Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 09 December 2019

(p. 683) Index

(p. 683) Index

Note: page numbers in italics refer to Figures and Tables.

A
abstract systems 219
Aché
competitive altruism 536
fertility 419
partible paternity beliefs 555
ultimatum game 608, 609
acoustic startle reflex 497
action recognition, role of mirror neurons 183–4
actions, visual processing
pertaining to observer 166–7
pertaining to others 167–9
adaptationist view 84–5, 93–4, 588
of language 678
Adaptation and Natural Selection, G.C. Williams 49, 50, 51, 53
adaptive lag 35, 40, 44
buffering through niche construction 41–2
adaptiveness of human behaviour 39–43
adaptive phenotypic plasticity, stress response 281–2
adaptive thinking 26–7, 28–9
adaptive toolbox 197, 201, 202
content domains 207
Addis Ababa, fertility decline 390–1
Adler, G. 650–1
adopted women, mate choices 264
adoption 465
Adult Attachment Interview 247
adult social bonds, role of neurochemicals 154–5
affective disorders, link to openness to experience 484
affects
core emotional systems 146–9
as evolutionary memories 151
genetic inheritance 157–8
as part of primary-process consciousness 150
role in learning 158
see also emotions
affines, application of Hamilton's Rule 473
Africa, shamanism 522
African black eagles (Aquila verreauxi), siblicide 298
agent-affective state–proposition 215
age spacing, influence on birth-order effects 304
aggression
sex differences 217, 313, 365, 375–6
cross-sex aggression 372–5
evolutionary approaches 365–8
magnitude of effect 366
psychological mediators 368–72
Wilson's view 24, 25
aggression model 376
agreeableness
birth-order effects 303–4, 305
fluctuating selection 483–4
agricultural field scattering, risk reduction 438–40
AIDS, effect on homosexual partner choices 546
Akerlof, G.A. 607
alarm calls, social learning 104
Al-Bakri 468
alcohol abuse, role in aggression 375
Alesina, A. et al. 548, 549
Alexander, R.D. 532, 605, 615
Alex the parrot 92, 95
Allee, W.C. et al., Principles of Animal Ecology 50
alliance, relationship to descent 473–4
alliance formation 492
adaptive cognitive biases 494
by marriage 458
non-primates 87
alternate strategies 322
altricial infant 277–8
altruism 52, 115–6, 201, 531–2
correlation with religious participation 629, 630–1
group selection 579–80
Hamilton's Rule 7, 463, 541
public 535, 537
relationship to ethnic nepotism 546–9
role of group size 533–4
role of prosocial emotions 615
strong reciprocity 605–6
as an adaptation 614–5
evolutionary stability 611–3
in labour market 606–8
public goods game 609–11
ultimatum game 608–9
altruistic norms 616–7
altruistic punishment 613
Alvard, M. 467–8
ambiguity avoidance 442
ambilineal (cognatic) descent 465
Ammophila campestris, episodic-like memory 92–3
amnesia, dissociations 513
amygdala 132–3, 139–40
activation in disgust 192
role in autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) 140–1
role in face processing 171–2
role in stress response 279, 281
analysis, systemizing 218
Anasazi, risk-sensitive adaptations 440
ancient matrix, cultural evolution 520
Anderson, J.R. and Mitchell, R.W. 72
androgen receptor polymorphism 244
androstenol 316
(p. 684) 5α-androstenone 316
anecdotal evidence, empathy in non-human primates 116–7, 118, 123
anger 368
Animal Dispersion in Relation to Social Behaviour, V.C. Wynne-Edwards 50
animal models, value 149, 150, 158–9
animals
autonoetic knowledge 514
capacity for music 656, 661
comparative studies 57–8, 84–5
culture 12
evolutionary origin 109–10
in nature 105–7
FLB (faculty for language in the broad sense) 673
generic knowledge 14
innovation 108–9
social learning 104
temporal knowledge 508–9, 512
anisogamy 451
anoetic knowledge 513
antagonistic pleiotropy 407
antenatal experiences, influence on development 239, 285, 400, 486
anterior medial cortex, role in imitation 188, 189
anterior middle temporal gyrus 172
anthropomorphism 60–2, 65
role in religion 623, 624
antiglucocorticoids 280
anti-predator vigilance, guppy 481
antisymmetry 335–6
ants
teaching 90
tool use 91
anxiety, sex differences 368–9
Aphaenogaster rudis, tool use 91
apocrine glands 316
Aquila verreauxi, siblicide 298
archaeology 520, 587–8, 596
cereal agriculture, spread into Europe 591–2
foraging adaptations 588–90
social institutions 592–3
Archer, J. 372, 374
architecture of complexity, culture 17–8
area 45, role in mirror neuron system 181
artefacts, involvement in memes 600–1
articulated actions, prediction of behaviour 169–70
artificial intelligence 139
artistic creativity 484
as fitness indicator 485
Asian shamanism 524–6
Asperger syndrome (AS) 221
systemizing mechanism 222
aspiration levels, effect on risk-sensitive decisions 443
assortative mating 263–5
and autistic spectrum disorder 222–3
asymmetry data, assessment of statistical properties 350
Atran, S. 16
attachment styles, influence on development 256, 259
reproductive strategy 242, 243, 246–8
attachment theory 238, 278
effect of mother's bereavement 246
attentional hypervigilance, costs and benefits 497, 498
attention allocation 493–5
attention to relevant detail, sex differences 219
attitudes, fitness effects 480
attractiveness
link to creativity 484
role of altruism 535
role in mate choice 328
role of symmetry 333, 336, 349–52, 359, 360, 485
body symmetry 342–7
comparing faces and bodies 347–9
facial symmetry 337–42
visual attention allocation 495
Au, ultimatum game 609
audience effects, non-primates 87
audiences, attraction for altruistic acts 535
audio-visual mirror neurons 184
auditory scene analysis 662
Augustine, Saint, Confessiones 506
Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) 222
autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) 164, 173–4, 221
cortisol reactivity 281–2
empathy, lack of 173
hyper-systemizing theory 222–3
and ‘mindreading system’ 214, 216
parental systemizing 223
possible oxytocin imbalance 155
role of amygdala 140–1
autobiographical memory 506–9
dating of events 509–12
autonoetic knowledge 513
in non-human animals 514–5
role in temporal knowledge 514
average effect of genes 52–3
avoidance mechanisms, role of stress response 281
avunculate 468
Axelrod, R. 52
axillary odours 316, 317
axiom of amity 473
B
babblers, competitive altruism 536
baboons, extragenetic inheritance 576
backwards problem-solving, non-primates 91
backward telescoping 510
Bacon, F. 305
Baerends, G.P. 92–3
Bakhtin, M. 519–20, 521, 528
Balda, R.P. and Kamil, A.C. 94
‘Baldwin effect’, language evolution 678–9
Bangerter, A. and Heath, C. 501
Banisteriopsis hallucinogen, use in shamanism 523
Barash, D. and Barash, N. 642
Barí, partible paternity beliefs 555
Barrett, J.L. and Keil, F.C. 624
Barrett, L. et al. 641
Barrett, L. and Henzi, S.P. 169
Bartlett, F.C. 14, 601
basal ganglia, role in stress response 279
basic innate mental abilities 21
Bateson, P.P.G. 262
beavers, dam building 36
begging, ethnic nepotism 547
behaviour
adaptiveness 40–3
fine tuning 6, 38
situation-specific 307–8
behavioural differences
as genetic adaptations 23, 24
role of environmental changes 24–5
selection of psychological mechanisms 25–6
behavioural ecology 5, 7
correlations with brain size 130–1
behavioural evolution 66–7
behavioural inhibition 367
behaviourist psychology 67
behaviours, coevolution with institutions 615–6
Belsky, J. et al. 241, 242–4, 246, 248–50, 259
Belyaev, D. 234
Bereczkei, T. et al. 264
Berger, P. and Luckmann, T. 527
(p. 685) Bering, J.M. 632
Bernoulli, D. 434
BertJ, N.A. 464
between-group selection 50, 51
Betz, A.L. and Skowronski, J.J. 511
Betzig, L. 428
bias
adaptive cognitive biases 494
in childhood 632
in cultural learning 557–8
in dating of events 510
in facial symmetry studies 356
Bickerton, D., protolanguage 674–5, 676
‘big-mistake’ hypothesis, altruism 532
Billiard, S. et al. 484
binocularity, correlation with brain size 135
biological refractoriness 24
The Biology of Moral Systems, R.D. Alexander 605
biparental care 326
birds
comparative studies 94
cooperative breeding 405
episodic-like memory 92
extra-pair copulation (EPC) 328
food-caching behaviour 68, 87, 93, 94, 95, 96, 508, 514
forebrain size 88
sibling competition 298
sociality 86
tool use 91
traditions 89
transitive inference 93
bird song, relationship to music 661
birth, early mother–child contact 256
birth intervals 384
birth-order effects 297, 298, 300, 301, 309
context-sensitivity 307–8
deidentification 302
dominance hierarchies 301–2
niche partitioning 302
on parental investment 300–1
on personality 303–5
social and economic 298–9
stereotypes 302–3
in world history and radical revolutions 305–6
birth-order research, methodological considerations 306–7
Bjorklund, D.F. and Kipp, K. 367
Blacking, J. 652, 653, 655, 658
Blackmore, S. 599–600, 602
black plum Syzygium cuminii, sibling competition 298
Blau, P. 607
blending inheritance 574–5
Blok, A. 544
blood symbolism, Sicilian Mafia 544–5
blue-footed boobies (Sula nebouxi), siblicide 298, 309
bluegill sunfish, negative frequency-dependent selection 482
Blurton Jones, N.J. 384
Blurton Jones, N.J. and Sibley, R.M. 419
Bocquet-Appel, J.P. 591
body odours 315
familial similarities 264–5
link to MHC 317–8
role in sexual behaviour 316–7
social roles 317
source 315–6
body parts, fractionation in visual processing 165
body size, relationship to mating system 453
body symmetry
assessment of data 350
attractiveness 341, 342–52, 359
as fitness indicator 485
measurement 336–7
relationship to mate quality 357, 358–9, 360
Boehm, C. 613, 615
Boesch, C. 117
Boesch, C. and Boesch, H. 88
Bohlman, P. 653
Bond, A.B. et al. 93, 94
boredom, role in intimate aggression 375
bottlenecks in language transmission 678
bottom-up perspective, homologizing the mind 68
bounded rationality 198–9
Bowlby, J. 26, 151, 238
Bowles, S. and Gintis, H. 615
Boyd, B. 640, 642, 643
Boyd, R. et al. 613
Boyd, R. and Richerson, P.J. 15, 557, 574–5, 580
Boyer, P. 623, 624
brain
social brain hypothesis, non-primates 88–9
as social tool 276–7
brain development 109, 276
duration 239
brain evolution 127–8, 131–2, 141
amygdala 132–3
cognitive implications 138–41
comparative cognition 129–30
neocortex 134–8
phylogenetic analysis, brain structures 133–4
brain imaging
affective states 155
human sadness 154
limitations 149, 155
higher social brain 156
studies of disgust 191–2
studies of facial viewing 166
studies of imitation 188
studies of mirror neurons 181, 183, 190–1
brain size, correlations with behavioural ecology 130–1
brain stimulation studies, emotional systems 147–8
brain types 221
Bratman, M.E., shared cooperative activity 13
Bräuer, J. et al. 72, 73, 74–5
breastfeeding, duration for high risk infants 258
breast symmetry 358, 359
Breur, J.T. 239
bride price 387, 455
‘broadly congruent’ mirror neurons 180
broad-sense evolutionary psychologists 25
brood care, parasitoid wasps 92–3
Brosnan, S.F. and de Waal, F.B.M. 121
Brosnan, S.F. et al. 121
Brothers, L. 140
Brown, G.D.A. et al. 512
Brown, R.D. 549
Brown, S. 660
Brunswik, E. 199
Buccino, G. et al. 188
Buddhism 521–2
relationship to Asian shamanism 525–6
yogins 526–8
buffering of psychological mechanisms 27–8
Bugnyar, T. et al. 72
