53
four-pulse TMS 308–11
Friedreich's ataxia, CMTC and MEP 267
frontal eye fields (FEFs) 431–3, 439–41
effects of TMS on visual search performance P10
location 433
negative and positive correlations of BOLD signal changes P14
prefrontal cortex, visual awareness 425–6
visual awareness/cognition 425–6, 439–44
frontoparietal attention network 432–5
fMRI activation maps P9
functional MRI (fMRI) and
causality and connectivity 539–47
clinical applications 587–9
cognition studies 584–7
coils and static imaging artifacts 571
dynamic imaging artifacts 571–2
extensions beyond motor system 583–4
frontoparietal attention network P9
motor-related structures and brain activity 578–83
changes at targeted site 578–80
changes in remote activity 580–3
neurodevelopment 338–9
other potential artifacts 574–5
RF noise 574–5
overview of studies 542–4
parietal cortex 433–5
perturbation of single slices 576–8
pulse application strategies 576
technical considerations 571–8
temporal gaps following slice acquisition 576
temporal gaps following volume acquisition 576
TMS pulses
applied before echo-planar imaging (EPI) 572–3
during data readout 573–4
during slice excitation 573
G
gabapentin, measures of motor excitability 144
GABAA receptors
inhibition by GABAB activity 123
mediation of SICI 105
and PAS 194
GABAB agonists, lengthening of SP 123
GABAB neurotransmission, clozapine and 123
GABAB receptors
mediation of cSP 95
uptake inhibitors 120
genetic factors in response to TMS 402
Granger causality mapping (GCM) P15
guanfacine, effects on motor excitability 138
H
haloperidol, effects on motor excitability 138
hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) 271
higher visual cognition see visual cognition
historical aspects
electroencephalography (EEG) 594
perioperative period 285–6
HIV infection, MEP
abnormalities 257
Hoffmann (H)-reflex 92
Huntington's disease 333
central motor conduction time (CMCT) 330
CMCT and MEP 267
duration of cSP 98
MEP abnormalities 256
I
I-waves 65, 67–9, 153–69, 286
facilitation 67–9
inductance, Lenz's law 3
inhibitory and excitatatory circuits, interactions 119–33
inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) 411
intentional actions, and serial model
of action generation 465–71
intention and planning of action 465–6
motor awareness and sequencing 468–70
movement execution 467–8
selection and specification 466–7
interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) 111–12, 120, 124–6, 161, 163
interactions with LAI 126
inter-individual variation in response to TMS 401–4
intracortical facilitation (ICF) 108–9, 141–2
short-interval (SICF) 109–10, 142, 160
intracortical inhibition (ICI) 119–20
age differences 401
genetic differences 402
interactions between LICI and SICI 121–3
and IHI 124–6, 161
and LAI 123–4
long-interval (LICI) 110–11, 120, 142, 161–2
pediatrics 346–7, 403–4
and personality 402–3
short-interval (SICI) 103–8, 119, 123–7, 140–1, 159–60
intra-individual variation in response to TMS 404–6
intramedullary spinal cord tumors (ISCTs) 69
intraoperative monitoring, singlepulse TMS 295–306
invasive cortical stimulation (ICS) 706
iron/steel core, TMS
coils 27–8, 40–5
powder iron 43
vanadium 43–5
ischemic nerve block, repetitive TMS (rTMS) 192–3
ischemic stroke see stroke
K
ketamine, effects on motor excitability 137
kindling and quenching 634–5
L
lamotrigine
and BOLD 588–9
combined TMS–fMRI, validating effects 588
effects on motor excitability 137
use-dependent plasticity 224
language organization 479–99
lexical–semantic processing 511–12
motor excitability, speech and language 488–90
neurological patients 493–5
reading 486–7
(p. 741) semantic and phonological processing 484–5
speech arrest 482–4
speech perception and motor system 490–1
syntax 487–8
virtual lesions 480–2
Lenz's law of inductance 3
levetiracetam, measures of motor excitability 144
lexical–semantic processing 511–12
limb muscles
eliciting MEPs 64
recording MEPs 65–6
Litz wire 30
long latency afferent inhibition (LAI), interactions with IHI 126
long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) 110–11, 120, 142, 161–2
