- Oxford Library of Psychology
- Copyright Page
- About the Editors
- In Memoriam
- Deaf Studies in Literacy: Where Is the Compass Pointing Us?
- Literacy Attainment Among Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: The Past, the Present, and the Future
- This Is Your Brain on Print: The Neurological Processes of Print Literacy
- Listening, Language, and Literacy Development and Children With Hearing Loss Who are Learning Spoken Language
- Prevailing Theories of Reading Development and Deafness
- What Is Malleable in Literacy Teaching and Learning Among Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Readers?
- Written Word Recognition and Production Processes: A Challenge for Deaf Students and Their Teachers
- Vocabulary Acquisition and Literacy in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Learners
- Vocabulary Learning in Children with Cochlear Implants in Signed and Spoken Modalities
- Morphosyntax in Literacy Acquisition Across Languages for Learners Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
- Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students and Academic Language(s): Advanced Language and Literacy Skills
- The Interplay Between Pragmatics and Reading Comprehension in Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
- Reading Comprehension: A Comparison of Typically Hearing and Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Children
- Reading Fluency in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Readers
- Supporting School Readiness Skills and Home Literacy Environment in Young Children Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing
- Psychoeducational Assessment, Classroom Testing, and the Measurement of Literacy in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Learners
- Language Assessment: Links to Literacy for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Bilingual Learners
- The Role of Speechreading in Literacy Acquisition and Development of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Readers
- Literacy and Academic Engagement in Learners Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing
- Phonologically Based Interventions in Spoken Language and Sign Bilingual Settings
- Spelling: Why Explicit Instruction Is a Critical Component of Literacy Intervention for Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
- The Writing Bridge: Investigating Reading and Writing Reciprocity
- Reading Abilities of Deaf College Students: Has Elvis Already Left the Building?
- Adult Reading Strategies: Visual-Spatial Conceptualization and Patterns of Thought
- Literacy in Emerging Sign Language Communities: The Impact of Social, Political, and Educational Resources
- Alternative Routes Toward Literacy for Individuals With Deafblindness: The Role of Assistive Technology
- Literacy in Learners Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing With Disabilities
- The Development and Evaluation of Literacy Interventions for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children
- Bridging the Divide Between Research and Practice: Recommendations for the Next Generation of Literacy Research in Deaf Education
- A Didactic Illustration of Longitudinal Analysis for Language and Literacy Research Among Individuals Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing
- Deaf Studies in Literacy: Progress by Degrees?
Abstract and Keywords
Prior to 2000, the role of fluency was poorly understood in deaf and hard-of-hearing learners beyond the examination of the use of repeated readings as an intervention technique. In 2000, the National Reading Panel identified factors critical to the development of literacy: phonological awareness, alphabetic principle, vocabulary, reading comprehension, motivation, and fluency. Since that time, much has been written on all these topics, except motivation and fluency. This chapter examines the various points of view necessary to understand the complexities of fluency, including but not limited to speed of word reading, vocabulary, prosody, and supralexical unitization. Further, it examines how these components differ based on an individual child’s first language. A concluding section explores successful interventions and lays out a research agenda that will allow the field to move forward.
Susan R. Easterbrooks, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA
Paula J. Schwanenflugel, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
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