building blocks, heuristics 201, 202, 208
Bulbulia, J. 630–1
bulbuls, signalling 626–7
Buss, D.M. 374
Butovskaya, M. et al. 547
Bwa Mawego, stress response study 282–7
Byrne, R.W. 137
Byron 643
C
Call, J. et al. 72, 77, 118
Call, J. and Tomasello, M. 73, 76, 169
Calvo-Merino, B. et al. 185
canaries (Serinus canaria), sibling competition regulation 298
(p. 686) canine size, relationship to mating system 453
canonical neurons 179
capuchin monkeys
evidence of culture 107
responses to inequity 121
CARE system 146, 151, 156
Caro, T.M. and Hauser, M.D. 90
Carpenter, M. et al. 229
Carroll, J. 640, 641, 642, 643
Carroll, J. and Grottschall, J. 643
Case, et al. 465
Castellano, M.A. et al. 662
Catholic Church, celibacy 458
Catstro, Fidel 305
celibacy 423, 458
religious 471, 622
central nervous system, structural conservation 65–6
cereal agriculture, spread into Europe 591–2
cerebellum 141
correlated evolution 136–7
Cervone, D. and Shoda, Y. 307
Cervus elaphus, costs of reproduction 399
cetaceans
evidence of culture 107
see also dolphins; whales
Chagnon, N.A. 471–2
Chagnon, N.A. and Bugos, P. 464
channel functions of mind 148–9
charity donations, effect of ethnic nepotism 547–8
cheater-detection reasoning 495
cheaters, memorability 495
cheetahs, teaching 90
Chen, D. 628
child abuse 456
childhood, as mechanism for learning social skills 276–7, 278
childhood amnesia 513
childhood duration 237, 249–50, 255, 275–6
childhood experience
effect on reproductive strategy 242–50
BSD theory 242–4
influence on development 238–9, 259–62
stress response, Dominica study 282–7
see also parenting
child language 675
children
communication 232–3
cooperation 227, 228–9
effects of chronic stress 279–80
EP investigations 150
knowledge acquisition 623–4
language acquisition 676–7
physical growth 275–6
prosocial behaviour 123
religious commitments 632
role in bringing up siblings 424–5
stress response 274–5
temporal knowledge 511
chimpanzees
communication 231–2, 233
competitive altruism 536
consolation behaviour 117, 118
cooperation, experimental data 229–30, 231
cooperative hunting 88, 228, 229
culture 105, 107, 109
emotional contagion 119
fruit-tree carnivalling 659
joint attention, lack of 231, 232, 233
medicinal plant use 108–9
other-regarding preferences 122–3
pointing behaviour 232–3
punishment behaviour 120
reconciliation 376
responses to inequity 121
survival beyond reproductive years 398
theory of mind 71, 77
food competition 74–5, 76
gaze following 72–3
gestural communication 73–4
intentional attribution 76, 77
wound cleaning 117
China, One Child Policy 458–9
Chinese children, study of dyslexia 16
Chinese middleman groups 545
‘Chinese whispers’ game 575, 601
Chisholm, J.S. 245–6, 260–1
Chomsky, N. 22–3
Christiansen, M.H. 671
chromosomal disorders
body asymmetry 358
facial asymmetry 356
chronic stress
cortisol levels 285
effects 279–80
cingulate, activation in disgust 192
circles of acquaintanceship 8
clans 466
Clark, A. 138, 139
Clark's nutcracker 94
food-caching 96
classification, role in social cognition 545
classificatory kinship 448
Clayton, N.S. and Dickinson, A. 92, 95
cleaner fish 86, 87–8
Cleary, T. 528
Clegg, H. 485
climate change 17
coalitions
role of competitive altruism 533, 535, 537
value in large groups 533
coalition-signalling, role of music 659
cocaine 156
Coe, K. 640
coevolution
culture-gene 557, 580–3, 613–4
of ethnically marked groups 567–8
of institutions and behaviours 615–6
reproductive strategies 322, 324–5
cognatic (ambilineal) descent 465
cognition
as array of sensory–motor processes 139–41
distinction from emotion 147
distinction from sensory-motor control 138–9
cognitive abilities, link with ecology 93–5
cognitive empathy 116
cognitive function, relationship to cortisol levels 282
cognitive inhibition 367
cognitive niche 24
cognitive rhetoric 639
cognitive skills, need for comparative approach 84–5
cognitive studies, phenomena and mechanisms 85–6
Cohen, J. 350
Cole, L.C. 321
Cole, M. 17
Collard, M. et al. 442
collective action dilemmas 472
role of descent groups 466
collective intentionality 13, 14
collective self 505
comedy 640, 641
comforting behaviour, sex differences 216
communality 522
communal sharing 473
communication 189, 501, 601, 602
development 231–3
distinction from language 672
role of music 649, 650
see also language
communicative mouth mirror neurons 181,182, 190
comparative cognition and brain evolution 129–30
(p. 687) comparative studies 57–8
brain evolution 129, 131–2
amygdala 132–3
brain size 130–1
comparative cognition 129–30
neocortex 134–8
culture in nature 105–7
ecology, link with cognitive abilities 94
non-primates
Alex the parrot 92
complex communication 90
episodic-like memory 92–3
imitation and emulation 93
phenomena linked to social complexity 86–9
solving problems backwards 91–2
theory of mind 93
tool use 90–1
traditions 89–90
transitive inference 93
social learning 104
value 84–5
competition
as cause of cognitive constraints 199
female tactics 367–8
for mates 323
role in male aggression 265, 367
sex differences 216, 217
competitive altruism 534–5, 537–8
evidence 535–7
complex adaptive systems 677–9
complex communication, non-primates 90
component vectors of evolutionary change 53
computational models, heuristics 201, 202
concealed ovulation 277, 278
conditional probability model of development 249
conditional strategies 322
conditioning 201
conduct disorders, sex differences 217
Confessiones, Saint Augustine 506
confidence 149
confirmation, systemizing 218
conflict, cortisol response 274, 284
conformist transmission, cultural learning 562–5
conjoint marriage 455
Connellan, J. et al. 220–1
conscientiousness
birth-order effects 303
fluctuating selection 483, 484
conservative approach, homologizing the mind 67–8
consilience 637
consolation behaviour, non-human primates 117, 118, 123
consonance-dissonance distinction, music 652
constitutive rules 13
constraints, psychological trait acquisition 22–3
constructional abilities, sex differences 219
content (direct) biases, cultural learning 557–8
content domains, adaptive toolbox 207
context biases, cultural learning 558
context-sensitivity, behaviour 307–8, 309
contextual cues 163
contextual variables, in assessment of cognitive differences 130
contraception uptake 387
contrast effects, sibling differences 306
control hierarchies 18
Cooke, B. 640, 641, 642, 643
cooking of food, invention 17
cooperative behaviour 115–6, 227–31, 531
gene-culture coevolution 613–4
non-human primates 64
phylogenetic hypothesis 233–5
in public goods game 609–11
role of religion 625–6
cooperative breeding 422
cooperative hunting 88, 228, 229
cooperative traits 52
Copernicus 305
copying 387
core emotional systems 146–9, 151, 152–3, 156–7
‘objectlessness’ 157–8
core system, visual association cortex 165
correlated evolution 132,134
amygdala 132–3
neocortex 135–8,136
cortico-cerebellar system 136–7, 141
corticotropin-releasing factor 158
cortisol
influence on HPA system 285–6
relationship to cognitive function 282
response to social threats 274, 283–5
saliva immunoassay 282, 283
stress response 259, 273, 274, 279–80, 281
relationship to birthweight 486
corvids, memory capacity comparisons 94
Cosmides, L., evolutionary psychology 25–7
Cosmides, L. and Tooby, J. 84
Costa, R. and McCrae, R. 483
costly behaviour, religions 622, 625, 633
rituals 627–8
costly information hypothesis 557, 582
costly-signalling theory 534, 626
and religion 627–9, 632–3
council infrastructure, ethnic nepotism 548
counteractive niche construction 40
cousin marriages 456–7
cousins 470
Cowlishaw, G. and Mace, R. 455, 469
Craig, A.D. 192
creativity
as fitness indicator 485
link to attractiveness 484
creolization 676
criminal business, ethnic nepotism 543
Crognier, E. et al. 464–5
Cronk, L. 628
cross-cousin marriages 457
cross-cousins 471
Cross, I. 655, 658, 660, 661
cross-sex aggression, sex differences 372–5
Crow kinship system 470
cue-based mechanisms 58
cues 496–7, 501
in kin-detection 532
cue selection, use of heuristics 205–6
cultural differences
in ethnic nepotism 544
in music 651–3
socialization 265–7
in strong reciprocity 608–9
cultural drift 593–6
cultural evolution 30–2, 44, 45, 556
archaeology 587–8, 596
cereal agriculture, spread into Europe 591–2
foraging adaptations 588–90
social institutions 592–3
speed 577
cultural evolutionary models 571–3
extragenetic inheritance systems 576–7
gene-culture coevolution 580–3
group selection for altruistic behaviour 579–80
noisy learning 574–7
relative strength of forces of evolution 577–80
value 573
(p. 688) cultural evolutionary rates, interaction with demographic conditions 565–7
cultural group selection 235
cultural learning 556
psychological mechanisms 557–8
conformist transmission 562–5
selection of models 558–62
culturally heritable resources 393–4
cultural niche construction 37, 38–9, 41–2
cultural transmission 24, 28, 29–30
culture 1, 5, 7–9, 11–2, 103, 450, 553–4
acquisition 105
animals, evolutionary origins 109–10
complexity 17–8
definitions 12–3
as evolutionary force 17
as explanation for reproductive strategy 428–9
impact on intelligence 110–11
minimal psychological mechanisms 14–5
in nature 105–7
old orthodox view 22
origins in humans 111–2
reach and power 15–7
recognition markers 542
role of cognitive adaptations 501
role of memes 599, 600–1, 602
role in sex differences 220–1
world-views 519–21, 528
shamanic society 521–6
yogins 526–8
culture-gene co-evolution 557, 580–3
culture history 587
cumulative cultural evolution 556
Curio, E. et al. 89
D
dairy farmers, lactose tolerance 17, 43
Daly, M. and Wilson, M. 365, 464
Damasio, A. 139, 192
dance 653
Danton, Georges-Jacques 305
Darwin, C. 5, 18, 199, 305, 307, 574
on female mating preferences 333
influence of G. Lyell 571
on multi-level selection 50
on music 649–50, 661
principle of divergence 302
Darwin's finches 36–7, 481, 578
data sources, family reconstitution 415
dating of events 509–12
daughter inheritance 469
Dawe's Rule 205
Dawkins, R. 553, 574, 599, 600, 602, 605
The Selfish Gene 51, 53
DeBruine, L.M. 265
deceit 164
in non-primates 87
decision-making 197–8, 495–6
bounded rationality 198–9
building blocks 202
ecological rationality 128, 199–200
functional flexibility 498
heuristics
ignorance-based decision mechanisms 203–4
for multiple-option choices 206
for sequential choices 206–7
one-reason decision mechanisms 204–6
unbounded rationality 198
decision trees 198
declarative pointing 232
deep ecology 638
deference benefits 559
deference system, Ladakh 525
deidentification 301, 302, 304
demographic conditions, interaction with cultural evolutionary rates 565–7
demographic transition 386–7, 420, 428, 565
Dennett, D.C. 15, 602
dental symmetry, relationship to chromosomal disorders 356
depression 154
fitness effects 480
relationship to stress response 281, 285
de-reification 527, 528
DʼErrico, F. et al. 663
Derrida, J. 638
Descartes, R. 11, 305
descent
distinction from kinship 465
relationship to alliance 473–4
relationship to reproductive success 472
descent groups, functions 466–8
The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, C. Darwin 649
descent systems 465–6
