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date: 05 July 2020

(p. 565) Index

(p. 565) Index

A
ability, effort intensity and, 424–425
academic function. See also student motivation
achievement goals for, 200
autonomy climates, 95
choice as benefit for, 254–255, 255
high-stakes rewards for, 99–100
lack of willpower for, 222
responsibility of children to parents and, 341–342, 344–345
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), 453, 454–455, 457
achievement goals, 558
approach-avoidance distinctions in, 194–195
in classroom setting, 200
competence and, 195–196
contextual effects of, 199–201
definition of, 195–196
dichotomous model of, 191–193
extrinsic, 196
future research on, methodological expansion in, 201–202
goal pursuit and, 234
historical development of, 191–195
integrated model for, 193
learning-performance model of, 192
measurement of, 197–198
in multiple goals model, 198
as omnibus construct, 195
performance-approach, 198–199
performance-avoidance, 198–199
social, 196–197
as specific aim, 195–196
task-ego model of, 192–193
as theory, physical activity and, 485–487, 492–493, 524–526
trichotomous model of, 194
2 × 2 model of, 194–195
work-avoidance, 196
achievement goal theory, youth motivation and, 524–526
achievement motivation theory, choice in, 250
The Achievement Motive (McClelland/Atkinson/Clark/Lowell), 142–143
action, affect and, 34
actional phase, for motivations, 291, 292–293
action awareness, in flow, 128–129
activated freeze response, 416
activation, of motives, 8
activity. See physical activity
adaptation
for adult development goals, 283
of goal focus, 289–290
in objectification theory, 324–325
addictive behaviors. See also alcohol consumption; tobacco use
self-control and, 112
adult development, goals for, 281
adaptation in, 283
age as influence on, 283
compensation in, 282–283
goal focus and, 285–288
goal selection and, 282
multidirectionality of, 281–283
multiple goal management and, 282
optimization for, 282–283
resource conservation in, 282–283
affect. See also complex moods; moods; negative affect; positive affect
action and, 34
approach-related, 34
associative learning and, 369
avoidance-related, 34
biological mechanisms for, 32–33
bipolar dimensions, 34–35
dimensions of, 33–34
emotion and, 32
feedback control and, 32–36
interest development and, 176
lack of willpower and, 223
motive congruence and, 151
negative, priority management and, 30
parental, in SDT, 339–340
positive, as counterintuitive, 35–36
priority management and, 36
reference criterion for, 33
affiliation, need for, 353
affiliation motives, 353
approach, 353
avoidance, 353
age
adult goal development by, 283
change goals and, 289–290
gender development for girls by, 328–329
goal focus and, 285–288
outcome focus for goals and, 290
process focus for goals and, 290
responsibility of children to parents by, 344
stability goals and, 290
work motivation influenced by, 513–514
agency
collective, 15
neural foundation for, 372–373
reciprocal interactions and, 14–15
aggressive behavior
ego depletion and, 116
evolved individual motives for, 392–393
akrasia, 221. See also willpower, lack of
alcohol consumption
dysfunctional goals and, 448
ego depletion and, 114–115
self-awareness and, 57
Alliance Fostering Therapy, 449
Allport, Gordon, 304
altruism, 395
Ames, C., 193
analytical processing, prevention-focused (p. 566) individuals and, 77
anxiety-buffer hypothesis, 47
PTSD and, 51
anxiety disorders, in prevention-focused individuals, 70
appearance motive, 393
approach affiliation motives, 353
approach-related affect, 34
approach versus avoidance processes
in achievement goal models, 194–195
affect and, 34, 34
for close relationship formation, 352–353, 355–356
eagerness-related approach strategies, 215
in feedback control, 32
in goal focus, 288
in goal striving, 215
Aristotle, 221
Arnold, Felix, 159
aspirations. See also extrinsic life goals; goals; intrinsic life goals
cultural contexts for, 97
in goal striving, 215
Assessment of Individual Motives-Questionnaire (AIM-Q), 398
assimilation, in BTAE, 310–311
associative learning, as motivational state, 369–370
affect and, 369
environmental incentives in, 369
liking in, 369–370
Atkinson, J.W., 142–143
attachment, personal relationships and, 53–54
existential threats and, response to, 54
attachment theory, 336–339
parental relationships in, 337–338
parental sensitivity in, 338
peer relationships in, 338
security perceptions in, 343
teacher relationships in, 338
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 219
attitudes, in planned behavior theory, 481
attribution theory, choice in, 252
autonomous motivation. See also extrinsic motivation; intrinsic motivation
benefits of, 90
causality orientations for, 87, 90–91
within corporate capitalism, 99
cultural influences on, 89–90, 96–97
feedback for, 94
identified regulation in, 89
integrated regulation in, 89
introjection in, 89
outcomes from, 89–90
in psychotherapy, 443, 448–449
social-contextual effects of, 93–96
wellness and, 96–97
autonomy. See also choice
as basic psychological need, 87
causality orientations for, 87, 90–91
for children, in SDT, 340
controlling climates for, 94–95
ego depletion and, 121
intrinsic motivation and, 87–88
in personal relationships, 95–96
purpose of, 85
in SDT, 85–86
self-awareness and, 102
self-control and, 121
supportive climates for, 94–95
autonomy-controlling climates, 94–95
in health care settings, 95
in school settings, 95
social contexts for, 95
in workplace settings, 95
autonomy orientation, 90–91
autonomy-supportive climates, 94–95
in health care settings, 95
relational supports in, 94
in school settings, 95
social contexts for, 95
in workplace settings, 95
autotelic experience, 129–130
avoidance affiliation motives, 353
avoidance goals, well-being and, 447
avoidance-related affect, 34
B
balanced selection for phenotypes, in FFM, 384
basic psychological needs, in SDT, 87, 101–102
autonomy as, 87
for children, 339
extrinsic life goals and, as antagonistic to, 92
intrinsic life goals for, 92
physical activity and, 484–485, 488–489, 524
weekend effect and, 101
Becker, Ernest, 45
Behavioral Activity System (BAS), 356
behavioral control, self-efficacy and, 515–516
Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS), 356
behavioral syndrome theory, 382
in evolved individual difference theory, 389–390
extraversion in, 386
FFM and, 385–386
behavior theory, curiosity in, 160
better-than-average-effect (BTAE), 307–311
aggregate comparisons in, 310
assimilation in, 310–311
attribute valence in, 308
contrast in, 310–311
controllability of traits in, 308
egocentrism and, 309–310
focalism and, 310
individuated entities in, 310
nonmotivational explanations for, 309–311
as pancultural, 308
prevalence of, among populations, 307–308
psychological health and, 314
psychological interests and, 315
self-affirmation and, 309
self-threat and, 309
verifiability of attributes in, 308–309
Beyond Boredom and Anxiety (Csikszentmihalyi), 130
Billings, Josh, 311
binge eating, self-awareness and, 57
Binswanger, Ludwig, 48
breasts, sexual objectification of, 326–327
Brumberg, Joan, 323
C
calm energy, 414
flow and, 414
calm tiredness, 415
capitalism. See corporate capitalism
cardiovascular reactivity, to effort intensity, 423
career choice, self-efficacy and, 23
causality orientations, 87, 90–91
autonomy orientation, 90–91
challenge in flow, skills in balance with, 128, 130
change goals, 289–290
children. See also relatedness, for children; youth motivation, for physical activity
adoption of parental values, 342
attachment theory perspective on, 336–339
autonomy for, in SDT, 340
basic psychological needs of, in SDT, 339
investment and engagement in, 336
parental affect and, in SDT, 339–340
parental relationships for, in attachment theory, 337–338
parental sensitivity towards, in attachment theory, 338
peer relationships for, in attachment theory, 338
responsibility to parents, 341–342
SDT perspective on, 339–341
self-efficacy in, 25
socialization of, in SDT, 339
teacher relationships for, in attachment theory, 338
choices, 559
in academic achievement motivation, 254–255, 255
(p. 567) in achievement motivation theory, 250
in attribution theory, 252
autonomy and, 258–260, 264
characteristics of, 257–263
cognitive dissonance and, 252
competence from, perceptions of, 261, 263–264
control and, 258
correspondence with target and, 269–270
cultural differences as influence on, 265–267
as demotivator, 255–257
by developmental level, 267
disadvantages of, 256
in dissonance theory, 252
in drive theories, 249
effort level for, 260–262
ego depletion from, 256
in expectancy-value theories, 249–250, 250
as experience, 251–257
frame of reference for, 262