long-term potentiation (LTP) 612–20
demonstration by combining TMS and EEG 605
electroencephalography (TMS–EEG) 605
LTP-like mechanisms 193–4
memory storage (hippocampus) 614–16
motor cortex 614–16
lorazepam
effects on motor excitability 137
use-dependent plasticity 224
losigamone, effects on motor excitability 137
lower extremities
coil positioning 241–2
muscles, central motor conduction time 249–52
low-threshold sites 50–2
lucite, foramen model 50, 53
lumbar nerve root stimulation 243
coil positioning 243
lumbar spinal stenosis and radiculopathies, clinical neurodiagnosis, MEPs 268–70
M
Machado–Joseph disease, CMCT and MEP 267
magnetic stimulation
auditory sensations 450–2
vs electrical stimulation 34
four pulse 308–11
multimodal nature 447–61
response parameters 34
somatosensory sensations 451–2
startle effects 452–3
threshold as function of frequency 35
use-dependent neuroplasticity 219–34
anesthesia 224–5
DC stimulation 201–17
neuromodulators 226–8
somatosensory stimulation 226
visual sensations 453
magnetic stimulator
coils 25–32, 241
cap coil 295–302
circular 25
coil heating 29
coil lead 28–9
coil positioning 241–3, 320
coil windings 29–30
cone coil, train TMS 30
current direction 241–2
design 47–54
distribution of electric field 30–1
figure-8 25–6, 79
for fMRI–TMS 571
Hesed H-coil 50
iron/steel core 27–8, 40–5
mechanical forces 28
optimizing 26
placement and repositioning P7
positioning, lower, upper extremities and face 241–2
reverse excited 37
safety 22, 29
saturable cores 42–3
sham (placebo stimulation) 30, 629
specialized 27
vanadium steel core 43–5
design 13–23
coil design and induced EF 47–54
essential circuitry 4, 13–15
optimization 38–43
air core 38–9, 41
numerical 40
pulse characteristics 18–19
pulse generation 13–17
biphasic 15–17, 52, 240
induced pulse profile 52–3
monophasic 14–15, 52–3, 240
pulse sequence requirements 17
pulse width 14
repetitive (rTMS) 9–11, 185–200
single and paired pulses 8–9
safety 21–2, 29, 237–72
setting output levels 190
SMTs 19–20
stretched core 37–8
waveforms 7–12
biphasic vs monophasic 4–5, 7–8
alternating use not possible 9
current direction 7–12
monophasic 5, 7–8
anteriorly vs posteriorly oriented 11
MAO-B inhibition, effects on motor excitability 138
mathematical cognition 517–35
mental number line 517–18
neural basis 518–23
number representations 523–32
median nerve, distribution of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEPs) 292
memantine, effects on motor excitability 137
memory 12–13, 501–11
episodic memory studies 506–11
aging 510–11
definition of episodic memory and neuroimaging background 506–7
verbal episodic memory studies 509–10
visuo-spatial episodic memory studies 507–9
rationale for use of TMS 501–3
complementary to other neuroimaging procedures 502
interference vs focal brain lesions 501–2
results, bias in interpretation 502–3
safety aspects 512–13
safety aspects of short-lived impairments 512–13
storage (hippocampus), LTP 614–16
working memory (WM) studies 503–6
definition, and neuroimaging background 503
verbal 503–5
visual and spatial 505–6
menstrual cycle, and response to TMS 405–6
mental number line, mathematical cognition 517–18
meta-analyses, clinical trials 635–44
methylphenidate, effects on motor excitability 138
midazolam, effects on motor excitability 137
migraine 377–88
motor cortex 377–80
response to TMS 404
visual cortex 380–4
mirtazepine, measures of motor excitability 144
mitochondrial myopathy, MEP
abnormalities 257, 272
(p. 742) modafinil, measures of motor excitability 144
mood disorders, (DC) brain polarization 59–60
motor cognition
action generation 463–78
action representation beyond visual modality 475–6
mirror systems 475
perception–action linkage 471–5
serial model of action generation, intentional actions 465–71
motor cortex
comparison of supra vs subthreshold TMS effects on local hemodynamics P12
excitability
CNS-active drugs 135–45
chronic vs acute effects 145–6
endogenous neurotransmitters/neuromodulators 146–7
modulation by cerebellar stimulation 112–14
neurotransmitters/neuromodulators 146–7
pain studies 717–19