reason for differences 468–9
development 211–2
of communication 231–3
of cooperative behaviour 228–9
of empathizing
distinction of TED from TESS 216
‘empathizing system’ model 215–6
‘mindreading system’ 213–4
environmental effects 486
influence of childhood experience 238–9, 242–50
of joint attention 214, 230–1
of memory systems 513
of religious commitments 632
role of juvenile dependency 237
developmental environments 27–8
developmental instability 328, 334
de Waal, F.B.M. 73, 118, 122, 123, 375–6
dialects, songbirds 89
differential parental investment 421
differential reproduction 416
differential susceptibility to childhood experiences 241
diffusion of innovations 562, 578–9, 600, 603
digital infinity, language 670, 672
Dingemanse, N.J. et al. 481–2
direct benefits of mate choice 323
direct comprehension 189
direct (content) biases, cultural learning 557–8
directional asymmetry (DA) 335, 350, 352
detection 336–7
facial 349
direct reciprocity 533
direct selection, male secondary sexual traits 334
disabilities, behavioural reactions 496
disconfirmation, systemizing 218
diseases, effects on body odour 316
disfigurement, behavioural reactions 496
disgust 147
mirroring 172–3, 191–2
disposable soma theory 401
Dissanayake, E. 640, 660–1
dissociation
in amnesia 513
trances 521
Distin, K. 602
DNA, reverse engineering 574
DNA methylation, effect on HPA system 286
Dobzhansky, T. 59
dogs
food competition 75–6
learning of words 673
dolphins
alliances 87
autonoetic knowledge 514
complex communication 90
role specialization 88
tool use 90–1
domestication, effect on social cognitive skills 234
domestic violence, relationship to dowry 456
dominance 147
context-sensitivity 307
(p. 689) dominance hierarchies
sex differences 217
siblings 301–2
Dominica study, stress response 282–7
dopamine 156
role in adult pair-bonds 155
dopamine receptor genes, polymorphism 480
dorsal stream, visual processing 164, 165
double descent systems 465
double looks, non-human primates 73
Dow, J. 473
downstream developmental niche construction 32
dowries 387, 388, 456
Drake, C. and El Heni, J.B. 662
drama 641
Draper, P. and Harpending, H. 242
Drosophila melanogaster
evolution of learning abilities 95
sexually antagonistic adaptations 324
Dr Seuss tales 642
dual-aspect monism 150, 154
dual evolutionary model, patriotism 543
dual-inheritance theory 556–7, 565, 588, 591
cultural learning mechanisms
conformist transmission 562–5
cultural model selection 558–62
demography and cultural evolutionary rates 565–7
ethnically marked groups 567–8
dualism 11, 138–9
Duffy blood groups 43
Dunbar, R.I.M. 130, 520, 640, 641, 660
dunnock, mating systems 449
duration judgements 506
dyslexia, Chinese children study 16
E
early contact, effect on mother–child relationship 256
early family trauma (EFT)
effect on cortisol levels 286, 287, 288
effect on morbidity 287
Easterlin, N. 640, 641, 642, 643
Easterly, W. and Levine, R. 549
eavesdropping behaviour, non-primates 87
echo mirror neuron system 190
ecocriticism 639–40
ecological approach 84, 95
ecological rationality 128, 199–200
challenge ahead 207
see also heuristics
ecological studies 57–8
ecology
correlations with brain size 130–1
link with animal's cognitive abilities 93–5
economic exploitation, by mothers-in-law 426–7
education funding, relationship to racial diversity 549
effortful control, sex differences 369–70
Ehlers, A. et al. 318
Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. 266, 541, 542, 613, 615
Eisenberg, J.F. 131
Ekman, P. 641, 650
elephants
social skills 86
tool use 90
Eliade, M. 524
Elimination By Aspects (EBA) heuristic 206
eliminative neural materialism 150
Ellis, A. 651
Ellis, B.J. 242, 244–5, 248–50
Ellis, G.F.R. and Toronchuk, J. 147
Ellison, P.T. 468
Elston, R.G. and Brantingham, P.J. 441–2
Embedded Figures Test, sex differences 219
embodied capital 383
embodied simulation 140
Emery, N.J. and Clayton, N.S. 93
Emery, N.J. et al. 72
emotional contagion, non-human primates 119
emotional deprivation, effect on development 256
emotional quality of literature 640–1
emotional reactivity, effects of reduction 234, 235
emotions
core emotional systems 146–9
discussion of, sex differences 217
as intrinsic part of cognition 139
mirroring 140, 172–3, 191–3
prosocial 615
relationship to music 649, 650, 654, 662
religious 627, 633
see also affects
empathizing 213
brain types 221
‘mindreading system’ 213–4
natural selection in females 218
sex differences 216–7, 220–1, 223
‘empathizing system’ model 215–6
empathy 115, 116, 173, 193
literary point of view 641
in non-human primates 123–4
anecdotes 116–7
common events 117–8
experimental data 118–20
emulation 104
non-human primates 93
see also imitation
encapsulation of religious cognition 629–30
endorphins 158
see also opioids
energy, shamans' perception 522
energy metaphors of mind 148
engineering, sex differences 219
entrainment 654, 655, 660
environment, role in variation 486–7
environmental changes 28
effect on behaviour 24–5
environmental information, literature as source 640
environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA) 6, 26, 238, 239, 420, 421, 427, 444
epic literature 642
epigenetic behavioural variation 67
epigenetic inheritance systems 576–7
epigenetic processes 150
episodic-like memory, non-primates 92–3
episodic memory 507–8, 513, 514
dating of events 509–12
in non-human animals 514–5
equilibria, cultural evolutionary models 572
equilibrium fraction, strong reciprocators 612
equilibrium selection 52
equity heuristic, parental investment 300
Ergorul, C. and Eichenbaum, H. 515
Ernst, C. and Angst, J. 303
error patterns, date estimation 510–11
Eskimo kinship terminology 470, 471–2
estimation, QuickEst heuristic 206
ethnically marked groups 567–8
ethnic kinship 541
ethnic nepotism 542–3
and public altruism 546–9
and risky transactions 543–6
ethnic stereotypes 496, 498
ethnomusicology 651–3
ethological approach 84
eukaryotic cells, symbiotic theory 54
European–American (EA) theory of mind 16
eusocial insects 54, 228
care of offspring 405
(p. 690) Evans, D. 643
evocative gene–environment correlation 267, 268
evoked culture 29
evolutionary epistemology 150
evolutionary novelties 25, 26
evolutionary psychological frameworks
‘Fodorian psychology’ 62–5
‘Frodoian psychology’ 60–2
evolutionary psychology
broad perspective 6–9
as framework theory 4
future directions 9
recent history 5
J. Tooby and L. Cosmides 25–7
evolutionary transitions 14, 53–4, 669, 670
Evolution in Four Dimensions, E. Jablonka and M. Lamb 576
evolved capacities, heuristics 201–2
Ewens, W.J. 594
exchange networks, !Kung Bushmen 544
excitement, cortisol response 285
executive function (EF) 505–6
sex differences 370
exogamy 467, 472, 567
expected energy-budget rule, z-score model 436
experience seeking 371
Explaining Culture, D. Sperber 656
exploration, Parus major 481–2
exploring 201
exponential discount function 437
expression, visual processing 166
The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, C. Darwin 650
exstrastriate body area 165
The Extended Phenotype, R. Dawkins 574
extragenetic inheritance systems 576–7
extra-pair copulation (EPC) 450, 453
birds 328
role in women's mating strategies 329–30
extraversion
birth-order effects 304
fluctuating selection 483
extreme variance rule, z-score model 436
eye contact, sex differences 217
Eye Direction Detector (EDD) 213, 215
eye gaze detection, neural structures 500
eye size, correlation with brain size 135
F
F5 neurons 179–80
sensitivity to unseen actions 171
face perception 139–40
neural structures 500
faces
preferential viewing 171
sex differences 217
visual attention allocation 495
visual processing 165–6, 171–2
facial attractiveness, visual attention allocation 495
facial masculinity, role in mate choice 328, 329
facial self-resemblance 265
facial symmetry
assessment of data 350
attractiveness 337–42, 347–9, 359
measurement 336
relationship to mate quality 356–8, 359–60
Fadiga, L. et al. 190
fairness
sense of, non-human primates 121
sex differences 216
see also inequity
fairy tales 642
Faist, T. 549
Falk, D. 661
false alarms, non-primates 87
familial relatedness 227
family
evolution 277–9
influence on development 308–9
family conflict, cortisol response 283–5
family reconstitution studies 415–6
cultural differences 429
kin strategies 422–3
non-reproductive helpers-at-the-nest 423–4
post-reproductive helpers-at-the-nest 425–7
pre-reproductive helpers-at-the-nest 424–5
reproductive strategy 416–7
differential parental investment 421
mating versus parenting 417–8
quantity versus quality of offspring 419–21
wealth of offspring versus health of offspring 419
family size
demographic transition 386–7
quantity versus quality of offspring 241, 384, 391, 419–21
relationship to late reproduction 404–5
relationship to post-reproductive survival 401
relationship to resources 387–92
risk-sensitive adaptation 440–1
runaway parental investment 392–4
trade-offs between fertility and mortality 384–6
farming, spread into Europe 591–2
FA–sexual selection hypothesis 335, 336, 360
fathers, effects of absence 242, 244–5, 260, 418, 487
Faurie, C. and Raymond, M. 484
fear
negative correlation with sensation seeking 371–2
sex differences 368–9
fear-based (reactive) inhibition, sex differences 369
FEAR system 146, 147
feedback, from niche construction 36
Fehr, E. et al. 609
Fehr, F. and Gachter, S. 610–11
Fehr, F. and Schmidt, K.M. 610
female-biased sex ratio, as evidence for group selection 51
female brain 221
female defence polygyny 469
female–female competition 387
female mate preferences
for culturally heritable resources 393–4
extra-pair copulations (EPCs) 329–30
and male secondary sexual traits 333–4
role of symmetry 328
variation with menstrual cycle 329–30, 347
female reproductive strategy, father's influence 242, 244–5, 260
females, natural selection of good empathy 218
feminism 638
Fertile Crescent 591
fertility
quantity versus quality of offspring 241, 384, 391, 419–21
risk-sensitive adaptation 440–1
trade-off with mortality 384–6, 397, 398–9, 400–4, 407, 408
fertility decline 386–7, 420, 459
Addis Ababa 390–1
fertility level, effect on female preferences 329–30, 347
fertility status, male detection 330
fictive kinship 544
field scattering, risk reduction 438–40
fine tuning of behaviour 6, 38
(p. 691) fire, discovery 17
firearm crime exposure 16
firstborns
advantages 298–9, 300, 302
inheritance 423
personality 303–5
scientists 305
first culture 15
fish
cooperative hunting 88
sociality 86
Fisher, R.A. 50, 392, 574
Fisher's fundamental theorem 479–80, 481
fission-fusion societies 533
Fitch, W.T. 658, 661–2, 674
Fitch, W.T. and Hauser, M. 673
fitness
consequences of social interactions 7–8
heritability 480
relationship to fluctuating asymmetry 334,335
relative 49–50
reproductive and post-reproductive phases 406
reproductive success as measure 44
role of music 658–9, 660
fitness-indicator models 485
fitness indicators 482–3, 487
fitness maximization 4
Five Factor Model of personality, birth-order effects 303–4
Flack, J.C. and de Waal, F.B.M. 120
FLB (faculty of language in the broad sense) 672, 673