future research on, 271–272, 272
individual orientations for, 250–251, 263–268
interest level and, 263
intrinsic motivation and, 253
maladaptive, 249
maximization strategies for, 264–265
motivations for, 249–251
as motivator, 251–255
multiplicity of, influence of, 261–262
through nonconscious processes, 251
outcome desirability and, 269
perceived versus actual, 257
perceptions of, 257–260
in planned behavior theory, 250
power of, 248
preferences as influence on, 270–271
in psychological theory, 248
realism of setting and, 268–269
in regulatory focus theory, 265
as reward-based, 249
satisficing strategies for, 264–265
in SDT, 253
self-efficacy from, 254, 264
in self-perception theory, 252–253
in self-presentational enhancement situations, 268
self-regulation and, 250, 256
situational characteristics and, 268–270
in social learning theory, 250
socioeconomic differences influenced by, 265–267
task type and, 269
Clarification Oriented Therapy, 453, 457
Clark, R.A., 142–143
classical conditioning, unconscious goal pursuit and, 233
close relationships, 560
advantages of, 351–352
approach versus avoidance processes in, 352–353, 355–356
BAS for, 356
BIS for, 356
disadvantages of, 351–352
emotion in, 357–358
evolutionary development of, 351
functional development of, 351
goal type and, 355
incentives for, 354
interpersonal outcomes, in approach versus avoidance motivation, 355–356
intimacy motivation in, 353–354
outcome-goal link processes for, 356–358
social bonds as, 350–351
social information in, 356–357, 357
social motivation and, 353–354
threat avoidance for, 354
coasting, positive affect and, 35
cognition
ego depletion and, 116
energetic arousal and, 411–412
environmental inquisitiveness and, 392
cognitive modeling, for vicarious learning, 17
collective agency, in reciprocal interactions, 15
collective efficacy, 24
sources of, 24
for teachers, 24
commitment, as tradeoff
benefits of, 74–75
evolved individual motives for, 394–395
in mental contrasting, 212
in prevention-focused individuals, 72–75
signal detection paradigms, 74
in women, 395
comparative psychology, in FFM, 384–385
compensation, in adult development goals, 282–283
competence
achievement goals and, 195–196
from choice, 261, 263–264
in physical activity motivation, parental expression of, 530–531
student motivation and, 464
youth physical activity motivation and, 540–542
competence motivation theory
as domain specific, 521
effectance motivation in, 521
peer influence in, 521
for physical activity, 521–522
positive effect in, 521–522
self-perception of competence in, 521
skill mastery in, 521
youths and, for physical activity, 521–522
competitions, lack of willpower, 222
complex moods, 413–415
calm energy, 414
calm tiredness, 415
tense energy, 415
tense tiredness, 414–415
computer-mediated environments, flow in, 132
concentration, in flow, 129
Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI), 472
conditioning. See classical conditioning
conscientiousness, willpower and, 224–225
consciousness. See private body consciousness
consilience, in motivation studies, 6
consistency, in motives, 150–151
context learning, stimulus-response rules and, 236
control. See also control theory; feedback control; self-control
choice and, 258
in flow, 129
in planned behavior theory, 481–482
self-efficacy and, 515–516
student motivation and, 464
controlled motivations. See extrinsic motivation
control theory, 6
individual differences in motivation, 400
cooperative learning, 471
Core flow scales, 135
corporate capitalism, 98
autonomous motivation within, 99
extrinsic life goals and, 99
materialism from, 99
reward contingencies in, 98–99, 99–100
correspondence of content, for motives, 147–148
creativity
flow and, 132
in promotion-focused individuals, 76–77
within work motivation, 514–515
Csikszentmihalyi, M., 130
cultural values
evaluation of, 97
female self-objectification and, 330
need satisfaction and, 97
culture
aspirations and, contexts for, 97
autonomous motivation influenced by, 89–90, 96–97
BTAE and, as pancultural, 308
choice influenced by, 265–267
female self-objectification and, 330
group belonging and, 52–53
need satisfaction and, 97
(p. 568) responsibility of children to parents and, 345
SDT and, 86–87, 96–97
social cognitive theory and, relevance of, 25–26
student motivation influenced by, 473–474
values in, 97, 97
worldview validation through, 52
curiosity, 557–558
in behavior theory, 160
diversive, 159
drive-reduction model for, 158
emotional theory for, 160–161
as “for its own sake” motivation, 159–161
future research applications for, 163–164
global, 162
I-D model of, 162
individual differences in, 161–163
information gaps model for, 159
interest as influence on, 161
novelty reduction and, 157–159
openness to experience and, 162–163
reward-aversion model for, 160
specific, 159
uncertainty reduction and, 157–159
cybernetic processes, for self-regulation, 28–29, 555–556
feedback control, 29–31
hierarchy for, 29
for motivations, 38–40
theory development for, 28–29
Cyrenaics, 304
D
death, awareness of. See also existential anxiety; existential psychology
DTA hypothesis and, 47
escaping from, 56–58
flight fantasies and, 49
from frailty of human body, 48–49
health-promoting behaviors from, 48–49
religious belief and, 55
self-esteem and, 49–51
in TMT, 46
in wilderness settings, 49
death-thought accessibility (DTA) hypothesis, 47
Decision-Fostering Intervention (DFI), 453–454
decision making
dopamine hypothesis of positive affect and, 370
ego depletion and, 116
implicit motivational states for, neural bases of, 370–371
rational motivational states for, neural bases of, 371–372
somatic marker hypothesis for, 371
delay of gratification tasks, 221–222
delegation hypothesis, 219
democratic systems, 100–101
Demosthenes, 304
depression
failure and, 69–70
hedonic incentive and, 431–432
personal goals and, 447–448
priority management and, 36
promotion-focused individuals and, 70
self-system theory and, 70
desirability, motivation and, 209
developmental psychology
children's responsibility to parents in, 344
choice in, 267
effortful control in, 37
Dewey, John, 159–160, 160
diet and nutrition, energetic arousal and, 410
Dinnerstein, Dorothy, 326
discrepancy-enlarging feedback loop, 29–30
for overt behavior, 30
in personality psychology, 30
in social psychology, 30
discrepancy-reducing feedback loop, 29
for overt behavior, 30
in personality psychology, 30
in social psychology, 30
disinhibition effects, in vicarious learning, 16
dispositional flow scale-2 (DFS-2), 134
dissonance theory, choice in, 252
cognitive dissonance, 252
diversive curiosity, 159
diversive exploration, 158
dopamine system, in reward-based motivated action, 367–368
dopamine hypothesis of positive affect, 370
expectancy and, 376
drive-reduction model, 158
diversive exploration as revision of, 158
optimal arousal approach to, 158–159
drive theories, choice in, 249
Dweck, C.S., 192
dysfunctional goals, alcohol consumption and, 448
E
eagerness-related approach strategies, 215
early grade school, student motivation during, 469–471
economic systems, in SDT, 97–99
corporate capitalism, 98
human capital in, 98
The Economist, 50–51
education, 561–562. See also academic function; learning; student motivation
grading systems and, 470
transition to schools and, 469–471
as value, in student motivation, 465
effectance motivation, 521
effortful control, in feedback control, 37
effort intensity, 561
ability and, 424–425
cardiovascular reactivity to, 423
difficulty in, variability of status for, 421–422, 423–427
ego involvement in, 430–431
empirical evidence for, 423–432
fatigue and, 425–426
future research implications for, 433–435
hedonic incentive for, 431–432
implicit determination of, 433–434
individual differences in, 434
measurement for, 422–423
mood and, 426–427, 431–432
in motivation intensity theory, 420–422
outcome expectancy for, 428–429
personality and, 434
physiological correlates of, 435
self-evaluation of, 431
social evaluation of, 429–430
success in, variables for, 427–432
task context and, 434
theory development for, 418
egocentrism, BTAE and, 309–310
ego depletion, 7, 557
aggressive behavior and, 116
alcohol consumption and, 114–115
autonomy and, 121
as biologically mediated, 118
causes of, 113–114
from choice, 256
cognitive effects of, 116
consequences of, 114–117
conservation of resources and, 119–120
decision making with, 116
EEG methodology for, 117
ego strength and, 112–113
EMG activation and, 116–117
expectancy accounts in, 117–118
future research models for, 123
glucose levels and, 118
implementation intentions in, 120
inhibitions of urges with, 115
interpersonal behaviors and, 113–114
interpersonal effects from, 115–116