paired-pulse measures 103–14
pharmacologically defined TMS measures 135–46
Granger causality mapping (GCM) P15
hand area 154–66
non-focal stimulation with round coil 164–6
paired pulse TMS interactions 159–62
rTMS 162–4
single-pulse TMS 154–9
inhibition, from afferent input 120–1
long-term potentiation (LTP) 614–16
lower limb area 166–7
mapping
first dorsal interosseus muscle P6
map characteristics 321
pediatrics 342–6
presurgical planning 315–20
short-term replication of TMS functional maps 318–20
migraine studies 377–80
plasticity 614–16
premotor cortex, activity changes to suprathreshold rTMS P13
surface map areas P8
motor-evoked potentials (MEPs)
amplitude 253–4, 404–6
before/during/after rTMS 10
before/during/after (differing) stimulus types 11
change, and response area 298–301
drug actions 136
effect of practice 219–22
healthy subject 405
inter-and intra-individual variation 401–8
reduction in amplitude 258
topographical distribution 297
anesthesia, response descriptors 303
central motor conduction time 247–53
upper and lower extremity muscles 249–52
children 339–42
clinical neurodiagnosis 237–83
clinical disorders 255–72
coil positioning 241–3
cervical nerve root stimulation 243
cranial nerve stimulation 243
facial muscle recordings 242
lumbar nerve root stimulation 243
spinal nerve root and facial nerve stimulation 242–3
upper-and lower-extremity recordings 241–2
MEP testing, indications 255–8
neurophysiological background 239–40
pathophysiology 258
psychogenic weakness 272
cortical silent period 254–5
definition 237
desynchronization 82–5
effect of practice 219–21
intraoperative use 70–3, 285–327
latency 8–9, 246–7, 339
four TMS types 9
lower limb, TES vs TMS 312
measurements overview 243–4
multipulse electrical stimulation of CT
eliciting 63–5
recording 65
neurodiagnosis, safety and side effects 237–9
neurophysiology 239–40
neurophysiology of psychiatric disorders 357–76
bipolar disorder 373
major depressive disorder 369–73
obsessive–compulsive disorder 373
personality disorder 373–4
schizophrenia 357–69
parameters, methodology and physiology 237–55
pathophysiology 258
pediatric investigations 339–42, 389–400
peripheral motor conduction time (PMCT) 247, 248
recordings 240–1
repetitive motor neuron discharge 85–6
response characteristics, means and coefficients of variation 302
size of MEPs 77–89
coil and positioning 79
facilitation 79–82
pathological conditions 87
physiological mechanisms 82–7
stimulus intensity 78–9
variability 86–7
spinal surgery 301
monitoring 302–5
technical requirements for recordings 240–1
threshold 244–6, 339
train TMS 306–11
triple stimulation technique 80–5
motor excitability, speech and language 488–90
motor maps, effect of practice 221–2
motor neuron disease, clinical neurodiagnosis, MEPs 256, 260–3
motor thresholds 244–6, 339
current direction 8
defined 135
drive level (MT level), large patient population P1 19
drug actions 35–6
target muscle 8
motor units
single in axonal S1 root disorder 85
summation within MEP 82
mouthguard, teeth protection 238
movement disorders 256, 329–36, 697–704
ataxia 267, 703
central motor conduction time (CMCT) 330
clinical neurodiagnosis, MEPs 266–7
cortical function 697–8
duration of cSP 97–8
dystonia 256, 267, 331–3, 402
essential tremor 333
Huntington's disease 333
intermittent brain stimulation 698
MEP abnormalities 256
Parkinson's disease 329–31
(p. 743) potential therapeutic uses of TMS 698–703
ataxia 703
dystonia 700–3
Parkinson's disease 699–700
Tourette's syndrome 703
tremor 703
short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) 330
therapeutic TMS 698–703
tics, ADHD and OCD symptoms and cortical inhibition studies 394–5
tools for reversibly modulating cortical function 697–8
Tourette's syndrome 333
MRI
safety, contraindications to TMS 237–9
multiple sclerosis
clinical neurodiagnosis, MEPs 256, 258–60
CMCT delay 259
MEP abnormalities 260
seizures in TMS 238
multiple system atrophy
MEP abnormalities 256
prolonged CMTC 267
muscle MEPs, facilitation 79–82
myelination, in neurodevelopment 338
myelopathy
clinical neurodiagnosis, MEPs 263–5
