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date: 28 September 2020

Abstract and Keywords

Transcranial magnetic stimulation was first introduced in the late 1980s. Numerous studies have used TMS as an investigational tool to elucidate cortical physiology and to probe cognitive processes. This article introduces TMS paradigms and presents information gathered on cortical neuronal connectivity. TMS paradigms that demonstrate intracortical inhibition include short-interval cortical inhibition (SICI), cortical silence period (cSP) and long interval cortical inhibition (LICI). There are two types of cortical inhibitions from the stimulation of other brain areas, interhemispheric inhibition and cerebellum inhibition. The inhibition of the motor cortex can also be induced through the stimulation of peripheral nerves. This article talks about studies that describe interaction between inhibitory and facilitatory paradigms, the results of which are discussed in terms of cortical physiology and connectivity. The study of the interactions among cortical inhibitory and excitatory circuits may help to elucidate pathophysiology of neurological and psychiatric diseases.

Keywords: transcranial magnetic stimulation, cognitive processes, neuronal connectivity, cortical inhibitions, cortical physiology and connectivity, pathophysiology

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