moderators of, 120–121
motivation and, 119
operations for, 117–118
physiological markers of, 116–117
positive affect and, 120–121
risk taking and, 116
self-affirmation and, 121
self-control and, 111
as self-fulfilling, 117–118
self-perception with, 116
from suppression of self, 114
susceptibility to persuasion with, 115
ego involvement
in achievement goal model, 192–193
success and, 430–431
ego strength
development of, 121–122
from self-control, 112–113, 122
electroencephalography (EEG), 117
electromyographic (EMG) activation, 116–117
embedded contexts, motivations in, 86–87
EMG activation. See electromyographic activation
emotions, 560–561
affect and, 32
in close relationships, 357–358
curiosity and, 160–161
interest and, 172
mood compared to, 408
priority management and, influenced by, 36
self-efficacy and, 22
in social interaction, 357–358
youth physical activity motivation and, 542–544
employees, in expectancy theory, 507
enactive learning, 15
encoding biases, 311–312
End Poem (Rilke), 59
energetic arousal, 409–412
calm energy mood, 414
cognition and, 411–412
complex moods from, 413–415
diet and, 410
endogenous cycle of, 409
physical activity and, 411
sleep and, 410–411
stress and, 412
subjective, 409–410
well-being and, 409–410
environmental incentives, 369
environmental inquisitiveness, 392
cognitive function and, 392
Epicureans, 304
episodic memory, self-efficacy and, 376
equity theory, work motivation and, 507–508
critical assessment of, 508
evolutionary psychology, sexual objectification in, 324–325
evolutionary theory, individual differences in motivation in, 382
evolved individual differences, in motivation, 386–397
with aggression, 392–393
for altruism, 395
for appearance, 393
background for, 386–387
behavioral syndromes and, 389–390
for commitment, 394–395
components of, 388
in dyadic domains, 392–394
for environmental inquisitiveness, 392
for illness avoidance, 391–392
in individual domains, 391–392
for interpersonal inquisitiveness, 392
in large group domains, 395–396
MAT for, 387
for meaning, 397
for mental efforts, 393–394
motives in, 389–390
in multilevel selection theory, 395
operational definitions for, 389–390
physical stature and status, 394
PRF for, 387
sexuality and, 393
for social exchange, 395–396
theory development for, 387–391
for threat avoidance, 391
tradeoffs in, 391–397
in very large group domains, 396–397
for wealth accumulation, 394
existential anxiety, 48–58
flight fantasies and, 49
future research on, 58–59
group belonging and, 52–53
health-promoting behaviors from, 48–49
hero worship and, 56
from human sexuality, 49
materialism and, 49
after 9/11 attacks, 57
personal dimensions of, 49–51
personal relationships and, 53–54
physical dimensions of, 48–49
from problems of body, 48–49
psychopathology of, 51
religious belief and, 55
self-esteem and, 49–51
social dimension of, 52–54
spiritual dimension of, 54–56
SSB and, 50
symbolic immortality and, 50–51
worldview validation in, 52–53
existential psychology, 45
objectification theory and, 326–327
TMT and, 45–48
existential self-awareness, 45
anxiety from, motivational role of, 48–58
expectancy
dopamine systems and, influence on, 376
ego depletion and, 117–118
neural foundation for, 375–376
reward prediction error and, 375
in self-enhancement, 313
in self-protection, 313
in SSB, 306
success and, from effort intensity, 428–429
expectancy theory, work motivation and, 506–507
critical assessment of, 506–507
employee belief changes under, 507
planned behavior theory and, 506
expectancy-value theories
attainment values in, 527
choice in, 249–250, 250
gender in, 527
interest values in, 527
in neuroscience, 373–374
parental influence in, 527–528
utility values in, 527
for youth motivation, for physical activity, 526–528
Experience Sampling Method (ESM), 130, 133–134
experiential system, in feedback control, 37
explicit motives, 557
consistency in, 150–151
correspondence of content for, 147–148
disattenuation approaches in, 148–149
incongruence in, 154
independence of, 154
integrative general model for, 145–146
measure methodology for, 142–146, 148–149
MTMM analysis of, 149
omnibus effect of multiple methodological factors, 146–147, 154
private body consciousness in, 150–151
in psychotherapeutic motivation, 442
self-monitoring of, 150–151
statistical independence in, 144
exploration, as tradeoff
through materialism, 75
maximization desires and, 75
for promotion-focused individuals, 75–76
unintended losses from, 76
external regulation, in OIT, 484
extraversion
in behavioral syndrome theory, 386
in fluctuating phenotype selection, for FFM, 384
in personality psychology, 381
extrinsic achievement goals, 196
process focus for goals and, 284
extrinsic life goals, 91–93
attainment of, 92–93
basic psychological needs and, as antagonistic to, 92
corporate capitalism and, 99
manipulation of, 93
psychological health influenced by, 92
(p. 570) pursuit of, 92
research on, 93
extrinsic motivation, 88–89
as external regulation, 88
identified regulation in, 89
integrated regulation in, 89
introjection in, 89
neural foundation for, 374–375
outcome focus for goals and, 284
for physical activity, 523–524
social context effects on, 96
work motivation and, 511
F
failure, as tradeoff, 67, 67–71
affective consequences of, 295–296
behavioral consequences of, 294–295
depression and, 69–70
emotional intensity for, 68
emotional quality of, 68–69
goal focus after, consequences of, 294–296
happiness and, 69
as means-related, 294
as outcome-related, 294
strategic preferences and, 71–72
fantasy realization, theory of, 211
fatigue, effort intensity and, 425–426
mental, 426
feedback
autonomous motivation and, 94
in flow, 129
self-enhancement and, 313–314
self-protection and, 313–314
in unconscious goal pursuit, 239
for youth motivation, 532–533
feedback control, 29–31. See also negative feedback; positive feedback
affect and, 32–36
approach and avoidance processes in, 32
effortful control in, 37
experiential system in, 37
goal sequences in, 31, 38
hierarchical organization of, 31–32, 37–38
impulsive systems in, 37
levels of abstraction in, 31
loops in, 29–30
in overt behavior, 30–31
planfulness in, 38
principles in, 31
processes in, 29–30, 30–31
programs in, 31
rational system in, 37
reflecting systems in, 37
self-control and, 38
two-mode models for, 37–38
feedback loops, 29–30
concurrent function for, 34
discrepancy-enlarging, 29–30
discrepancy-reducing, 29
elements of, 29
homeostasis in, 30–31
females. See women
feminism, sexual objectification and, 324
Five-Factor model of personality (FFM), 382–386
background of, 382
balanced selection in, for phenotypes, 384
behavioral syndromes and, 385–386
comparative psychology in, 384–385
criticisms of, 386
evolution mechanisms for, 382–386
fluctuating selection in, for phenotypes, 383–384
life history theory and, 385
stabilizing selection in, for phenotypes, 382–383
tradeoffs in, 383–384
flight fantasies, 49
flow, as concept, 57, 557
action awareness in, 128–129
autotelic experience and, 129–130
calm energy mood and, 414
challenge-skills balance in, 128, 130
in computer-mediated environments, 132
control in, 129
creativity and, 132
definition of, 127–128
dimensions of, 128–130
ESM for, 130, 133–134
facilitation of, 136–137
feedback in, 129
Flow Scales for, 132, 134–136, 137–138
FSS for, 132
future research applications for, 137–138
goal clarity in, 129
hypnotic susceptibility and, 137
identification of, 127
influential factors for, 136
macro experiences, 128
measurement of, 133–136
model for, 128
motive congruence and, 152
neural foundation for, 375
perfectionism and, 132
qualitative methodology for, 133
quantitative methodology for, 133–136
research examples of, 130–132
self-consciousness in, loss of, 129
self-reporting measures for, 138
in sports settings, 131
task concentration with, 129
time perception and, 129
Flow Scales, 132, 134–136, 137–138
Core, 135
Long, 134, 134–135
potential uses of, 135–136
Short, 135
Flow State Scale (FSS), 132
FSS-2, 134
fluctuating selection for phenotypes, in FFM, 383–384
extraversion in, 384
focalism, BTAE and, 310
forethought, 376
“for its own sake” motivation, 159–161
Four-Phase model, of interest, 167, 169–171
developmental factors in, 170–171
individual interest in, 169
learner characteristics in, 175
situational interest in, 169
Frenzel, A.C., 178–179
Freud, Anna, 304
Freud, Sigmund, 153–154, 304
friendships, youth motivation influenced by, 536–537
G
game structures, 455
game theory, 400
gender. See also objectification theory
in expectancy-value theories, 527
vicarious learning and, 17
gender development, for girls
by age level, 328–329
cognitive developmental theories for, 328–330
media influences on, 331
sexual objectification and, 328–330