MEP abnormalities 257
myotonic dystrophy, MEP
abnormalities 257, 272
N
narcotics, TMS-induced myogenic responses 292
neglect 435–6
neuroactive compounds, combined TMS–fMRI, validating effects 588
neurodevelopment 337–55
age-related changes in asymmetry 347–9
clinical measures 337
correlation with TMS-evoked parameters 349–50
cortical inhibition 346–7
paired-pulse studies 346–7
silent periods 347
cortical maps 342–3
ipsilateral MEP 343–6
maturation of cortical function using functional imaging 338–9
MEP amplitude and stimulus response curves 339–42
coil orientation effects 342
MEP latency 246–7, 339
MEP threshold 244–6, 339
structural changes in brain 338
TMS-evoked parameters in children 339–52
TMS-evoked parameters in perinatal insults 350–2
brain development, enhanced plasticity 350–1
cortical map alteration 351
transcallosal inhibition 351–2
neuroimaging
brain stimulation 539–47
complementary to TMS 502
episodic memory studies 506–7
and repetitive TMS (rTMS) 455–6
neuromodulation, therapeutic 623–30
neurophysiological techniques
intraoperative 65–6
pediatrics 389–93
challenges 389–93
safety 389–90
neuroplasticity
brain development, enhanced plasticity 350–1
following sensory deprivation 454–5
induced by DC stimulation 201–17
induction in visual cortex 210–13
metaplasticity 209–10
neuromodulation, use-dependent plasticity 226–8
neurorehabilitation 705–16
brain stimulation tools 705–6
contralesional M1, downregulating excitability 711
motor dysfunction and disability following stroke 705–10
corticospinal and intracortical excitability 707–8
inter-regional interactions tested with TMS 708–9
intracortical processes associated with recovery 706–10
ipsilesional M1, enhancing excitability 710–11
study of TMS-induced virtual lesions 709–10
nonmotor domains 711–12
potential treatment strategies 710–12
neurotransmitters/neuromodulators
effects of rTMS 634
endogenous, motor cortical excitability 146–7
NMDA receptors 613
ICF 109
number magnitude, mathematical cognition 517–35
O
obsessive–compulsive disorder 685–90
anatomical probe using TMS 686–7
neurocircuitry models 685–6
neurophysiology 373
rTMS 618
treatment possibilities 688–90
single and paired pulse TMS, physiological probes 687–8
olanzapine, effects on motor excitability 138
oxcarbazepine, effects on motor excitability 137
P
pain 717–36
chronic pain
motor cortex excitability 718–19
present management 724, 730–2
sensory perception effects 720–1
cortical rTMS, perception of provoked pain 721–4
chronic pain patients 720–1, 724
normal subjects 721–4
cortical rTMS, sensory perception 719–21
normal subjects 719–20
motor cortex excitability 717–19
acute phasic provoked pain 717–18
chronic pain 718–19
physiological considerations 718
prolonged tonic provoked pain 718
motor cortex rTMS, chronic pain 725–30
clinical parameters and pattern of cortical activation 728–9
(p. 744) first reports and duration of effects 725–8
mechanisms and site of action 729–30
peripheral rTMS, muscle pain 725
paired associative stimulation (PAS) 193–7, 330, 697–8
paired-pulse rTMS 103–17
effect of practice 222
interactions in hand area of motor cortex 159–62
interhemispheric facilitation/inhibition 111–12
intracortical facilitation (ICF) 108–9, 141–2
long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) 110–11, 120, 142, 161–2
medium and high intensity TES, refractory period 69
motor cortex excitability 103–14
modulation by cerebellar stimulation 112–14
modulation by motor cortex stimulation 114
obsessive–compulsive disorder 687–8
on-line PET imaging during TMS 557–9
pediatric 346–7
short-interval intracortical facilitation (SICF) 109–10, 142, 160
short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) 103–8, 119, 123–7, 140–1, 159–60
panic disorder 691
parietal cortex
frontoparietal attention network 432–5
fMRI activation maps P9
functional MRI (fMRI) and TMS 433–5
posterior (PPC), higher visual cognition 431–46
visual awareness/cognition 423–5
Parkinson's disease 329–31
central motor conduction time (CMCT) 267, 330
duration of cSP 97–8
potential therapeutic uses of TMS 699–700
paroxetine, effects on motor excitability 138