flexibility, mental function 66
flexibility of language 670–1
Flinn, M.V. and Low, B.S. 457
FLN (faculty of language in the narrow sense) 672, 673
floating intentionality, music 658, 660
Flombaum, J.I. and Santos, L. 75
fluctuating asymmetry (FA) 328, 333, 334–6, 359–60
assessment of statistical properties of data 350
and human mate quality 352, 356,357
body symmetry 358–9
facial symmetry 356–8
measurement 336–7
relationship to sexual behaviour 354–5
role in human mate preferences 336, 349–52, 353
attractiveness of body symmetry 342–7
attractiveness of facial symmetry 337–42
comparing faces and bodies 347–9
fluctuating selection 481–2, 487
fluctuating selection models 483–5
focal offspring 474
focal referents, kinship terminology 470
‘Fodorian psychology’ 62–5
Fodor, J.A. 62, 138
Fogassi, L. et al. 185–7
‘folk psychology’ 61
food-caching behaviour
birds 87, 93, 94, 95, 96
temporal knowledge 508, 514
food competition, non-human primates 74–6, 77
food preference, rats 203–4
food sharing 536, 609
non-primates 88
foraging adaptations, archaeology 588–90
foraging behaviour, correlation with brain size 130
foraging societies
interbirth intervals 384
male calorie provision 326
foreign aid, ethnic nepotism 548–9
forgetting 201
Fortes, M. 465
forward telescoping 510
Foster, C. 386
Foucault, M. 638
foundational social processes 145–6
Four Why questions, Tinbergen 4, 671
foxes, effects of domestication 234
Fox, R. 642
fractionation of language 676
framing effects
kinship 544
risk-sensitive decisions 443
fraternal polyandry 455
Freeman, G.P. 549
Freeriding 9, 235, 448
relationship to group size 533
Freese, J. et al. 306
French revolution 305
Freud, S. 262
Friedman, M.J. and Savage, I.J. 434
Friedman, W.J. 508, 510, 511
friends, genetic similarities 543
‘Frodoian psychology’ 60–2
Fromm, H. 640
frontal brain regions, role in cognitive adaptations 137
frugivores, brain size 130
fruit-tree carnivalling, chimpanzees 659
functional flexibility, social cognitive adaptations 497–9
Furlow, F.B. et al. 359
fusiform face area (FFA) 165, 166, 172
G
G6PD 43
Galapagos finches 481
beak depth selection 578
niche construction 36–7
Gallese, V. et al. 172
game theoretical models 52, 53, 322
game theory, and religious cooperation 625–6, 632
Gangestad, S.W. and Thornhill, R. 329, 330
Garcia, J. and Koelling, R.A. 68
gaze direction, combined analysis with actions 168
gaze following
neural models 171
non-human primates 72–3, 77, 167
gaze heuristics 198
gazelle, signalling 627
gene analogy, memes 599
gene-culture coevolution 7, 31–2, 580, 613–4
difference in rates of evolution 580–2
gullibility as an adaptation 582–3
gene modification, grooming behaviours 155–6
generalized reciprocity 473
generational kinship system 470
generativity, music 654
generic knowledge 14
generosity 123, 536
genes 4, 5
‘gene's eye view’ 53
genetic adaptations 23–5
i-properties 32–3
robustness 27–8
genetic benefits of mate choice 323
genetic change 30–1
genetic determinism 23–4
genetic factors
in autistic spectrum disorder 222–3
in impulse control and sensation-seeking 372
in life-history traits 407–8, 409
in reproductive strategy 241–2, 244
in spirituality 621
genetic kinship 448
genetic mating systems 449
genetic models 573
genetic processes in niche construction 37–8
genetic relatedness, co-ethnics 542
genetic selection
conditions 23
relationship to niche construction 42–3
genetic variation 479–81
(p. 692) genital odours 316
genre 640–1
geographic variation, as evidence of culture 106, 107
Geospiza spp 36–7, 481, 578
Geronimus, A.T. 246
gestural communication, non-human primates 73–4, 77
Ghengis Khan 393
Ghiselin, M.T. 605
‘ghost in the machine’ notion 139
gift-giving, Melanesia 609
Gigerenzer, G. et al. 200
Gilens, M. 549
Gintis, H. 611, 617
Gipsy communities
female fertility as function of sex of first-born 266
socialization of children 265–6
Globicephala macrorhyncus, post-reproductive lifespan 398
glucocorticoids, influence on HPA system 285–6
Gnau, ultimatum game 609
goal-directed hand actions, visual processing 168
goal-related acts, response of F5 neurons 179
goats, gaze following 72
gods, in Asian shamanism 525
Goland, C. 438–9
gonadotropin-releasing hormone 158
Goodenough, W.H., definition of culture 12
good genes, role in mate choice 327–8
‘good-standing’ strategy 536
gorillas
empathy and sympathy 116–7
episodic-like memory 508
language 675
gossip 538
Gottschall, J. 642, 644
Gould, S.J. 276
grade differences, brain 131
gradistic approach 60–2, 65
Graham, J.H. et al. 349, 352
grandchildren numbers, relationship to female lifespan 405,406
grandparents, role in child-rearing 237, 383, 386, 398, 405, 422, 423
family reconstitution studies 425–7
Grant, B.R. and Grant, P.R. 578
Grant, P.R. 481
grasping, activity of IPL neurons 185–7
grasping mirror neurons 179, 180
great apes 58
comparative cognition 130
theory of mind 64
great tit, fluctuating selection 481–2
Greene, G. 643
Griffiths, D. et al 508, 514
grooming behaviours, effects 153, 155–6
Gross, C.G. et al. 165
Gross, M.R. 482
group bonding, role of music 653, 656, 660
groupers, cooperative hunting 88
group formation, non-human primates 452
group identification 201
group longevity, correlation with religious participation 628–9
group membership 227
group nepotism 473
group relationships, non-primates 86–7
group resources, music as indicator 659
groups
individuals' knowledge 71
in models of social behaviour 52
relative fitness 49–50
group selection 49, 235, 520, 614
for altruism 579–80
collapse of 1960s consensus 51–2
future study 54–5
major transitions 53–4
of music 659
naïve 50–1
and replicator concept 52–3
single theoretical framework 53
group size
effect on risk-sensitive decisions 443
relationship to altruistic behaviour 533–4, 612
relationship to brain size 130
relationship to freeriding 533, 535
relationship to ventral pathway 165
group size selection 65
growth, effect of stress response 279, 280
guiding search, building blocks 202
gullibility as an adaptation 582–3
guppy, fluctuating selection 481
Guthrie, S. 623
H
Hadza, ultimatum game 609
haemoglobin C 43
Haemulon flavolineatum, social learning 89
Hagen, E.H. and Bryant, G.A. 659
Haldane, J.B.S. 50
hallucinogens, use in shamanism 523
Hama, A. 548
Hames, R. and Draper, P. 424
Hamilton's Rule 7, 463, 464–5, 473, 541
Hamilton, W.D. 52, 235, 579
eusocial insects 54
inclusive fitness 532, 541
pathogens, role in evolution of sex 454
sibling competition 297
Hammel, E.A. 429
Hammel, E.A. and Gullickson, A. 427
handedness
fitness effects 480
fluctuating selection 484
handicapped children, parental strategies 257–9
hand mirror neurons 179–80
hand-object interactions, visual processing 168
Hannon, E.E. and Trehub, S.E. 662
Hardy, C. and Van Vugt, M. 537
Hare, B. et al. 74, 75
Hare, B. and Tomasello, M. 230, 232, 234
Harlow, H.F. 151
harmony, use in music 651
Harpending, H. 541
Harris, J.R. 299
Hartung, J. 455, 468, 469
Haselton, M.G. and Gangestad, S.W. 330
Hauser, M. 661
Hauser, M. and Marler, P. 120–1
Hauser, M. et al. 672–3
Hawaiian kinship terminology 470
Hawkes, K. 326–7
Haxby, J.V. et al. 166, 172
Headlam Wells, R. 642
health
correlation with body symmetry 358–9, 360
correlation with facial symmetry 356–7, 359–60
influence of antenatal experiences 239
Hegmon, M. 440
Heiser, M. et al. 188
Helfman, G.S. and Schultz, E.T. 89
Heller-Karneth, E. 429
helper-at-the-nest systems 423, 464–5
non-reproductive 423–4
post-reproductive 425–7
pre-reproductive 424–5
Hendrix, Jimi 658
Henrich, J. 121, 566
Henrich, J. and Boyd, R. 563, 576, 613
Henrich, J. et al. 574, 608
Henrich, J. and Gil-White, F. 561
heritability, reproductive strategy 241–2, 244
Hero, R.E. and Tolbert, C.J. 549
Herrman, E. and Tomasello, M. 232
(p. 693) heterogeneity of individuals and life circumstances 422
heuristics 197–8, 199, 200, 202–3, 208
building blocks 202
equity heuristic, parental investment 300
evolved capacities 201–2
ignorance-based decision mechanisms 203–4
for multiple-option choices 206
one-reason decision mechanisms 204–6
for sequential choices 206–7
Heyes, C.M. 93, 129
Hick's test, pigeons' performance 96
Hierarchies 18
higher-order knowledge structures 13–4
high-risk children, parental strategy 257–9
Hill, D.E. 91
hippocampal complex, comparative studies 137
hippocampus, role in episodic memory 515
HIV/AIDS, effect on homosexual partner choices 546
HLA alleles, role in mate choice 262, 263
‘hobbit’ fossil (Homo floresiensis) 60, 62, 63
Ho Chi Minh 305
Holden, C.J. et ai. 469
Holden, C.J. and Mace, R. 469
holding mirror neurons 179–80
holistic protolanguage 675–6
Holms, J. 151
Holocene, human population growth 43
Holy, T.E. and Guo, Z. 656
Homans, G. 607
Homer 642
home range size, correlation with brain size 130
homicide, sex differences 372–3
Homo floresiensis 60, 62, 63
homogamy 263–5
homologizing the mind 57, 59–60, 65–8
evolutionary psychological frameworks
‘Fodorian psychology’ 62–5
‘Frodoian psychology’ 60–2
homosexuality
partnering behaviour 543, 546
relationship to number of older brothers 304
Honekopp, J. et al. 358
honeybees, symbolic language 90
Hopi, risk-sensitive adaptations 440
Horowitz, D.L. 542
Horton, S. 300
Hostetter, A.B. et al. 74
Houle, D. 480
Howe, M.L. and Courage, M.L. 513
How the Mind Works, S. Pinker 657
Hua-yen philosophy 528
Huether, G. 281
Hughes, A.L. 473–4
Huinca, ultimatum game 608
human behaviour, adaptiveness 40–3
human behavioural ecology (HBE) 588, 589
human culture, origins 111–2
human family, evolution 277–9
human major transition 54
humans
difference from other animals 1
evolution of mating tactics
choosing mates for good genes 327–8
extra-pair copulations (EPCs) 329–30
parental care and hunting 326–7
place in nature 96
Hume, D.K. and Montgomerie, R. 358
hunting
evolution in humans 326–7
role of descent groups 467–8
value of systemizing 220
hunting rituals, Amazonian shamanism 523
Hur, Y.-M. and Bouchard, T.J. 372
hybrid corn, diffusion 578–9
hyenas, knowledge of within group relationships 87
Hyperactive Agent Detection Device (HADD) 623
hyperbolic discount function 437
hyper-systemizing theory, autistic spectrum disorder 222–3
hypervigilance 493–5
costs and benefits 497, 498
hypo-systemizing 222
hypothalamic–anterior
pituitary–adrenal cortex (HPA) system 279, 280
developmental influences 285–7
hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis 259
hypothesis-testing 7
I
Iacoboni, M et al. 187, 188
‘ideal despotic distribution’ principle 592, 593
ideation, in definition of culture 12
identity, visual processing 166
ignorance-based decision mechanisms 203–4
illicit activities, ethnic nepotism 543
Illien, A. and Jeggle, U. 425
illness, association with stress 274, 279
image scoring 536
cleaner fish 87–8
Imanishi, K. 105
Imhof, A. E. 429
Imitation 104, 172, 201, 553, 555, 600, 601–2
experimental evidence 561
non-human primates 93
role of mirror neurons 140, 187–9
of suicides 562
immune function, effect of reproductive effort 402–3, 404
immune system, effect of stress response 279, 280
immunoassay, stress hormone levels 282, 283
imperative gestures 232, 233
implied motion, visual processing 169–70
imprinting 256
sexual 262–5