socialization theories for, 328
gendered body project, 323, 331
self-esteem and, 331
general bodily arousal, 415–416
General Psychotherapy (GPT) model, 451
generational differences, in work motivation, 514
global curiosity, 162
glucose levels, ego depletion and, 118
goals. See also achievement goals; goal orientation; goal pursuit; goal setting; goal striving; learning goals; performance goals
abstractness of, 210–211
for adult development, 281
avoidance, 447
change, 289–290
close relationships and, 355
definition of, 4, 18, 191
difficulty of, 18
dysfunctional, 448
extrinsic, in life, 91–93
extrinsic achievement, 196
feedback control and, as sequences, 31, 38
in flow, 129
habits and, as automatic, 237
inequality of, 281
inhibition of, in prevention orientation, 69
inhibition of, in promotion orientation, 69
(p. 571) interference of, 239
intervention studies for, 225–226
intrinsic, in life, 91–93
learning, 18–19
of motivational psychotherapy, 456
motivation compared to, 208–210
new, sources of, 39–40
performance-approach, 198–199
performance-avoidance, 198–199
shielding of, 217
social, for physical activity, 525
social achievement, 196–197
in social cognitive theory, 18–19
stability, 290
work-avoidance, 196
goal focus, 283–296, 559. See also goal orientation; outcome focus, for goals; process focus, for goals
adaptation of, 289–290
affective consequences after failure, 295–296
age and, 285–288
approach versus avoidance processes in, 288
behavioral consequences after failure, 294–295
for change goals, 289–290
change in, 288–290
after failure, consequences of, 294–296
maintenance in, 286
means usage frequency in, 289
motivational phase and, 291–293
resources for, 287, 289
in self-system theory, 287–288
for stability goals, 290
stability of, 288–290
time perspectives and, 287–288
goal-interference, 239
goal orientation, 281, 559
adaptation of, 283
age as influence on, 283
compensation in, 282–283
goal selection and, 282
multidirectionality of, 281–283
multiple goal management and, 282
optimization for, 282–283
outcome focus for goals and, 284–285
process focus for goals and, 284–285
resource conservation in, 282–283
student motivation and, 466
goal pursuit, 558–559
achievement goals and, 234
performance and, 281
research on, 233, 234–235
triggers for, 234
goal setting, 558
determinants of, for content and structure, 210–211
future research applications for, 225–226
intervention studies for, 225–226
for learning goals, 210
by life domain, 212
mental contrasting in, 212, 212–213
for performance goals, 210
psychopathology and, 447
self-regulation of, 211–214
as theory, for work motivation, 508–509
theory of fantasy realization and, 211
goal striving, 214–225, 558
approach versus avoidance processes in, 215
aspirational standards and, 215
content as influence on, 214
delegation hypothesis for, 219
determinants of, 214–218
eagerness-related approach strategies in, 215
functions of, 214
future research applications for, 225–226
identity-relatedness in, 216
implementation intentions in, 218–219, 219–221
intervention studies for, 225–226
lack of willpower and, 221–225
learning-performance model for, 215
orientation framing in, 215
positive affect and, 217
power status and, 217–218
in self-completion theory, 216
self-regulation of, 218–225
shielding in, 217
structural features of goals in, 214–215
Goetz, T., 178–179
grading systems, student motivation and, 470
groups, work motivation for, 512–513
group belonging, 52–53
culture and, 52–53
group learning, student motivation and, 469
H
habits
as automatic goal-directed behavior, 237
stimulus-response rules and, 235–236
in unconscious goal pursuit, 235–238
happiness, 69
Harter, Susan, 521
health care, autonomy climates in, 95
health-promoting behaviors, 48–49
Heckhausen, Heinz, 291, 292, 373
Heckhausen, J., 283, 291
hedonic incentive, for success, 431–432
hedonism, 304
hegemonic masculinity
definition of, 325
power and, 325
sexual objectification of women and, 325–326
hero worship, 56
High Performance Learning Communities Project (Project HiPlace), 472
high school, student motivation during, 470
high-stakes rewards, 99–100
economic malfeasance from, 100
in SDT, 99–100
homeostasis, in feedback loops, 30–31
human capital, 98
human sexuality. See sexuality
hypnotic susceptibility, flow and, 137
I
identified regulation, 89
in OIT, 484
for physical activity, 524
identity-relatedness, in goal striving, 216
identity status, 152
I-D model, of curiosity, 162
illness avoidance, 391–392
immortality
through religious belief, 55
symbolic, 50–51
implementation approach, to physical activity, 487–488
implementation intentions, in goal striving, 218–219, 219–221
ADHD and, 219
lack of willpower, 224
Implicit Association Test (IAT), 494
implicit motives, 8, 557
consistency in, 150–151
correspondence of content for, 147–148
disattenuation approaches in, 148–149
IAT for, 494
incongruence in, 154
independence of, 154
integrative general model for, 145–146
measure methodology for, 142–146, 148–149
MTMM analysis of, 149
omnibus effect of multiple methodological factors, 146–147, 154
for physical activity, 493–494
private body consciousness in, 150–151
in psychotherapeutic motivation, 442
self-monitoring of, 150–151
statistical independence in, 144
impression management, in SSB, 307
impulsive systems, in feedback control, 37
incentives, motivation and, 209
for close relationships, 354
current, 354
environmental, 369
hedonic, for success, 431–432
material, for success, 427–428
incongruence, of motives, 154
individual differences, in motivation, 560–561, 563–564
(p. 572) AIM-Q for, 398
assessment strategy development for, 398–399
in behavioral syndrome theory, 382
in control theory, 400
for effort intensity, 434
in evolutionary theory, 382
evolved, 386–397
in FFM, 382–386
future research applications for, 399–400
in game theory, 400
for legacies, 396–397
in life history theory, 382
in personality psychology, 381–382
reliability of, 398
theory development for, 381–382
validity of, 398–399
for youth physical activity, 540–544
in Zurich Model of Social Motivation, 400
individual interest, 169
information gaps model, for curiosity, 159
inhibition effects, in vicarious learning, 16
inquisitiveness
environmental, 392
interpersonal, 392
integrated regulation, 89
in physical activity, 524
intention, physical activity and, 480
in planned behavior theory, 483
interest. See also interest development
awareness of, 168–169
choice influenced by, 263
conceptualizations of, 171–172
curiosity influenced by, 161
definition of, 169
development of, 170–171, 175–181
emotions and, 172
Four-Phase model of, 167, 169–171
future research applications for, 183–184
individual, 169
knowledge and, 169
measurement considerations for, 172–175
Punnett square for, 182–183
research on, 168–169
situational, 169
student motivation and, 465
study methodology for, 173, 175–181
survey methodology for, 173
task competence and, 172
vocational, 172
Interest and Effort in Education (Dewey), 160
interest development, 169, 170–171, 558
affect and, 176
case studies for, 178–179, 179–180, 180–181
fluctuations in, 176, 177–178
future research applications for, 183–184
knowledge in, 181
learning and, 177
Punnett square for, 182–183
research on, 175–181
shifts in, 176, 177–178
study methodology for, 173, 175–181
survey methodology for, 173
sustainment factors, 176, 177–178
triggers for, 175–176, 176–177
International Association for Positive Psychology (IPPA), 127
interpersonal inquisitiveness, 392
interpersonal motives, model for, 455
interventions
for physical activity, mapping of, 495–496
in psychotherapeutic motivation, 449–450
for student motivation, 471–473, 474
intervention studies, for goals, 225–226
intimacy motivation, 353–354
intrinsic life goals, 91–93
attainment of, 92–93
for basic psychological needs, 92
manipulation of, 93
pursuit of, 92
research on, 93
intrinsic motivation, 87–88
choice and, 253
external pressure and, 94
information internalization in, 88
neural foundation for, 374–375
in OIT, 484
organizational goal-setting and, 512
outcome focus for goals and, 284
outcomes from, 89–90
for physical activity, 523
as pleasurable, 88
process focus for goals and, 284
social context effects on, 96
for students, 464–466, 467
work motivation and, 511
introjection, 89
in OIT, 484
J
James, William, 48, 304
Job Characteristics Model, 510
job design, work motivation and, 510–511
from Job Characteristics Model, 510
K
Keillor, Garrison, 307
Keller, Helen, 167–168, 167–168
knowledge
interest and, 169
in interest development, 181
Koskey, K.L., 179–180
L
lack of willpower. See willpower, lack of
leadership
Leadership Scale for Sport, 533
transformational, 511–512