pediatric investigations
ADHD and TS motor cortex physiology, case control studies 393–4
behavioral disorders 393–7
cortical asymmetry 347–50
cortical inhibition 346–7
identification of endophenotypes 393
medication and symptom domain effects 395
motor cortex mapping 342–6
motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) 339–42, 389–400
neurobehavioral disorders 389–93
case–control studies 390–2
correlational studies 392–3
neurophysiological techniques 389–93
quantitative vs categorical measures 390
safety 389–90
new directions 397–9
paired-pulse rTMS 346–7
perinatal insults 350–2
safety considerations 389–93, 603–4
SICI–ADHD association studies
external validation 397
internal validation 395–7
tics, ADHD and OCD symptoms and cortical inhibition studies 394–5
TMS-evoked parameters 339–52
perinatal insults 350–2
pergolide, effects on motor excitability 138
perioperative period 285–327
anesthesia, monitoring descending motor systems 291–5
contraindications for TMS, conscious/anesthetized patients 320–2
historical aspects 285–6
intraoperative monitoring with single pulse TMS techniques 295–306
presurgical planning
motor cortex mapping using TMS 315–20
precision of TMS for brain mapping 316–18
short-term replication of TMS functional maps 318–20
TES and TMS compared 311–15
train TMS 306–11
peripheral motor conduction time
(PMCT) 247, 248, 270
PMTC-F and PMCT-M 247–8
peripheral nerve disorders, clinical neurodiagnosis, MEPs 270–1
peripheral nerve in vitro model, coil design and induced EF 47–54
personality
and intracortical inhibition (ICI) 402–3
response to TMS 402–3
personality disorder, neurophysiology 373–4
pharmacologically defined motor cortical excitability, inducing neuroplasticity, tDCS 207–9
pharmacologically defined TMS
measures of motor cortical
excitability 135–51
CNS-active drugs
chronic vs acute effects 145–6
with defined action 135–43
with incompletely known/multiple actions 143–5
endogenous neurotransmitters/neuromodulators 146–7
phenobarbital, effects on motor excitability 137
phenytoin, effects on motor excitability 137
phosphenes 415
avoiding 58, 59
defined 210
threshold 8, 210
phrenic nerve model 51
TMS site of induced excitation 289
phrenic nerve, TMS site of induced excitation P4
physics of TMS 1–32
placebo stimulation, sham coils 30, 629
plasticity induced by TMS-DC 201–17
characteristics 612–13
definition 611–12
induction in visual cortex 210–13
metaplasticity 209–10
prefrontal cortex 611–20
motor cortex 614–16
polyneuropathy
acute demyelinating (AIDP) 271
chronic inflammatory demyelinating (CIDP) 271
positron emission tomography (PET)
and TMS 549–67
causality and connectivity 539–47
vs fMRI 551
interference with neurovascular coupling 553–4
localizing and verifying cortical target area 552
maturation of cortical function 338–9
nonspecific rTMS effects 552–3
off-line PET imaging during TMS 559–63
(p. 745) regional activity 560–2
rTMS-induced changes in taskrelated activity 562–3
rTMS-induced regional plasticity 559–63
on-line PET imaging during TMS 554–9
during intermittent and continuous rTMS 556–7
during paired-pulse rTMS 557–9
synaptic activity in the stimulated cortex 555–6
overview of imaging studies 542–4
principles/outline of PET 550–1
relationship between measures of regional activity and cortical excitability 554
technical considerations 551–2
summary and perspectives 565
posterior fossa surgery
MEPs 72
monitoring with TES 72
post-traumatic stress disorder 690–1
neurocircuitry models 690
rTMS treatment possibilities 690–1
power (output) level 19
practice effects
behavioral measures 223–4
paired–pulse rTMS 222
prazosin, effects on motor excitability 138
prefrontal cortex
plasticity induced by TMS-DC 611–20
psychiatric disorders 617
visual awareness/cognition 425–6
premotor cortex, activity changes to suprathreshold repetitive TMS P13
priming 440–1
progesterone, effects on motor excitability 137
progressive ataxias, MEP
abnormalities 256
progressive supranuclear palsy
CMCT 267
MEP abnormalities 256
psychiatric disorders, neurophysiology 357–76