impulse control (self-control), sex differences 370
inactivity periods 507
inbreeding 262
trade-offs 419
incest 419
inclusive fitness theory 52, 53, 54, 83, 464, 532, 541, 605
indeterminacy 638
indirect benefits of mate choice 323
indirect reciprocity 534
indirect (relational) aggression 367
indirect reproduction 464
indirect selection, male secondary sexual traits 334
individual differences 479
in altruism 535
see also variation
individualism, cultural evolution 520, 521, 522
individual recognition, non-primates 86
individual selection, theory of 50–1
inequity
archaeological evidence 592–3
in marriage 375
responses of non-human primates 121
see also fairness
infant-directed speech, influence on development 256
infanticide 17, 298, 388, 456
infant mortality, relationship to parental body symmetry 359
infant survival, trade-off with mother's fertility 384
(p. 694) infectious disease susceptibility, effect of reproductive effort 402–3
inference, role in culture 14
inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)
role in imitation 188
role in mirror neuron system 181, 183
inferior parietal lobe (IPL)
motor organization 185–7
role in mirror neuron system 181
infidelity, sex differences in response 372, 374
information, activation into working memory 496, 498
informational conformity 564
informational hierarchies 18
information-processing, bounds 198–9
information transfer 601, 603
inheritance channels 30
inheritance customs 299, 455, 456
in polygyny 469
inhibition 368
negative association with sensation seeking 371–2
sex differences 369–70
inhibitory abilities, sex differences 367
innate knowledge, universal grammar 22, 23
innateness 32–3
innate preparedness to learn 500
innovations
in animals 108–9, 110
diffusion 562, 578–9, 600, 603
as evidence of culture 106–7
input-operation-output relationships, systemizing 218
insecure-avoidant attachment 246
insecure-resistant attachment 246
instinctual brain systems 146–9
institutionalized celibacy, use of kin terms 471
institutional (social) facts 228
institutions, coevolution with behaviours 615–6
insular activity, disgust 172–3, 192
integration of religious representations 630–1
integrative evolutionary paradigm 273
intelligence
birth-order effects 303
effect of musical training 658
fitness effects 480
as fitness indicator 485
impact of culture 110–11
relationship to body symmetry 259
relationship to facial symmetry 358
intentional attribution, non-human primates 76–7, 169
‘intentional’ hunting 88
intentionality 520
Intentionality Detector (ID) 214, 215
intention understanding, role of mirror neurons 185–7
interbirth intervals 384
consequences for offspring 399
intergenerational transfers 383, 387
intergenerational transmission of parenting 248
inter-group relationships, role of music 659–60
inter-group warfare 65
internalization of norms 616–7
interpretative commentaries, literature 642–3, 644
interspecific cooperative hunting 88
inter-unit selection 520
intervention behaviour, non-human primates 117–8
intimate homicide, sex differences 372
intimate terrorism 374
introspection, limitations 139
intuition violation, role in religious experience 623, 624
intuitive theism 632
Iowa Gambling Task, sex differences 369
i-properties 32–3
Irons, W. 628
Iroquois-Dravidian kin terminology 471, 472
Itakura, S. 72
iterated learning 677, 678
J
Jablonka, E. and Lamb, M. 576
Jackendoff, R. 675
James, P. 548
James, W. 148
jays
comparative studies 94
episodic-like memory 92
food-caching behaviour 87, 93, 95, 508, 514
transitive inference 93
jealousy 374
Jenkin, F. 574
Jensen's inequality 434
Jewish communities, risk mitigation strategies 545
Jobling, I. 642, 643
Johnson, D. 630
Johnson, M.P. 374, 639
Johns, S.E. 246
joint attention 228, 233
development 214, 230–1, 234
Jones, D. 470, 473
Jorm, A.F. et al. 244
Josephson, S.C. 393
‘J-shaped’ distribution, value of QuickEst heuristic 206
jumping spiders, problem-solving 91–2
juvenile dependency 237, 255, 275–6
as mechanism for learning social skills 276–7, 278
relationship to music 661
K
Kacelnik, A. and Bateson, M. 438, 444
Kagan, J. et al. 239
Kaminski, J. et al. 73
Kaplan, H. 383, 386
Kaplan, H. et al. 326, 391, 420
Karin-Dʼarcy, M.R. and Povinelli, D.J. 74
Karmiloff-Smith, A. 658
Karpathos, rights of firstborn 423–4
Keith, A. 543
Keleman, D. 632
Kellogg, W. and Kellog, L. 555
Kemkes-Grottenthaler, A. 424
kin care 492
adaptive cognitive biases 494
kin marriages 419
kin selection 416, 464, 541, 579
kin selection theory 52, 235
encouragement of reproduction 386
kinship 448, 463, 464
classification 469–72
distinction from descent 465
ethnic 541
group nepotism 473
nepotism 464–5
relationship to reproductive success 472
relationship to risky transactions 544
role in moral altruism 532–3
Sicilian Mafia 544–5
kinship cues 497, 501
kin strategies, family reconstitution studies 422–3
non-reproductive helpers-at-the-nest 423–4
post-reproductive helpers-at-the-nest 425–7
pre-reproductive helpers-at-the-nest 424–5
Kirby, S. 671, 676
Kirk, C. 135
Kirk, K.M. et al. 407
knowledge
activation into working memory 496, 498
higher-order structures 13–4
transgenerational transmission 1
knowledge-based mechanisms 58
Koch, H. 304
(p. 695) Kogan, N. 660
Kohler, T.A. et al. 595
Kohler, T.A. and Van West, C.R. 440
Koski, L. et al. 188
Kroll, Y. and Levy, H. 561
Kruger, D. et al. 643
K-selected species 240
!Kung Bushmen
correlation between fertility and fitness 419
exchange networks 544
Kuznar, L.A. 434, 437
L
labour market, strong reciprocity 606–8
Labroides dimidiatus 86
Lack, D. 391, 419
Lack's Principle 421
lactose tolerance 17, 43
Ladakh 524–5
La Fontaine, J.S. 522
Lagopus leucurus, teaching 90
Lahdenperä, M. et al. 405
Lakoff, G. 639
Lalumière, M. 267
Lamalera, ultimatum game 609
Landa, J.T. 545
landmarks, use in date estimation 510
language 277, 679
as biological endowment 671
evolution 6
complex adaptive systems 677–9
evolutionary questions 671
as evolutionary transition 669
and human uniqueness 672–4
literal interpretation in autism 173–4
non-primates 90
protolanguage 674–6
relationship to music 649, 650, 653–5, 655–6, 660
role in competitive altruism 538
role in culture 14, 15
role of mirror neurons 189–91
sex differences 217
structure 669–71
language acquisition 90, 676–7
Chomsky's view 22–3
language development 278
Larson, G., lemmings cartoon 51
larynx, descended 673–4
lastborns, parental investment 300
lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), comparative studies 135–6
lateral inferior occipital gyri, role in facial image processing 166
laterborns, unconventional tendencies 304, 305
late reproduction 386, 404–5
laughter-type vocalization, rats 156
law of co-dependent arising 528
law derivation, systemizing 218
law of effect 38
lawfulness of systems 218
leadership potential, signalling 534–5
leaf swallowing, chimpanzees 108–9
learning
role of affects 151, 158
shared 12
learning abilities, evolution in Drosophila 95
learning capacities 201
learning processes, role in social cognitive adaptations 500–1
Lee, R.D. 383
left-handedness
fitness effects 480
fluctuating selection 484
legislation 13
Leinhardt, G. 522
Lek paradox 482
lemmings cartoon, G. Larson 51
lemurs, developmental differences 109–10
Lenin, Vladimir 305
Lepomis macrochirus, negative frequency-dependent selection 482
levelling institutions 616
Levman, B. 655, 656
Lewis, I.M. 525
Lewis, M. 239
Lewontin, R.C. 36
lexicon
flexibility 670
variation 671
lha.pa 524, 525
Liebal, K. et al. 74
Lieberman, P. et al. 673–4
life circumstances, heterogeneity 422
life history 237–8, 313, 383–4
life history strategies 322–3
life-history theory (LHT) 4, 239–40, 397–8, 408–9, 592
variation in reproductive strategy 240–2
life-history trade-offs 398–9
life-history traits 240
genetic factors 407–8, 409
Lillard, A., theories of mind 16
limbic system
role in stress response 279
Lindert, P.H. 300
lineage exogamy 467, 472
lineages 466
influence on reproductive success 472
linguistic exogamy 567
literal interpretations, autism 173–4
literary merit 641
literary study 637
contributions 639–44
directions for future research 644–5
historical context 637–9
literature
adaptive function 640–4
function 553–4
living fossils, protolanguage 674–6
Livshits, G. and Kobyliansky, E. 334, 359
Lizkowski, U. et al. 232
Lloyd, E.A. 15
local mortality rates, influence on reproductive strategy 245, 260–2
local resource competition 421
Lorenz, K. 83
love 324
role of neurochemicals 155, 158
Love, G.A. 640, 643
low birth weight, influence on development 257–9
lower-order processes 201
L–R values 335, 336
asymmetries 349, 351, 352
lucid dreaming, shamans 521
lus.gyers 524, 525
LUST system 146, 147, 151, 156, 157
Luther, Martin 307
Lyell, G., Principles of Geology 571
Lynch, M. and Walsh, B. 480
lyric poetry 643
M
macaques
episodic memory 514–5
experimental evidence of empathy 119
food competition 75
food washing 108
gaze following 72
prosocial behaviour 123
punishment behaviour 120–1
response to infant harassment 118
visual processing studies 165
McCloskey, D.N. 438
McElreath, R. et al. 564, 567
Mace, R. 388, 389–90, 391, 455
Mace, R. and Houston, A. 440
Mace, R. and Pagel, M. 469
McEvilley, T. 527
Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis 86
Machiguenga, ultimatum game 608, 609
McNamara, J.M. et al. 393, 394
McNamara, J.M. and Houston, A.I. 392
Macphail, E.M. 129, 130
Macphail, E.M. and Bolhuis, J.J. 89
major axis technique 349, 352
(p. 696) major transitions in evolution 53–4
maladaptive behaviours 32, 43, 112, 565, 583
fertility decline 386
malaria 43
sickle-cell S allele 42
male aggression, competitive role 365, 367
male brain 221
male-female phenomenon 451
male parental care 278
Malinowski, B. 465
Maner, J.K. et al. 495
manipulating mirror neurons 179–80
map reading, sex differences 220
Mapuche, ultimatum game 609
Margulis, L. 54
marital conflict 457
cortisol response 284
marital residence 456
markers, ethnic 567–8
Marlowe, F. 326
Marr, D. and Nishihara, H.K. 168
marriage 449, 453
conflicts between the sexes 457
in Ladakh 524–5
third party interests 457–8
marriage rules 456–7
marriage systems 450–1, 453–5
Martinez, I. et al. 663
Mason, W.A. and Hollis, J.H. 120, 123
Masserman, J.H. et al. 119
‘master of animals’, Amazonian shamanism 523
Masters, R.D. 548
Masters, W. and McMillan, M. 548
mate choice 207, 313
family reconstitution studies 417–8
promises of benefits 323–4
role of body odours 317–8
role of neurochemicals 154
role of symmetry 333, 336, 349–52, 359, 360
body symmetry 342–7
comparing faces and bodies 347–9
facial symmetry 337–42
sexual imprinting 262–5
shifts during menstrual cycle 329–30
mate competition, tactics 323
mate-copying behaviour 104
mate guarding 426, 453
mate quality, relationship to fluctuating
asymmetry 352, 356, 357
body symmetry 358–9
facial symmetry 356–8
maternal depletion syndrome 401
maternal survival
effect of offspring gender 403–4
trade-off with fertility 384–6, 397, 398–9, 400–1
effect of twinning 401–3
mathematics, sex differences 219
mating
adaptive cognitive biases 494
biases in decision-making 496
detection of cues 497
enhancement by mothers-in-law 426