for youth motivation, 533, 538–539
Leadership Scale for Sport, 533
learners, in Four-Phase model of interest, 175
learning. See also vicarious learning
in achievement goal models, 192
associative, as motivational state, 369–370
context, stimulus-response rules and, 236
cooperative, 471
enactive, 15
goals, 18, 18–19
in goal striving, 215
in groups, student motivation and, 469
interest development and, 177
observational, 16, 16, 537–538
performance compared to, 15
social influences on, 463–464
learning goals, 18, 18–19
goal setting for, 210
learning-performance model
of achievement goals, 192
for goal striving, 215
learning theory, motivation in, 209
legacy motive, 396–397
Lewin, Kurt, 251
life history theory, 382
FFM and, 385
liking, in associative learning, 369–370
Linnenbrink-Garcia, L., 179–180
Long flow Scales, 134, 134–135
DFS-2, 134
psychometric characteristics of, 134–135
Lowell, E.L., 142–143
M
MacKinnon, Catherine, 325
macro flow experiences, 128
maladaptive choices, 249
Manzy, C., 179–180
mastery experiences
outcome focus for goals and, 284–285
process focus for goals and, 284–285
self-efficacy and, 23–24
in student motivation, 467
material incentives, for success, 427–428
materialism. See also wealth accumulation, evolved individual motives for
from corporate capitalism, 99
existential anxiety and, 49
exploration through, in promotion-focused individuals, 75
maximization desires, exploration and, 75
Mayer, Richard, 365
(p. 573) McClelland, David, 141–142, 142–143
independence interpretation of, 143–145
McDougall, William, 161–162
meaning schemas
evolved individual motives for, 397
through religious belief, 55
media, sexual objectification of women and, 331
menstruation, sexual objectification and, 327
mental contrasting, in goal setting, 212, 212–213
commitment in, 212
mediating processes for, 213
motivation and, 213
for negative futures, 212–213
for present reality associations, 213
as problem-solving strategy, 213
mental fatigue, 426
middle school, student motivation during, 470–471
Mill, John Stuart, 304
Mischel, Walter, 222
mnemic neglect, 312
moods, 561. See also depression
alternative models for, 412–413
arousal systems, 113, 409–412
cognition and, 411–412
complex, formation of, 413–415
diet and nutrition and, 410
effort intensity and, 426–427, 431–432
emotion compared to, 408
energetic arousal, 409–412
function of, 408
future research applications, 418
general bodily arousal, 415–416
in motivation intensity theory, 426–427
muscular tension and, 416
pleasantness and activation model for, 412
pleasure/displeasure model for, 412
positive and negative activation model for, 412
positive and negative affect model for, 412
self-regulation of, 416–417
task difficulty and, 426–427
tense arousal, 412
two-dimensional models for, 412
mortality salience (MS) hypothesis, 46–47
motivations. See also curiosity; evolved individual differences, in motivation; extrinsic motivation; goals; intrinsic motivation; motivational theory; neuroscience, motivation and; psychotherapy, motivation in; relatedness, for children; rewards, motivation and; individual differences, in motivation
actional phase for, 291, 292–293
activation of, 8
appearance, 393
biological purpose of, 4–5
for choice, 249–251
cybernetic approach to, 38–40
definition of, 13, 367
desirability and, 209
drive-reduction model for, 158
ego depletion and, 119
within embedded contexts, 86–87
“for its own sake,” 159–161
goal focus and, 291–293
goals compared to, 208–210
as implicit, 8
incentives and, 209
individual differences for, 563–564
intimacy, 353–354
in learning theory, 209
mental contrasting and, 213
nonconscious, 8, 8, 251
in observational learning, 16
for physical activity, theoretical frameworks for, 521–528
postactional phase for, 291
preactional phase for, 291, 292
predecisional phase for, 291, 291–292
priming methods for, 8
psychological models for, 5–7
social, 353–354
in social cognitive theory, processes for, 18, 17–24, 209
for student, 464–466
tradeoffs for, 67–78
in unconscious goal pursuit, 239–242
motivation, studies on
academic resurgence for, 7–9
causal explanations in, 5
consilience in, 6
coordinated analyses for, 9
experimental methods in, 8–9
interdisciplinary nature of, 4–7
practical applications for, 9–10
psychological models in, 5–7
statistical methodology changes for, 8
Motivational Attunement approach, 449
motivational climate
for physical activity, 492, 533–534
for SDT, 492
for youths, for physical activity, 526, 533–534
motivational interviewing, 453
motivational theory, 4. See also control theory; regulatory focus theory; self-determination theory; social cognitive theory; terror management theory
cognitive approaches to, 3
coordinated analyses for, 9
psychological models in, 5–7
Motivation Analysis Test (MAT), 387
motivation intensity theory, 420–422
ability in, 424–425
benefit in, 421
difficulty in, variability of status for, 421–422, 423–427
fatigue in, 425–426
mood in, 426–427
motives. See also explicit motives; implicit motives
activation of, 8
affiliation, 353
appearance, 393
congruence, 142
consistency in, 150–151
correspondence of content for, 147–148
definition of, 141
disattenuation approaches in, 148–149
in evolved individual difference theory, 389–390
game structures as, in personality disorders, 455
incongruence and, 154
integrative general model for, 145–146
interpersonal model, 455
legacy, 396–397
measure methodology for, 142–146, 148–149
MTMM analysis of, 149
omnibus effect of multiple methodological factors, 146–147, 154
private body consciousness in, 150–151
PSEs for, 141–142
questionnaires for, 141–142
self-determination in, 150
self-monitoring of, 150–151
social exchange, 395–396
statistical independence in measurement for, 143
TAT for, 141
motive congruence, 142
affect regulation and, 151
analysis of, 154
antecedents of, 151
consequences of, 151–153
flow and, 152
Freud and, 153–154
identity status and, 152
incongruence and, 154
need satisfaction in, 151
research models for, 153
stress and, 151
unintegration of, 154
volitional strength and, 152
well-being and, 152–153
multilevel selection theory, 395
multiple goals model, 198
multitrait-method (MTMM) analysis framework, 149
Murray, J. Clark, 159
muscular tension, 416
(p. 574) N
need for affiliation. See affiliation, need for
need satisfaction, 151. See also basic psychological needs, in SDT
cultural values and, 97
need thwarting, 488–489
negative affect
goal striving and, 216–217
priority management and, 30
unconscious goal pursuit and, 243
negative feedback, for overt behavior, 30
neuroscience, motivation and, 560. See also decision making
for agency, 372–373
associative learning states for, 369–370
automatic states for, 368–369
dopamine hypothesis of positive affect, 370
dopamine system in, 367–368
for expectancy, 375–376
in expectancy-value theory, 373–374
for extrinsic motivation, 374–375
for flow, 375
future research applications in, 377–378
implicit states for, 370–371
for intrinsic motivation, 374–375
key constructs in, 372–377
neural core for, 367–372
neurotransmitters in, 378
priming in, 370–371
rational motivational states, 371–372
for self-efficacy, 376
for self-regulation, 376–377
somatic marker hypothesis, 371
taxonomy for, 366–367
for value, 373–374
for volition, 373
Nicholls, J.G., 192–193
9/11 attacks, existential anxiety after, 57
nonconscious motivations, 8, 8
choice and, 251
Nussbaum, Martha, 324
O
objectification theory, 559–560
evolutionary adaptation in, 324–325
existential motivations in, 326–327
framework of, 324–327
gendered body project and, 323, 331
girls' gender development and, 328–330
hegemonic masculinity maintenance in, 325–326
media influences in, 331
power in, role of, 325
self-objectification in, 327–331
objective self-awareness theory, 44
observational learning, 16
motivation in, 16
for youth motivation, 537–538
openness to experience, curiosity and, 162–163
optimal arousal approach, to drive-reduction model, 158–159
optimal experience, 127. See also flow, as concept
organismic integration theory (OIT), 484
external regulation in, 484
identified regulation in, 484
intrinsic motivation in, 484
introjection regulation in, 484
organization
intrinsic motivation and, 512
purpose of, 3
work motivation and, 513
outcome expectations
choice and, 269
self-efficacy and, 19, 19, 23
in social cognitive theory, 19
outcome focus, for goals
age and, 290
definition of, 284
extrinsic motivation and, 284
goal orientation and, 284–285
intrinsic motivation and, 284
performance and, 284–285
process focus compared to, 285, 285
An Outline of Intellectual Rubbish (Russell), 315–316
overt behavior, 30–31
discrepancy-enlarging feedback loop for, 30
for discrepancy-reducing feedback loop, 30