psychogenic weakness, clinical neurodiagnosis, MEPs 272
psychotropic interventions, repetitive TMS (rTMS) 616–18
pulse configuration, and current direction 10–11
pyramidal tract
central motor conduction time (CMCT) 244, 247–53
neurons (PTNs), D-waves and I-waves 153
R
reading 486–7
reasoning 511–13
lexical–semantic processing 511–12
nonverbal 512
reboxetine, effects on motor excitability 138
rehabilitation 705–16
Renshaw cells 91
repetitive motor neuron discharges 85–6
repetitive TMS (rTMS) 9–11, 185–200
animal models, preclinical studies on antidepressant effects 633–5
biphasic vs monophasic rTMS 10, 52–3
clinical trials, schizophrenia 671–84
cognitive performance at individual alpha frequency (EEG) 604–5
vs electroconvulsive therapy 644
frequencies higher than 1 Hz 188–9
hand area of motor cortex 162–4
with ischemic nerve block 192–3
kindling and quenching 634–5
mechanisms of action 649–55
neuroendocrine effects 654–5
and neuroimaging 455–6
neuroprotective effects 634
nonspecific effects, and PET 552–3
paired associative stimulation 193–7
patterned rTMS 189–92
I-wave periodicity 189–91
post rTMS inhibition ? 9–10
predictors of response to rTMS 648–9
psychotropic interventions 616–18
regulation of adrenocorticoid system 634
sham-controlled clinical trials 635–44
simple rTMS 186–8
stimulation frequency 645–6
stimulation intensity 646–8
stimulation site 644–5
theta burst stimulation, cTBS 166, 191–2
treatment
bipolar disorder 667
depression, antidepressant effects 633–5
obsessive–compulsive disorder 618, 688–90
post-traumatic stress disorder 690–1
safety and tolerability 649, 676
response to TMS 401–8
differences between individuals 401–4
age 401
genetic factors 402
gross anatomy 401–2
physiological differences 402–4
systematic intra-individual variation 404–6
long-term variation 405–6
menstrual cycle 405–6
short-term variation 404–5
restless legs syndrome, MEP abnormalities 257
reverse field excitation 37, 38
riluzole, effects on motor excitability 137
S
S-cone stimuli 441
sacral motor nerve roots 51–2
cauda equina 53–4
safety 22, 29, 237–72
acoustic output and click 238
assessment of clinical trial design 627–8
contraindications to TMS 237–9
(DC) brain polarization 59
EEG–TMS and epilepsy 603–4
electrical safety 29
electroencephalography (EEG) 594, 603–4
magnetic stimulator coils 22, 29
memory and TMS 512–13
mouthguard for teeth protection 238
pediatrics 389–93, 603–4
repetitive TMS (rTMS) 649
short-lived impairments of memory 512–13
and side effects
MEPs in clinical neurodiagnosis 237–9
single-pulse TMS 237–72
scalp waveforms
distribution of SSEPs 293
motor optimal locations for muscles 298
(p. 746) schizophrenia
clinical trials 671–84
auditory hallucinations 674–80
targeting frontal regions 672–4
duration of cSP 98–9
increase of inhibition in circuits atypical antipsychotics 130
neurophysiology 357–69
reduced inhibition in circuits cSP, IHI, SICI 130
rTMS 618
scopolamine, effects on motor excitability 138
selegeline, effects on motor excitability 138
sense of movement (SoM), with/without phantom SoM 587, P16
sensory deprivation, and neuroplasticity 454–5
sensory interactions, crossmodal functions 447–61
serial reaction time tasks 59
serotonin transporter promoter, as endophenotype 402
sertraline, effects on motor excitability 138
sham (placebo stimulation), coils 30, 629
sham-controlled studies
mania in bipolar disorder 663–5
and meta-analyses, clinical trials 635–44
short latency afferent inhibition (SAI) 142–3, 161–2
short-interval intracortical
facilitation (SICF) 108, 109–10, 142, 160
short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) 103–8, 119, 123–7, 140–1, 159–60
effect of practice on paired-pulse rTMS 222
in movement disorders 330
in various disorders 107–8
silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) 4
single-pulse TMS 237–72
anesthesia and response failures, monitoring MEPs 301
hand area of motor cortex 154–9
intraoperative monitoring 295–306
myogenic responses 305–11
obsessive–compulsive disorder 687–8
paresthesias 238
pulse generation 8–9
safety 237–72
side-effects 237–72
smoking/substance use disorders, rTMS 618