functional flexibility 498–9
social factors 492
mating effort 240
mating systems 449
human 453–5
social correlates 455–7
resource ecology
effect on individual traits 453
polygyny 451–2
resource ecology monogamy and polyandry 452
mating tactics 323–5
evolution in humans
choosing good genes 327–8
evolution of parental care and hunting 326–7
extra-pair copulations (EPCs) 329–30
mating versus parenting, family reconstitution studies 417–8
matrilineal descent 465, 466, 468, 469
Crow system 470
matrilocality 456
maturity, delay, costs and benefits 240
Maynard Smith, J. 51, 669, 670, 676
Mealey, L. 484
meaning in music 654–5
mechanics, sex differences 220
Medicaid spending, relationship to racial diversity 549
medical science, effects 17
medicinal plant use, chimpanzees 108–9
Medin, D.L. and Atran, S. 16
Melanesia, gift-giving 609
melanocyte-stimulating hormone 280
Melis, A.P. et al. 75, 123, 230
memes 553, 574, 599, 602–3
role of artefacts 600–1
role in mind 602
memetics 30, 31
memory
activation of relevant information 496, 498
episodic, non-primates 92–3
limitations 198, 199
relationship to attention allocation 495
representation 505
storage of temporal information 507
temporal knowledge 506–9
dating of events 509–2
memory capacities 201
corvids 94
memory systems, contribution to temporal knowledge 512–5
men, subsidization of women's diets 326
menarche, variation in timing 241
Mendel, G. 5
menopause 277, 278, 398, 399, 404, 405
menstrual cycle
shifts in female preferences 329–30, 347, 499
variation in sensitivity to odours 316
variation in vaginal odour 316
mentalistic descriptions 164
mental function, flexibility 66
mental processes, effect of stress response 279
Mental Rotation Test, sex differences 220
mental time travel 506
Menzel, E.W. 72
Mercado, E. et al. 514
Merker, B. 659
Merriam, A.P. 653
meta-analyses 94
metabolism, as source of body odours 316
method of elimination, demonstration of culture 106
MHC (major histocompatibility complex)
correlation with mate preference 317–8, 454
link with body odours 317–8
Miall, D. and Dissanayake, E. 643
Micronesia, suicide epidemic 562
middleborns
parental investment 300
personality 303–4
middleman groups, ethnic homogeneity 545
migration 507, 567–8
relative strength in cultural evolution 577–9
Mikea, risk-sensitive adaptation 441
Milinski, M. et al. 537
Milinski, M. and Wedekind, C. 318
military training 16–7
Miller, W.B. and Pasta, D.J. 244
Milne, B.J. et al. 358
Milner, A.D. and Goodale, M.A. 164, 168
mind, modular structure 5–6
‘mindreading system’ 213–4
shortcomings 215
‘mind viruses’, memes as 602
mind–world match 200
minimalist heuristic 205
minor wives, Thailand 457
Minsky, M.L., knowledge 14
‘miracle plays’, Asian shamanism 526
mirror mechanisms, emotions 191–3
mirror neurons 104, 127, 140, 141, 146, 153, 168, 172–3, 179–81
communicative 182
interplay with STS 164
motor activation 184–5
role in action recognition 183–4
role in imitation 187–9
role in intention understanding 185–7
role in language 189–91
system in humans 181,183
system in monkey 181
mirror recognition test, non-human primates 64
Mithen, S. 658, 660
Møller, A.P. and Thornhill, R. 328, 349
mobility, archaeological studies 593
model selection, cultural learning 558–62
Modularity of the Mind, J. Fodor 62
modular structure of mind 5–6, 62, 67, 138
evolution in Pleistocene 26
and music 656–7
risk-sensitive behaviour 444
moieties 466
money, as social construction 12, 13
monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA), polymorphism 372
monogamy 326, 455
in non-human primates 452
social correlates 456
moral altruism 531–2
role of direct reciprocity 533
role of increasing group size 533–4
role of kinship 532–3
moral emotions, non-human primates 120–1
moralistic aggression 532
morality, religious 629, 630–1
moray eels, cooperative hunting 88
Morgan, L.H. 465
Morley, I. 660
Mormons, polygamy 417
Mormyrops anguilloides, cooperative hunting 88
morphosyntax (syntax) 669–70
mortality, trade-off with fertility 384–6, 397, 398–9, 400–4, 407, 408
mortality rates, influence on reproductive strategy 245, 260–2
mosaic evolution 131
mother, separation from 285
mother-child relationships
long-term effects 256–9
musical interactions 655–6, 660–1
role of body odour 317
mothering, value of inhibitory control 367
mothers-in-law, influence on daughters-in-law 426–7
motion, visual processing 164–5
motor activation, requirement for understanding of actions 184–5
motoric systems 219
sex differences 220
motor organization, inferior parietal lobe (IPL) 185–7
mouth mirror neurons 180–1
‘Mozart effect’ 501
Mueller, U. and Mazur, A. 484
multi-level selection 2, 8, 49, 50, 520
component vectors 53
multiple-option decision-making, heuristics 206
multiple regression, comparison with heuristics 205
Mumford, S. 526
Munck, A. et al. 2890
mu opioid receptor 151
murder, sex differences 217
Murdoch, I. 643
Murdock, G.P. 456, 457
mushroom bodies, annelids and arthropods 89
music 649–52, 663–4
archaeological studies 662–3
cognitive scientific studies 662
definition of 652–5
effects on fitness 658–9, 660
effects on inter-group relations 659–60
effects on within-group relations 653, 656, 660
ethological evidence 661–2
function 553–4
and mental modules 656–7
relationship to language 649, 650, 653–5, 655–6, 660
role in mother-child relationships 655, 660–1
role in sexual selection 657–8
as technology 657
mutation, universal grammar knowledge as by-product 23
mutation factors 30, 31
mutations 480–1
Myers, C. 651
N
Nader, R 302
naïve group selection 50
Napoleon wrasses, cooperative hunting 88
narcotic dependencies 151, 152
relationship to social attachments 153
narrow-sense evolutionary psychology 25, 26
Nash equilibrium 625
Natufian period, foraging adaptations 589–90
natural discount rate 437
naturalism 621–2
natural selection 41, 42–3
effect on variation 479–80
of good empathy 218
relative fitness 49–50
natural systems 219
nature/nurture debate 4–5
‘Neandertal flute’ 663
negative evidence, value 94
negative frequency-dependent selection 482
neighbour-modulated fitness 7
Neiman, F. 594
neocortex
correlated evolution 135–8, 141
size, comparative studies 134–5
neocortical columns 152
neonatal mortality, influence of mothers-in-law 426
Nepal, shamanism 524
nepotism 422, 425, 464–5, 541, 543
group nepotism 473
non-primates 86–7
Nesse, M. 642
nested family social structure 278
nesting of heuristics 203
Nettl, B. 652, 653, 659–60
Nettle, D. 483, 484, 485, 640, 641, 642
neural-array oscillators 512
neural circuits, structural conservation 66
neuroendocrine activity, stress response 280
neurogenesis 276
neuropeptides
role in emotional systems 148
social 152
neuroticism 483, 484
birth-order differences 304
‘New Criticism’ 638
(p. 698) New Institutional Economics (NIE) 545
Newson, L. et al. 386
niche construction 8, 18, 24, 28, 35–6
adaptiveness of human behaviour 39–43
causes 36–9
downstream developmental 32
effect on evolutionary process 39
implications for study of human behaviour 43–5
niche partitioning, siblings 301, 302, 306
Nishitani, N. and Hari, R. 188
Nobel laureates, birth-order 305
noetic knowledge 513
noisy learning 573–4, 601
maintenance of heritable cultural variation 574–5
role in adaptive evolution 575–6
non-human primates
altruism 115–6
brain size, correlations with behavioural ecology 130–1
comparative cognition 129–30
empathy and sympathy 116–20
episodic-like memory 508, 514–5
evidence of culture 107
extragenetic inheritance systems 576
grade differences, brain components 131
group formation 452
imitation and emulation 93
language 675
male parental care 278
mating systems 451–3
moral emotions 120–1
other-regarding preferences 121–3
social knowledge 71–2, 77–9
food competition 74–6
gaze following 72–3
gestural communication 73–4
goals and intentions 76–7
territory advertisement behaviour 66
theory of mind (ToM) 64–5, 169
see also chimpanzees
non-primates
choice of study species 95
complex communication 90
cooperative activity 228
episodic-like memory 92–3
evidence of culture 107
phenomena linked to social complexity 86–9
solving problems backwards 91–2
theory of mind (ToM) 93
tool use 90–1
traditions 89–90
transitive inference 93
see also animals
non-reproductive helpers-at-the-nest 423–4
non-verbal communication, sex differences 217
Nordlund, M. 642
normative conformity 564
norms, internalization 616–7
N-person game theory 52
nuclear families 326–7
number systems, cultural differences 566–7
Nunn, C.L. et al. 454
nurturing, role of oxytocin 149, 153, 154, 155
O
Öhman, A. and Mineka, S. 500
Ober, C. et al. 317
object-centred systems, visual processing 166, 167
observable cues 199
observational conditioning 104
observing other people 201
obsessive–compulsive traits 484
occupational choice, sex differences 219
OʼConnell, S. 116, 117
Odling-Smee, F.J. et al. 18, 45
Oedipal phase 262
oestrogen, maternal levels 404
Offerman, T. and Sonnemans, J. 561
old orthodoxy, basic innate mental abilities 21–2
olfactory disgust, activation of amygdala 192
olfactory receptor genes 318
Omaha kinship terminology 470
One Child Policy, China 458–9
one-reason decision mechanisms 204–6
ontogenetic processes 211
in niche construction 37, 38
ontogeny 4, 58
openness to experience
birth-order effects 304
fluctuating selection 483
operation, systemizing 218
operational sex ratio 459
opiate addiction, relationship to social attachments 152, 153
opioid regulation 151, 152
opioids
low levels in sadness 154
role in social dominance 156
optic foramen size 135
optimal allocation problem, stress response 280
optimal-foraging theory 589–90, 591
optimality theory, kinship terminology 470–1
optimization models 322
oracles, Asian shamanism 525–6
oral contraceptives, effect on odour perception 317
orang-utans
evidence of culture 106, 107
gestural communication 73
intentional attribution 76
orbitofrontal cortex, role in face processing 172
ordering of events 511
organizable systems 219
sex differences 220
orgasm, neural changes 150
Orma, ultimatum game 608, 609
OSCAR model 512
oscillator models, temporal knowledge 512
Ostrom, E. et al. 609, 610
other-regarding preferences, non-human primates 121–3, 124
outbreeding 262
outcome risk 433
ovulatory shift hypothesis 329–30, 347
oxytocin 148, 149, 152, 153, 154, 158
role in adult social bonds 154, 155
role in stress response 280, 368
Oyama, S. 519
Oztop, E. et al 140
P
pain 147, 151, 152
pair bonding
influence of attachment security 247, 259
paleo-fiction 642
paleolithic tool production 441–2
PANIC system 146, 147, 151, 156
parallel cousin marriages 457
parallel cousins 471
parasitoid wasps, episodic-like memory 92–3
parental care, evolution in humans 326–7
parental effort 240
parental investment 383–4, 399
birth-order effects 300–1, 304
differential 421
influence of attachment security 247–8
resource availability, effect on fertility 387–92
runaway 392–4
parent-child interactions 32
(p. 699) parenting 255–6, 278
effect on reproductive strategy
attachment styles 246–8
BSD theory 242–4
father's influence 244–5, 259, 260
influence of mortality rates 261
intergenerational transmission 248
mother-child relationships, long-term effects 256–9