negative feedback processes for, 30
positive feedback processes for, 30
P
parents. See also attachment, personal relationships and; attachment theory; relatedness, for children
in attachment theory, 337–338
parental affect, in SDT, 339–340
physical activity motivation, influence on, 528–532
pressure by, for physical activity, 531–532
responsibility of children to, 341–342, 344–345
sensitivity of, in attachment theory, 338
parental relationships, in attachment theory, 337–338
sensitivity towards child in, 338
peer relationships
in attachment theory, 338
in competence motivation theory, 521
mutual autonomy support in, 95–96
student motivation and, 468–469
youth motivation influenced by, 535–540
perceived versus actual choice, 257
perfectionism, flow and, 132
performance
in achievement goal models, 192
goal pursuit and, 281
in goal striving, 215
learning compared to, 15
outcome focus for goals and, 284–285
process focus for goals and, 284–285
self-efficacy and, 21
tradeoffs in, 76–78
performance-approach goals, 198–199
performance-avoidance goals, 198–199
performance goals, 18–19
goal setting for, 210
Perkun, R., 178–179
persistence, self-efficacy and, 23
personal goals
alcohol consumption and, dysfunction in, 448
content dimension of, 446–447
depression and, 447–448
in psychotherapeutic motivation, 442–443, 444–445
in teleonomic model, 446
well-being as, 445–448
personality
effort intensity and, 434
lack of willpower and, 224
structure, 143
personality disorders, 455
game structures in, 455
model of interpersonal motives, 455
personality psychology
comparative psychology for, 384–385
discrepancy-enlarging feedback loop in, 30
discrepancy-reducing feedback loop in, 30
extraversion in, 381
feedback control hierarchy in, 32
FFM in, 382–386
focus of, 386
individual differences in motivation, 381–382
Personality Research Form (PRF), 387
personal relationships. See also attachment theory; parental relationships, in attachment theory; peer relationships; teacher relationships
attachment and, 53–54
existential anxiety and, 53–54
mutual autonomy support in, 95–96
teacher-student, student motivation and, 468, 466–469
persuasive messages
ego depletion and, 115
from self-efficacy, 21–22, 24
physical activity, 562
achievement goal theory and, 485–487, 492–493, 524–526
basic psychological needs and, 484–485, 488–489, 524
(p. 575) competence motivation theory for, 521–522
energetic arousal and, 411
expectancy-value theories for, 526–528
extrinsic motivation for, 523–524
identified regulation of, 524
implementation intention approach to, 487–488
implicit motivation for, 493–494
integrated regulation of, 524
intention and, 480
intervention mapping for, 495–496
intrinsic motivation for, 523
measurement methodology for, 493–496
motivational climate for, 492, 533–534
need thwarting and, 488–489
in planned behavior theory, 481–484, 489–491
psychology of, 480
range of, 521
RCTs for, 494–495
self-efficacy and, 480
social goals for, 525
theoretical advances for, 487–493
theoretical motivation frameworks for, 521–528
theory integration for, 489–493
2 × 2 model for, 486–487, 492–493
as value, 531
well-being and, 479
youth motivation for, 528–540
physical stature and status, evolved individual motives for, 394
Picture-Story Exercises (PSEs), 141–142
statistical independence in, 143
Plan Analysis, 445
planfulness, 38
planned behavior theory, 481–484
attitudes in, 481
choice in, 250
control beliefs in, 481–482
critical assessment of, 482, 483–484
expectancy theory and, 506
intention in, 483
SDT and, integration of, 489–491
subjective norms in, 481
pleasantness and activation model, for mood, 412
pleasure centers, of brain, 235–236
pleasure/displeasure model, for mood, 412
political systems, 100–101
democratic, 100–101
totalitarianism, 100
positive affect
coasting and, 35
in competence motivation theory, 521–522
as counterintuitive, 35–36
dopamine hypothesis, 370
ego depletion and, 120–121
goal striving and, 217
with multiple concerns, 36
unconscious goal pursuit and, 240, 241–242
positive and negative activation model, for mood, 412
positive and negative affect model, for mood, 412
positive feedback, for overt behavior, 30
postactional phase, for motivations, 291
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 51
power. See also willpower, lack of
of choices, 248
goal striving and, through status, 217–218
in objectification theory, 325
rape and, 325–326
Powers, William, 29
preactional phase, for motivations, 291, 292
implementational mindset for, 292
predecisional phase, for motivations, 291, 291–292
preferences, choice influenced by, 270–271
prevention orientation, in regulatory focus theory, 6, 66. See also failure, as tradeoff; success, as tradeoff
analytical processing and, 77
anxiety disorders and, 70
commitment and, 72–75
desired end states for, 66–67
for failure, 67
happiness and, 69
intergoal inhibition in, 69
life experiences and, 71–72
performance and, 76–78
safety as focus in, 78
satisfactory state as motivational necessity for, 70
strategic preferences for, 71–72
for success, 67
system constraints for, 78–80
tradeoffs, for motivations, 67–78
priming methods, for motives, 8
neural basis for, 370–371
principles, in feedback control, 31
priority management
affect and, 36
depression and, 36
emotions and, influence on, 36
private body consciousness, 150–151
problem-solving strategies, mental contrasting as, 213
Process Dissociation Procedure (PDP), 223
process focus, for goals
age and, 290
definition of, 284
extrinsic motivation and, 284
goal orientation and, 284–285
intrinsic motivation and, 284
outcome focus compared to, 285, 285
performance and, 284–285
programs, in feedback control, 31
promotion orientation, in regulatory focus theory, 6, 66. See also failure, as tradeoff; success, as tradeoff
creativity and, 76–77
depression and, 70
desired end states for, 66–67
exploration and, 75–76
for failure, 67, 67–71
happiness and, 69
intergoal inhibition in, 69
life experiences and, 71–72
performance and, 76–78
strategic preferences for, 71–72
for success, 67, 67–71
system constraints for, 78–80
tradeoffs, for motivations, 67–78
psychological distance, in goal striving, 216
psychopathology, development of, 446
goal setting and, 447
psychotherapy, motivation in, 561
Alliance Fostering Therapy, 449
autonomous motivation approach to, 443, 448–449
Clarification Oriented Therapy, 453, 457
clinically relevant constructs in, 442–443
DFI in, 453–454
experience as influence on, 443
explicit motives in, 442
factors in, 448–455
future research applications for, 457–458
general models of change in, 451–452
goals of, 456
GPT, 451
implicit motives in, 442
intervention facilitation in, 449–450
Motivational Attunement approach, 449
motivational construct assessment in, 443–445
motivational interviewing in, 453
patient ambivalence over, 453
patient relationship in, 449
personal goals in, 442–443, 444–445
Plan Analysis in, 445
Rubicon Model of Action Phases in, 451
SDT in, 444
SIM in, 448–449
theory development for, 441–442
treatment goals in, 444, 443, 445, 449–450
values in, 442
WBT, 454
well-being as goal in, 445–448
Pugh, K.J., 179–180
Punnett square, for interest, 182–183
R
randomized controlled trials (RCTs), 494–495
treatment fidelity in, 495–496
rape, feelings of power from, 325–326
rational system, in feedback control, 37
reciprocal interactions, 14–15
agency and, 14–15
collective agency in, 15
self-efficacy and, 14
triadic reciprocality, 14
reflecting systems, in feedback control, 37
reflection, in self-regulation, 376
reform, of student motivation practices, 470–471
research implications for, 474–475
regulatory fit, 6
regulatory focus theory, 6, 66–67
choice in, 265
prevention orientation in, 6, 66
promotion orientation in, 6, 66
regulatory fit in, 6
tradeoffs in, for motivations, 67–78
relatedness, for children, 560. See also attachment, personal relationships and
alternative factors to, 345–346
attachment theory and, 336–339
contextual variations, 344–345
early, 342–344
function of, 335
responsibility to parents and, 341–342
SDT and, 339–341
theory integration for, 342–346
religious beliefs. See also spirituality
existential anxiety and, 55
immortality and, 55
intrinsic, 55
meaning schemas through, 55
psychological consequences of, 55
worldview validation through, 55
resources
in adult goal development, 282–283
ego depletion and, 119–120
for goal focus, 287
self-control and, 119–120
response facilitation, 16
responsibility, of children to parents, 341–342
academic functioning and, 341–342, 344–345
cultural variations of, 345
by developmental stage, 344
parental values and, adoption of, 342
resting
ego depletion after, 120–121
energetic arousal after, 410–411