somatosensory sensations, TMSinduced 451–2
somatosensory stimulation, usedependent neuroplasticity 226
somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEPs) 71, 285, 292–4
anesthesia, response descriptors 303
intraoperative monitoring 285
median nerve distribution 292
scalp waveforms, distribution 293
SSEP wavelets, etomidate 292–4
spastic paraparesis, MEP abnormalities 257
spatial memory 505–9
spatial–numerical association of response codes (SNARC) 518, 530–2
speech arrest 482–4
speech perception and motor system 490–1
spinal cord
electric field (EF), path 47–9
eliciting MEPs 64–7, 268–70
recordings 153–69
spinal cord surgery
for ISCT 69
MEP monitoring with TES 71–2
spinal disorders, MEP abnormalities 257
spinal nerve root stimulation 248
coil positioning 242–3
electrical stimulation 248
spinal stenosis, clinical
neurodiagnosis, MEPs 268–70
spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, CMCT and MEP 267
standard motor threshold units (SMTs) 19–20
STAR*D trial, major depressive disorder 622
startle effects, TMS-induced 452–3
stiff-person syndrome, MEP abnormalities 257, 267
stimulator, magnetic field P3
stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) 412–14
stress coping, models 633
stroke
duration of cSP 96–7
MEP abnormalities 256
motor dysfunction and disability 705–10
neurorehabilitation 705–11
tDCS 213
sulpiride, effects on motor excitability 138
surface field suppression 36–8
syringomyelia, MEP abnormalities 257
T
tacrine, effects on motor excitability 138
theophylline, measures of motor excitability 144
therapeutic TMS 609–736
bipolar disorder 667
clinical trial design 621–31
depression, antidepressant effects 633–5
dystonia 700–3
movement disorders 698–703
obsessive–compulsive disorder 618, 688–90
pain 730–2
Parkinson's disease 699–700
plasticity in prefrontal cortex 611–20
post-traumatic stress disorder 690–1
TMS–fMRI combined 587–9
Tourette's syndrome 703
theta burst stimulation, cTBS 166, 191–2
thiopental, effects on motor excitability 137
thyroid disorders, MEP abnormalities 272
tiagabine
effects on motor excitability 137
GABAB receptor uptake inhibitor 120
topiramate, measures of motor excitability 144
Tourette's syndrome 333
and ADHD, decreased ICI 403
central motor conduction time (CMCT) 330
duration of cSP 98
potential therapeutic uses of TMS 703
train TMS 295, 306–15
cone coil 30
transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) see electrical stimulation
transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) see magnetic stimulation
treatment of TMS see therapeutic TMS
triple stimulation technique 80–5
(p. 747) U
upper extremities
coil positioning 241–2
muscles, central motor conduction time 249–52
use-dependent plasticity
anesthesia 224–5
corticospinal excitability 219–34
mechanisms 224
neuromodulators 226–8
somatosensory stimulation 226
V
verbal episodic memory 509–10
verbal memory 503–5
vigabatrin, effects on motor excitability 137
virtual lesions 501–2
language 480–2
TMS-induced motor dysfunction and disability following stroke 709–10
visual awareness/cognition 411–29, 431–46
background 411
blindsight 415
discrimination of visual motion 419–21
first-and second-order global motion tasks 420
frontal eye fields (FEFs) 425–6, 439–44
future aspects 427
learning effect 438–9
P and M visual pathways 414–15
parietal cortex 423–5
prefrontal cortex 425–6
synchronized cortical discharge 426
TMS-induced sensations 453
V1 (striate cortex) 411–14
necessity for phenomenal visual awareness 415–19
visual neglect 422–3, 435–6
visual perceptual priming 421–2, 440–1
visual search 423–6, 436–8
effect of learning 438–9
visuo-spatial attention and eye movements 441–2
visuo-spatial memory 505–9
visual cortex
biphasic vs monophasic rTMS 10, 52–3
induction of neuroplasticity by tDCS 210–13
migraine studies 380–4
vitamins, deficiency 272
voluntary motor function, and corticospinal excitability 171–84
W
Wernicke's area 479
Wilson's disease
CMCT and MEP 267
MEP abnormalities 257
Y
yohimbine, effects on motor excitability 138
Z
zolmitriptan, effects on motor excitability 138 (p. 748)