socialization 265–8
parenting style, sex differences 217
parenting versus mating, family reconstitution studies 417–8
parent–offspring conflict 297, 384–5, 425, 427
parent–parent conflict 385
parents, skill transfer 105, 107
parietal cortex, role in gaze-following 171
parietal lobe, mirror neurons 181,183
parietal visual areas, comparative studies 136
parity in communications 189
Parr, L. 119
parrots, word associations 92
pars opercularis, IFG 188
partible paternity beliefs 555
partner preferences see mate choice
Parupeneus cyclostoma, cooperative hunting 88
Parus major, fluctuating selection 481–2
Pascal's Wager 434
pastoralism, risk-sensitive adaptation 440
Pastor, W. 651
paternal care 278
paternity, partible paternity beliefs 555
paternity certainty
role in descent systems 468
Utilans 628
value of temporal knowledge 509
pathogens, role in evolution of sex 454
pathogen stress, relationship to polygyny 454
patrilineal descent 465, 466, 468
Omaha system 470
patrilocality 456
patriotism, dual evolutionary model 543
Paulhus, D.L. et al. 305–6
Pavard, S. et al. 425
Pawlowski, B. et al. 484
Pepperberg, I.M. 92, 95
perceptual cues 496–7
perceptual history
sensitivity to 163
use in prediction of behaviour 170–1
Perchan, R. 643
perfumes 315
Perfume. The Story of a Murderer, Patrick Süskind 318
perils of social interaction 493
perinatal programming 486–7
Perner, J. and Ruffman, T. 513
personal growth, perception of 509
personality
birth-order effects 303–6
fitness effects 480
influence of family 308–9
relationship to season of birth 487
sibling differences 267–8, 299–300
personality disorders, sex differences 217
personality traits, fluctuating selection 483–4
personal self 505
perspective-taking, non-human primates 78, 120
PET (positron emission tomography) brain imaging, sadness 154
Petrasch, J. 592
Pettay, J.E. et al. 407
phenomena, distinction from mechanisms 85–6
phenotype matching, role in mate choice 263–5
phenotypic effects, memes 601
phenotypic plasticity 17
pheromones 157, 317
role in pubertal maturation 260
Phidippus pulcherrimus, problem-solving 91
philosophical perspective
Chomsky, N. 22–3
Cosmides and Tooby's evolutionary psychology 25–7
developmental environments 27–8
evolution and culture 29–32
innateness 32–3
old orthodoxy 21–2
the problem of the problem 28
the problem of the solution 29
Wilson's sociobiology 23–5
phobic fears, sex differences 369
phonetics 669
phonology 669
phratries 466
phylogenetic analysis, brain structure volumes 133–4
phylogenetic constraints 84
phylogenetic hypothesis, cooperative behaviour 233–5
Physical Prediction Questionnaire (PPQ), sex differences 220
physics, sex differences 219
Piaget, J., Water Level Task 219
Pidgin communication 675
pigeons
performance in Hick's test 96
temporal knowledge 512
piglets, sibling competition 298
Pillsworth, E.G. and Haselton, M.G. 330
Pingle, M. 560–1
Pinker, S. 640, 656, 657
Pinker, S. and Jackendoff, R. 660, 673
pitch
experience of pattern 662
role in language development 655, 656
placebo effects 154
plants, sibling competition 298
plasticity, mental function 66
play
learning as consequence 158
opioid release 153
playfulness 152
PLAY system 146, 147, 151, 156, 157
Pleistocene evolution 26, 28–9, 62–3
Plotkin, H. 90
Poecilia reticulata, fluctuating selection 481
poetry 641, 643, 644
pointing gestures 232–3
point of view, literary narrative 641, 644
police provision, and ethnic nepotism 548
political rhetoric, kinship terms 471
political revolutionaries, birth-order tendencies 305
polyandry 455, 457, 524
in non-human primates 452
polygyny 326, 385–6, 449, 451–2, 453–4
bride price 387
descent systems 468–9
male testosterone levels 327
relationship to male fitness variance 365
resource ecology 451–2
social correlates 455–6
trade-offs 417
population genetics 321
population growth, support for adaptiveness of behaviour 43
pornography 641
Porter, R.H. et al. 264–5
possession, in shamanism 521, 524
post-reproductive helpers-at-the-nest 423, 425–7
post-reproductive survival 398–9
benefits 404–6, 408
postructuralism/postmodernism 638–9
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 281, 285
(p. 700) Poterba, J.M. 549
pottery, diversity studies 594–6
pottery-making, archaeology 590
‘poverty of the stimulus’ argument 22
Povinelli, D.J. 119–20
Povinelli, D.J. and Eddy, T.J. 72, 73
Povinelli, D.J. et al. 74, 76
Povinelli, D.J. and Vonk, J. 129
Power, C. 640
pragmatics 670
predator detection role of stress response 281
predators
coevolution with prey 325
use as social tool 87
prediction of behaviour 169–71
prefrontal cortex, Area 10 size 137
pregnancy, functional flexibility 498
Premack, D. and Woodruff, G. 71, 76
prematurity, influence on development 257–9
preparedness 201
pre-reproductive helpers-at-the-nest 423, 424–5
prestige 393
prestige bias
cultural learning 559, 562
role in fertility decline 386
Preston, S.D. and de Waal, F.B.M. 116, 117, 119
Preuss, T.M. 137
prey, coevolution with predators 325
Price, G.R. 52, 579
primary-process consciousness 150
primatology of human kinship 464
Primitive Music, R. Wallaschek 651
primogeniture 299, 455
principal component analysis (PCA), L–R differences 352
principle of divergence, Charles Darwin 302
Principles of Animal Ecology, W.C. Allee et al. 50
Principles of Geology, G. Lyell 571
prions 600
Prisoner's Dilemma 374–5, 531, 534, 535, 625
the problem of the problem 28
the problem of the solution 29
problem-solving
chimpanzees 76
non-primates 91–2
procedural representations 505
programmatic exposition, literary study 639, 644
prolactin 152
promises of benefits to mates 323–4
Promislow, D. and Hardy, P. 260
property rights 450
prosocial behaviour 116
non-human primates 122–3, 124
opioid release 153
young children 123
prosocial emotions 615
prosociality 448
prosopagnosia 166
protolanguage 674, 679
Bickerton's 674–5
holistic 675–6
transition to full human language 676
provocation 368
Prunella modularis, mating systems 449
psychiatric disorders, relationship to season of birth 487
psychological mechanisms 25–6
buffering 27–8
psychopathy 216
sex differences 217
psychosocial stress response, Dominca study 282–7
pubertal timing 241, 259–60
BSD theory 242–4, 248–50
effect of pheromones 317
effect of stress 279
father's influence 244–5
puberty, body odour 316
public altruism 535, 537
and ethnic nepotism 546–9
public goods game 537, 609–11
public goods problem 448
see also freeriding
public goods provision 538
ethnic nepotism 548, 549
role of descent groups 466–7
punishment
non-human primates 120
non-primates 88
in public goods game 610–11
purist adaptationist approach 84–5
Q
Qirko, H.N. 471
quantitative comparative studies 94
quantity/quality reproductive strategies 241, 243, 384, 391, 419–21
Quebec, welfare payments 548
questions in evolutionary psychology 4–6
QuickEst heuristic 206
Quinlan, R.J. and Flinn, M.V. 472
R
radical revolutions, birth-order associations 305
RAGE 146, 147
Ramnani, N. et al. 138
Rapoport, A. 52
ratchet effect 111
rats
effects of grooming behaviours 155–6
episodic memory study 515
food preference 203–4
innovation 108
laughter-type vocalization 156
ravens, gaze following 72
reactive (fear-based) inhibition, sex differences 369
reasoning 495–6
functional flexibility 498
recall 201
reciprocal altruism 533, 605, 612
recognition 201
recognition heuristics 198, 201–2, 203
ignorance-based reasoning 203–4
reconciliation
non-human primates 117, 375
non-primates 87
reconstruction in dating events 511
recursion in language 672, 673
recursions, cultural evolutionary models 572
red deer, costs of reproduction 399
reflexivity 506, 507
Rehding, A. 651
Reichel-Dolmatoff, G. 522–4
reification 527
reinforcement processes, role of affects 151, 158
relational aggression 367
relational self 505
relationships, sex differences 217
relative fitness 49–50
relativity, Buddhism 527–8
religion 156–7, 621–2, 632–3
adaptive function 625
costly signalling theory 626–9
role in cooperation 625–6
spandrel theories 622–5
religiosity 621
as cognitive adaptation 629
development 632
encapsulation 629–30
integration 630–1
self-deception 631–2
religious cognition 621
repetition, systemizing 218
repetitive TMS 188
replication 599–601
replicator concept 52–3
representation 505
reproductive costs
effects of social support 422
gender-specificity 399–400, 403–4
reproductive effort 240
trade-offs 399–404
(p. 701) reproductive strategy 211, 321–2
effect of childhood experience 242, 259–62
BSD theory 242–4
family reconstitution studies 416–7, 429
differential parental investment 421
mating versus parenting 417–8
quantity versus quality of offspring 241, 384, 391, 419–21
wealth of offspring versus health of offspring 419
father's influence 244–5, 487
gap between theory and evidence 421–2
influence of attachment styles 246–8
influence of local mortality rates 245
mating strategies, evolutionary contexts 323–5
role of culture 428–9
sexual imprinting 262–5
social interactions 492–3
time preference 246
variation 240
heritability 241–2, 244
see also family size
reproductive success
influence of kindreds and lineage 472
as measure of fitness 44
relationship to body symmetry 359
reproductive value of children 257–8
reputation effects 613
reputation memory 201
reputation systems 536–7, 538
resource-defence polygyny 452, 469
retinal fovea 135
retinal ganglion cell density, correlation with brain size 135
reverse engineering 600
DNA 574
Rhode, C. et al. 442–3
Rhodes, G. 337
Rice, W.R. 324
Richerson, P.J. and Boyd, R. 32, 450, 543, 582
Riemann, H. 650–1
rinpoche 525
risk 433
risk-averse 434,435
risk-prone 434,435
risk-sensitive adaptation 444
agricultural field scattering 438–40
analytical issues 443
fertility 440–1
paleolithic tool production 441–2
pastoralism 440
social exchange 440
subsistence diversification 441
risk-sensitive analysis
assumptions 435
sigmoid curve 434–5
temporal discounting 437–8
z-score model 436–7
risk-sensitive decisions, cognitive mechanisms 442–3
risk-taking behaviour
relationship to season of birth 487
sex differences 370–1
young men 367, 369
risky transactions, ethnic nepotism 543–6
rituals
Amazonian shamanism 523
religious 627–9, 633
use of music 653, 660
Rizzolatti, G. and Arbib, M.A. 189
Rmin, risk-sensitive analysis 436–7, 443
Roberts, G. 235, 474
Roberts, R. 60
robotics 139
robustness
genetic adaptations 27–8, 32, 33
heuristics 199, 200
Rod and Frame Test, sex
differences 219
Roederer, J.G. 655–6
Rogers, A.R. 109, 437, 580
Rogers, E.M. 562
role specialization, non-primates 88
role understanding, chimpanzees 230
Rolls, E.T. et al. 514–5
romance fiction 641
Rosenthal, R. 337
Roth, E.D. et al. 88–9
rough-and-tumble play, sex differences 216
Rousseau 664
Rowe, D.C. 241, 299
r-selected species 240
rules 13
Rummelhart, D.E. and Norman, D.A. 14
runaway parental investment 392–4
runaway sexual selection 392–3
Rushton, J.P. 541, 542, 543
Ryan, B. and Gross, N. 578
S
sadness, PET imaging 154
Sahlins' Fallacy 463
Sahlins, M. 469–70
saliva immunoassay, stress hormones 282
Salmon, C.A. 307, 471
Salmon, C.A. and Daly, M. 305, 307
Salyavata variegata 91
Sanderson, S. 547, 548
satire 641