retention, for vicarious learning, 16
rewards, motivation and
automatic states for, 368–369
choice based on, 249
dopamine system-influenced, 367–368
neural foundations for, in motivated actions, 367–372
neurotransmitters for, 378
reward prediction error, 375
sources of, 368–372
in work settings, 515
reward-aversion model, for curiosity, 160
reward contingencies, in corporate capitalism, 98–99
as high-stakes, 99–100
reward prediction error, 375
reward processing, in unconscious goal pursuit, 240–241
Rilke, Rainer Maria, 59
risk taking, ego depletion and, 116
Rubicon Model of Action Phases, 451
Russell, Bertrand, 315–316
safety, as focus, 78
S
selective self-memory
from encoding bias, 311–312
prevalence of, 311
psychological health and, 314–315
psychological interests and, 315
the self
ego depletion and, from suppression, 114
four constituents of, 48
self-affirmation
BTAE and, 309
ego depletion and, 121
self-enhancement and, 306, 312
self-protection and, 312
SSB and, 306
self-awareness, 44–45. See also existential anxiety; existential psychology
autonomy and, 102
avoidance behaviors, 57
behavioral flexibility and, 44–45
escaping from, 56–58
existential issues with, 45
in flow, 128–129
flow concept and, 57
functions of, 44
in objective self-awareness theory, 44
purpose of, 43
in SDT, 102
self-regulation and, 44, 58
TMT and, 57
well-being and, 102
self-awareness theory, success in, 431
self-completion theory, 216
self-consciousness, in flow, 129
self-control
addictive behaviors and, 112
autonomy and, 121
conservation of resources and, 119–120
ego depletion and, 111
ego strength from, 112–113, 122
feedback control and, 38
mood arousal and, 113
as process, 111
self-regulation compared to, 111–112
self-determination, in motives, 150
self-determination theory (SDT), 4, 7, 556–557. See also autonomous motivation; extrinsic motivation; intrinsic motivation
autonomy in, 85–86, 340
basic psychological needs in, 87, 101–102, 484–485
causality orientations in, 87, 90–91
for children, 339–341
choice in, 253
cultural contexts for, 86–87, 96–97
economic systems under, 97–99
embedded contexts and, motivations in, 86–87
extrinsic life goals in, 91–93
high-stakes rewards in, 99–100
intrinsic life goals in, 91–93
motivational climate for, 492
OIT as subtheory of, 484
overview of, 85
parental affect in, 339–340
physical activity in, 484–485, 488–489, 489–491, 492–493, 523–524
planned behavior theory and, integration of, 489–491
political systems under, 100–101
in psychotherapeutic motivation, 444
self-awareness in, 102
social contexts in, 87
socialization of children, 339
transformational leadership and, 511–512
2 × 2 model and, integration of, 492–493
work motivation and, 511–512
youth motivation and, 523–524
self-efficacy. See also collective efficacy
behavioral control and, 515–516
career choice and, 23
in children, 25
from choice, 254, 264
effects of, 22–23, 23
emotional reactions and, 22
(p. 577) environmental factors for, 14
episodic memory and, 376
informational sources for, 21, 20–22
mastery experiences and, 23–24
multiplicative influences on, 22
neural foundation for, 376
outcome expectations and, 19, 19, 23
performance behavior and, 21
persistence and, 23
personal factors for, 14
from persuasive messages, 21–22, 24
physical activity and, 480
reciprocal interactions and, 14
research evidence for, 23–24
self-modeling for, 21
self-regulation and, 23
in social cognitive theory, 20–24
social comparisons and, 20, 21
student motivation and, 464
task choice and, 23
self-enhancement, 559
BTAE in, 307–311
definition of, 303
expectancy differentials in, 313
feedback inconsistency and, 313–314
future research development for, 316
in hedonism, 304
information valences in, 313–314
instantiations of, 304–314
nonmotivational explanations for, 312–314
psychological health and, 314–315
psychological interests and, 315
selective self-memory and, 311–312
self-affirmation and, 306, 312
self-threat and, 312
self-view valences in, 313–314
SSB in, 305–307
theory development for, 304
self-esteem
existential anxiety and, 49–51
gendered body project and, 331
youth physical activity motivation and, 540–542
self-evaluation. See also self-enhancement; self-protection
of effort intensity, 431
in social cognitive theory, 19
social comparisons and, 20
of success, 431
self-modeling, for vicarious learning, 17
self-monitoring, of motives, 150–151
self-objectification, by women, 327–331
cognitive developmental theories for, 328–330
cultural messages and, 330
factors for, 327–328
gendered body project and, 323, 331
girls' gender development and, 328–330
through media, 331
situational motivators for, 330
socialization theories for, 328
self-perception. See also self-awareness
in competence motivation theory, 521
ego depletion and, 116
for youth physical activity motivation, 540–542
self-perception theory, choice in, 252–253
self-presentation, choice and, 268
self-protection, 559
BTAE in, 307–311
definition of, 303
expectancy differentials in, 313
feedback inconsistency and, 313–314
future research development for, 316
in hedonism, 304
information valences in, 313–314
instantiations of, 304–314
nonmotivational explanations for, 312–314
psychological health and, 314–315
psychological interests and, 315
selective self-memory and, 311–312
self-affirmation and, 312
self-threat and, 312
self-view valences in, 313–314
SSB in, 305–307
theory development for, 304
self-regulation. See also commitment, as tradeoff; feedback control; self-control; self-determination
choice and, 250, 256
cybernetic processes for, 28–29, 555–556
forethought in, 376
of goal setting, 211–214
of goal striving, 218–225
happiness and, 69
of mood, 416–417
neural foundation for, 376–377
reflection in, 376
self-awareness and, 44
self-control compared to, 111–112
self-efficacy and, 23
in social cognitive theory, 17
unconscious goal pursuit and, 243
self-serving bias (SSB), 50
expectancies in, 306
impression management in, 307
nonmotivational explanations for, 306–307
prevalence of, among populations, 305
psychological health and, 314
psychological interests and, 315
self-affirmation and, 306
in self-enhancement, 305–307
in self-protection, 305–307
self-threat and, 305–306
self-system theory
depression and, 70
goal focus in, 287–288
Self-System Therapy (SST), 452–453, 454, 457
self-threat, 312
BTAE and, 309
mnemic neglect and, 312
SSB and, 305–306
sexuality
evolved individual motives for, 393
existential anxiety and, 49
sexual masochism, self-awareness and, 57
sexual objectification, of women. See also objectification theory
breasts and, 326–327
components of, 324
definition of, 324
as evolutionary adaptation, 324–325
existential motivations for, 326–327
feminism and, 324
gendered body project and, 323, 331
hegemonic masculinity maintenance from, 325–326
media influences in, 331
menstruation and, 327
power from, 325
theoretical frameworks for, 324–327
by women, 327–331
shielding, of goals, 217
Short flow scales, 135
situational interest, 169
skills
in competence motivation theory, 521
in flow, challenges in balance with, 128, 130
in unconscious goal pursuit, 236–238
sleep, energetic arousal and, 410–411. See also resting
Smith R.E., 532
social achievement goals, 196–197
social bonds, 350–351
social isolation and, 350–351
social cognitive theory, 6, 555
collective efficacy and, 24
conceptual framework for, 14–15
cross-cultural relevance of, 25–26
developmental appropriateness of, 25
enactive learning in, 15
future research applications for, 24–26
goals in, 18–19
modeled observations in, benefits of, 25
motivational processes in, 18, 17–24, 209
outcome expectations in, 19
performance in, learning compared to, 15
reciprocal interactions in, 14–15
self-efficacy in, 20–24
self-evaluation in, 19
self-regulatory processes in, 17
social comparisons in, 20
symbolic processes in, 17
values in, 19–20
vicarious learning in, 15, 15–17
social comparisons
development of, 20
self-efficacy and, 20, 21
(p. 578) self-evaluation and, 20
in social cognitive theory, 20
social competence, student motivation and, 468–469
social contexts, in SDT, 87
social exchange motive, 395–396
social goals, for youth physical activity, 525
social information, in close relationships
interpretation of, 356–357
weight of, 357
social interaction, emotion in, 357–358
social isolation, negative effects of, 350–351
socialization, of children, 339
social learning theory, choice in, 250
social motivation
affiliation motives in, 353
Zurich Model, 400
social psychology
discrepancy-enlarging feedback loop in, 30
discrepancy-reducing feedback loop in, 30
feedback control hierarchy in, 32
socioeconomics, choice influenced by, 265–267
somatic marker hypothesis, 371
specific curiosity, 159
spirituality, 56
existential anxiety and, 54–56
sports, flow in, 131. See also youth motivation, for physical activity
stability goals, 290
stabilizing selection for phenotypes, in FFM, 382–383
statistical independence, in motive measurement, 143
in explicit motives, 144
in implicit motives, 144
McClelland's interpretation of, 143–145
in personality structure, 143
problems in, 143
Steinbeck, John, 50
Stewart, V.C., 179–180
stimulus-response rules, 235–236
context learning and, 236
in pleasure centers, of brain, 235–236
stress
energetic arousal and, 412
motive congruence and, 151
Striving Instrumentality Matrix (SIM), 448–449
student motivation, 464–466
classroom practices, 466–467, 473
competence and, 464
control and, 464
cooperative learning approach to, 471
with CORI, 472
cultural influences on, 473–474
development of, 466
in early grade school, 469–471
education as value in, 465
goal orientation and, 466
by grade level, 469–470
grading systems and, 470
group learning and, 469
in high school, 470
interest and, 465
interventions for, 471–473, 474
intrinsic motivation and, 464–466, 467
mastery experiences as part of, 467
in middle school, 470–471
peer influence on, 468–469
through Project HiPlace, 472
reform efforts for, 470–471, 474–475
in research study, 474
school influence on, 466–469
self-efficacy and, 464
social competence and, 468–469
TARGET approach to, 467–468
task assignment and, 466–467
teachers' influence on, 468, 466–469
transition to school and, 470, 469–471
subjective energy, 409–410
subjective norms, in planned behavior theory, 481
success, as tradeoff, 67, 67–71
ego involvement in, 430–431
emotional intensity for, 68
emotional quality of, 68–69
happiness and, 69
material incentives for, 427–428
outcome expectancy for, 428–429
in self-awareness theory, 431
self-evaluation of, 431
social evaluation of, 429–430
strategic preferences and, 71–72
success, effort intensity and, 427–432
material incentives for, 427–428
Sullivan, Anne, 167
symbolic immortality, 50–51
hero worship and, 56
T
TARGET approach, to student motivation, 467–468
evaluation techniques in, 468
grouping arrangements in, 468
task design in, 468
time allocation in, 468
tasks
in achievement goal model, 192–193
choice and, by type, 269
delay of gratification, 221–222
effort intensity by, 434
flow and, 129
interest in, competence and, 172
mood and, 426–427
self-control, with tobacco use, 122
self-efficacy from, 23
student motivation from, 466–467
in TARGET approach, 468
task-ego model, of achievement goals, 192–193
teacher relationships
children and, in attachment theory, 338
collective efficacy for, 24
student motivation and, 468, 466–469
for youth motivation, for physical activity, 532–535
teleonomic model, of well-being, 446
personal goals in, 446
television consumption, self-awareness and, 57
tense arousal, 412
calm energy mood, 414
complex moods from, 413–415
muscular tension and, 416
tense energy, 415
tense tiredness, 414–415
terror management theory (TMT), 4, 6–7, 45–48, 556
anxiety-buffer hypothesis in, 47
criticism of, 58–59
death as inevitability in, 46
development of, 45–46
DTA hypothesis in, 47
existential anxiety in, 48–58
future research on, 58–59
group belonging and, 52–53
MS hypothesis in, 46–47
psychopathology of, 51
PTSD and, 51
purpose of, 43
research strategy for, 46–48
self-awareness and, 57
worldview validation in, 52–53
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), 141
theory of fantasy realization. See fantasy realization, theory of
theory of planned behavior. See planned behavior theory
The Story of My Life (Keller), 167–168
thirst, as motivational state, 368–369
threat avoidance
in close relationships, 354
evolved individual motives for, 391
time
goal focus and, 287–288
perception of, flow and, 129
in TARGET approach, 468
work motivation influenced by, 513–514
tobacco use, self-control tasks and, 122
Tomkins, Silvan, 160–161
totalitarianism, 100
tradeoffs, for motivations, 67–78, 556. See also prevention orientation, in regulatory focus theory; promotion orientation, in regulatory focus theory
commitment as, 72–75
in emotional life, 67–72
(p. 579) within evolved individual differences, 391–397
exploration as, 75–76
for failure, 67, 67–71
in FFM, 383–384
in performance, 76–78
for success, 67, 67–71
transformational leadership, 511–512
transition to schools, student motivation and
in grade school, 469–471
in high school, 470
Transtheoretical Model (TTM), 452
triadic reciprocality, 14
trichotomous model, of achievement goals, 194
2 × 2 model, of achievement goals, 194–195
for physical activity, 486–487
SDT and, integration of, 492–493
U
unconscious goal pursuit. See also goal setting; goal striving
academic development of, theories for, 232–233
active maintenance of representations in, 238–239
classical conditioning and, 233
conceptual parameters of, 233–235
control of, 235–239
feedback processing in, 239
flexibility of, 238–239, 243
goal-interference and, inhibition of, 239
habits in, 235–238
monitoring in, 239
motivation in, 239–242
negative affect and, 243
positive affect and, 240, 241–242
research on, 233–234
reward processing in, 240–241
self-regulation and, 243
skills adjustment in, 236–238
stimulus-response rules and, 235–236
will and, 240
urges, with ego depletion, 115
V
values
education as, 465
as internalized process, 374
neural foundations for, 373–374
physical activity as, 531
in psychotherapeutic motivation, 442
in social cognitive theory, 19–20
vicarious learning, 15, 15–17
cognitive modeling for, 17
disinhibition effects in, 16
gender and, 17
inhibition effects in, 16
modeling for, 16–17
through observation, 16
production processes of, 16
response facilitation in, 16
retention of, 16
self-modeling for, 17
types of, 16, 16
violence, from threats to worldview validation, 53
vocational interest, 172
volition
neural foundation for, 373
strength of, 152
W
Watt, H.M.G., 178–179
wealth accumulation, evolved individual motives for, 394
weekend effect, 101
well-being
avoidance goals and, 447
energetic arousal and, 409–410
motive congruence and, 152–153
as personal goal, 445–448
physical activity and, 479
self-awareness and, 102
social isolation and, 350–351
teleonomic model of, 446
Well-Being Therapy (WBT), 454
wellness, autonomous motivation and, 96–97
White, Robert, 521
will, unconscious goal pursuit and, 240
willpower, lack of, 221–225
in academic settings, 222
affective responses and, 223
behavioral responses and, 223–224
cognitive responses and, 223
competition and, 222
conscientiousness and, 224–225
delay of gratification tasks and, 221–222
habitual responses and, 222–223
implementation intention and, 224
PDP for, 223
personality attributes and, 224
women. See also gender; gender development, for girls; objectification theory; sexual objectification, of women
commitment motivations in, 395
in media, sexual objectification of, 331
self-objectification by, 327–331
work-avoidance goals, 196
work motivation, 562
aging of employees and, 513–514
autonomy climates in, 95
creativity within, 514–515
equity theory and, 507–508
expectancy theory and, 506–507
extrinsic motivation and, 511
generational differences in, 514
goal setting theory and, 508–509
for groups, 512–513
intrinsic motivation and, 511
job design and, 510–511
organization through, 513
parameters of, 505
rewards in, 515
SDT and, 511–512
temporal perspectives on, 513–514
theoretical perspectives on, 505–512
transformational leadership and, 511–512
worldview validation, 52–53
through culture, 52
through religious belief, 55
threats to, violence from, 53
Y
Yalom, Irvin, 45, 49, 51. See also existential anxiety
Young, Iris Marion, 326–327
youth motivation, for physical activity, 528–540, 562
achievement goal theory and, 524–526
attitude and behavioral modeling for, 529–530
autonomy-supportive behaviors for, 534–535
coach/teacher influence on, 532–535
competence for, 540–542
competence motivation theory and, 521–522
controlling behaviors in, 534–535
emotional influences on, 542–544
expectancy-value theories for, 526–528
expressions of competence for, 530–531
feedback patterns for, 532–533
friendship quality as influence on, 536–537
future research applications for, 544–545
individual differences in, 540–544
leadership styles for, 533, 538–539
motivational climate for, 526, 533–534
negative evaluative behaviors, 539–540
observational learning for, 537–538
parental influence on, 528–532
peer influence on, 535–540
perceived competence and, 540–542
pressure by parents for, 531–532
SDT and, 523–524
self-esteem and, 540–542
self-perceptions and, 540–542
social-contextual factors for, 528–540
social goals for, 525
social support for, 529, 536
as value, 531
Z
Zurich Model of Social Motivation, 400