satisficing heuristics 207
Saunders, J. 643
Savage-Rumbaugh, E.S. et al. 76
Saxe, R. et al. 169, 171
Scalise Sugiyama, M. 640, 641, 642–3
Scerif, G. et al. 73
Schank, R.C. and Abelson, R. 14
schemas 14
Schibler, J. et al. 590
Schiff, M. 548
Schino, G. et al. 118, 124
schizophrenia 484, 485
fitness effects 480
Scholastic Aptitude Math Test (SAT-M) 219
Schubert, J. and Curran, M. 546
Schubert, J. et al. 545
Schubert, J. and Tweed, M. 547–8
Schultz, A.H. 276
Schultz, G.W. 91
Schwartz, B.L. et al. 508
Schwe, H.I. and Markman, E.M. 233
science
birth-order effects 305
as social construction 16
science fiction 641, 642
science theory, postmodern 638
Scott, J.P. and Fuller, J.L. 151
Scott, Sir Walter 643
search, building blocks 202
search capacities 201
Searle, J.R. 12–3, 228
season of birth, as cause of variation 486–7
sebaceous glands 316
sebum 316
SEEKING system 146, 147, 156
segmentary descent systems 466
segmentation in temporal knowledge 511
seeing-leads-to-knowing principle 214
selection, relative strength in cultural evolution 577–9
selection factors 30, 31
selection pressures 28
selective model-based cultural
learning 558–60
evidence 560–2
self
cultural evolution 520, 521, 522
transformation by yogins 527
self-awareness 505–6
as adaptive response 507
requirement for temporal knowledge 506
role of affects 150
(p. 702) self-control (impulse control), sex differences 370
self-deception in religious cognition 631–2
self-enhancement 509
self-esteem, birth-order differences 304
self-images, role in temporal knowledge 512
The Selfish Gene, R. Dawkins 51, 53
selfish-gene theory 427, 605
‘selfish herd’ groups 452
self-judgements, memory of 505
self-protection 492
adaptive cognitive biases 494
self-regarding 605
in labour market 606
in public goods game 610
in ultimatum game 608
Selye, H. 280
semantic dementia 513
semantic representations 505
semantics 670
Semendeferi, K. et al. 137
sensation-seeking
negative associations 371–2
sex differences 370
sense of self see self-awareness
sensory-motor processes
distinction from cognition 138–9
as part of cognition 139–41
separation distress 147, 149, 152, 156
mechanisms 153–4
sequential choices, heuristics 206–7
Serinus canaria, sibling competition regulation 298
serotonin 148
serotonin receptor genes, polymorphism 480
sex-biased infanticide, effects 17
sex differences
in aggression 313, 365, 375–6
cross-sex aggression 372–5
evolutionary approaches 365–8
magnitude of effect 366
psychological mediators 368–72
in agreeableness 483–4
in empathizing 216–7, 223
in inhibitory abilities 367
in personality 306
in reproductive costs 399–400, 403–4
in socialization 265–6
in social learning 109
in status 456
in stress response 368
in systemizing 219–21, 223
sex ratio
effect of One Child Policy 459
as evidence for group selection 51
sexual abuse, effect on stress
response 486
sexual arousal 157
inhibitory abilities 367
sexual behaviour
influence of attachment security 247
relationship to fluctuating asymmetry (FA) 354–5
role of body odours 316–7
sexual display, role of literature 640
sexual imprinting 262–5
sexual infidelity, sex differences in response 372, 374
sexual interests, variation with menstrual cycle 329
sexuality 150, 152
sexual jealousy 374
sexually antagonistic adaptations 324–5
sexually transmitted disease 454
sexual monopolization 426
sexual selection
role of music 649, 657–8, 661
runaway 392–3
see also mate choice
‘sexy son hypothesis’ 393
Shakers, celibacy 458
Shakespeare 642–3
shamanic society 521–2, 528
Amazonian shamanism 522–4
Asian shamanism 524–6
Shared Attention Mechanism (SAM) 214, 215
shared cooperative activity 13
shared environment 486
influence on personality 299–300
shared goals, toddlers 229
shared learning 12
shared (‘we’) intentionality 13, 14, 15, 227–8
sharing, sex differences 216
sharing tactics, Hopi 440
Sheenan, S.J. and Wilkinson, J.R. 594, 596
sheep, individual recognition 86
sheep-breeding, risk-sensitive adaptations 440
Shennan, S. 659
Shepard, R.N. 199
short-finned pilot whales, post-reproductive lifespan 398
Shuar, competitive altruism 536
siblicide 297, 298
sibling competition 297
biological aspects 297–8
social and economic repercussions 298–9
sibling differences 267–8, 299–300
psychological mechanisms 300–3
siblings
birth-order stereotypes 301, 302–3
deidentification 301, 302, 304
dominance hierarchies 301–2
niche partitioning 301, 302
Sicilian Mafia, blood symbolism 544–5
Sickle-cell S allele 42
sigmoid value function 434, 435
signalling
of mate quality 323–4
signalling theory
altruism 534–5, 537–8
use of kin terms 471
Silk, J.B. 465
Silk, J.B. et al. 122
Simmons, L.W. et al. 349, 350
Simon, H.A. 17, 18, 198, 199, 207, 617
single-cell coding, visual processing 165
single mothers, trade-offs 418
singletons, personality 304
Siok, W.T. et al. 16
situational couple violence 374–5
situation-specific behaviour 307–8, 309
skill assessment, cultural learning 558
Skowronski, J.J. et al. 510
skylarks, signalling 627
Sloboda, J.A. et al. 662
Smith, E.A. 464
snakes
fear of 500
social brain hypothesis 88–9
Sober, E. and Wilson, D.S. 52, 659
social animals, social cognitive skills 84–5
social anthropology 463, 464, 474
social attachments, relationship to opiate addiction 152, 153
social bonding
role of literature 640
role of oxytocin 149
social brain, development 276–7
social brain hypothesis 127, 173
non-primates 88–9
social capacities 201
social challenges, stress response 280–1
social cognition 138, 491
impairment in autism 173
usage of term 447–8
value of temporal knowledge 509
social cognitive adaptations 493
attention allocation 493–5
costs and benefits 497–8
neuroscientific evidence 499–500
role in culture 501
role of learning processes 500–1
social knowledge structures 495–7
(p. 703) social cognitive skills, effect of domestication 234
social competitive tactics 367
social complexity, non-primates 86
social constructions 12–3
power 15–6
social contract violation, detection 495
social cooperation 8–9
social correlates, human mating systems 455–7
social dominance, role of opioids 156
social-emotional capacities, development 152
social exchange, risk-sensitive adaptation 440
social force 14–5
social information processing 140
social inhibition 367
social insects 54, 228
social (institutional) facts 228
social institutions, archaeology 592–3
social insurance, provision by religious institutions 628
Social Intelligence hypothesis 64
social interaction, role of music 658–9, 660
sociality 447–8
socialization
cultural and individual differences 265–8
role in sex differences 220–1
social knowledge, non-human
primates 71–2, 77–9
food competition 74–6
gaze following 72–3
gestural communication 73–4
goals and intentions 76–7
social knowledge structures 495–7
social learning 38–9, 85, 103–5, 553
evolutionary origins in animals 109–10
memes 599–603
modelling 581–2
in nature 105–7
relationship to intelligence 110–11
role in fertility decline 386–7
trade-offs 582–3
socially constructed kinship 544
social mating systems 449–50
social monogamy 326, 455
in non-human primates 452
sexual conflicts 456
social correlates 456
social neuropeptides 152
social perception, visual processing 171–2
social position, role in innovation 108
social prospects and perils 492–3
social rules 450
social science 638–9
social status, heterogeneity 422
social structure
role in innovation 108
role in social learning 110
social systems 219
social technology theory 542, 543
social threats, cortisol response 283–5,288
social transmission, in definition of culture 103
Sociobiology, E.O. Wilson 23–5, 51
sociopathy 484, 615
solving problems backwards, non-primates 91–2
somatic effort 240
somatosensory cortex, role in face processing 172
songbirds 90
local dialects 89
son-preference 458
sororal polygyny 454
Sosis, R. 628–9, 630
spandrel theories of religion 622–5
spatial cognition, influence of culture 566
spatial position, visual processing 168–9
species-typicality, genetic adaptations 33
speech evolution 6
Spencer, H. 649–50
Sperber, D. 14, 656–7
sperm competition 453
sperm quality, relationship to body symmetry 359
spirits, Asian shamanism 525
spirituality, genetic predisposition 621
spousal abuse, relationship to dowry 456
spouse homicide, sex differences 372–3
Sroufe, L.A. 249
stabilizing selection 479–80
standing models 613
state-dependent optimality theory 388
state functions of mind 148–9
static body postures, prediction of behaviour 169–70
stature, fluctuating selection 484–5
stature fitness effects 480
status 492
adaptive cognitive biases 494
sex differences 456
Steadman, S. 628
Stearns, S. 245
Steen, F. 641
Steinberg, L. 244
step functions, risk-sensitive analysis 436
step-parents 456
children's cortisol levels 285
stepfathers, influence on reproductive strategy 244, 245, 260
stereotypes 496, 498
birth-order 301, 302–3
steroids, as source ofbody odour 316–7
stillbirth risk, influence of mothers-in-law 426
Stiller, J. and Hudson, M. 642
stimulus-response algorithms 496
Stiner, M.C. and Munro, N.D. 589
stochastic dynamic programming 388
stopping search, building blocks 202
Storey, R. 640–1, 643
Strassmann, B.I. 385
strategies 322
stress, effects on development 259–60
stress response 273–5, 486
adaptive phenotypic plasticity 181–2
developmental influences 285–7
mechanisms 279–81
ontogeny, Dominica study 282–7
sex differences 368
‘strictly congruent’ mirror neurons 180
Striedter, G.F. 135
Strier, K. 451
strong reciprocity 532, 605–6
as an adaptation 614–5
evolutionary stability 611–3
in labour market 606–8
public goods game 609–11
role of prosocial emotions 615
ultimatum game 608–9
structural emancipation 66
structural hierarchies 18
Stumpf, C. 651
suaböya, Yanomamö kin terminology 471, 472
subjectivity 150
subliminal priming 513
subsistence diversification, risk reduction 441
success bias, cultural learning 559
Suddendorf, T. and Corballis, M.C. 507
suicide
imitation 562
opioid deficiencies 154
Sula nebouxi, siblicide 298, 309
suns, Tukano Indians' world-view 522
superior temporal gyrus (STG), connection with STS 171
(p. 704) superior temporal sulcus (STS) 163–4, 164–5
in autism 173
role in mirror neuron system 172, 181
role in social perception 171–2
role in visual processing of the face 166
sensitivity of cell populations 167–8
sensitivity for spatial location 168–9
sensitivity to articulated actions 169–70
sensitivity to perceptual history 170–1
viewer-centred coding 167
supernatural, belief in 631, 632
supernatural concepts, memorability 264, 623
supernatural reward hypothesis 626
Supreme Court justices, ethnic bias 545–6
survival, advantage of affects 150–1
Suskind, P., Perfume. The Story of a Murderer 318
Swanson, L.W. 133
Swanson, L.W. and Petrovich, G.D. 132
symbiotic theory of eukaryotic cell 54
symbolic nature of music 656
symbolizations, Amazonian shamanism 522–3
symbol use 111, 233, 520
symmetry 334
assessment of statistical properties of data 350
as fitness indicator 485
measurement 336–7
role in mate choice 328, 329, 333
body symmetry 342–7
comparing faces bodies 347–9
facial symmetry 337–42
sympathy 116, 193
in non-human primates
anecdotes 116–7
common events