- Oxford Library of Psychology
- The Oxford Handbook of Human Motivation
- Short Contents
- Oxford Library of Psychology
- About the Editor
- Motivation and the Organization of Human Behavior: Three Reasons for the Reemergence of a Field
- Social Cognitive Theory and Motivation
- Cybernetic Control Processes and the Self-Regulation of Behavior
- The Role of Death in Life: Existential Aspects of Human Motivation
- Too Much of a Good Thing? Trade-offs in Promotion and Prevention Focus
- Motivation, Personality, and Development Within Embedded Social Contexts: An Overview of Self-Determination Theory
- Ego Depletion: Theory and Evidence
- Implicit–Explicit Motive Congruence
- Curiosity and Motivation
- Interest and Its Development
- Achievement Goals
- Goal Pursuit
- Unconscious Goal Pursuit: Nonconscious Goal Regulation and Motivation
- The Motivational Complexity of Choosing: A Review of Theory and Research
- On Gains and Losses, Means and Ends: Goal Orientation and Goal Focus Across Adulthood
- Self-Enhancement and Self-Protection Motives
- The Gendered Body Project: Motivational Components of Objectification Theory
- Relatedness Between Children and Parents: Implications for Motivation
- Avoiding the Pitfalls and Approaching the Promises of Close Relationships
- Neuroscience and Human Motivation
- Evolved Individual Differences in Human Motivation
- Moods of Energy and Tension That Motivate
- Effort Intensity: Some Insights From the Cardiovascular System
- Motivation in Psychotherapy
- Motivation in Education
- Advances in Motivation in Exercise and Physical Activity
- Work Motivation: Directing, Energizing, and Maintaining Effort (and Research)
- Youth Motivation and Participation in Sport and Physical Activity
- Through a Fly's Eye: Multiple Yet Overlapping Perspectives on Future Directions for Human Motivation Research
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter reviews the literature on congruence (consistency) between implicit (unconscious) and explicit (conscious) motives. The prevailing wisdom that implicit and explicit motives are uncorrelated is shown to be incorrect. When methodological shortcomings of past research (e.g., unreliability of measurement) are overcome, implicit and explicit motives are positively correlated. Nevertheless, the relation is weak enough that the discrepancy between implicit and explicit motives carries important information about personality congruence. The relation between implicit and explicit motives has been found to vary systematically and meaningfully as a function of substantive moderator variables, such as self-determination and self-monitoring. Motive congruence is predicted distally by satisfaction of basic needs during childhood and proximally by stress among individuals who have difficulty regulating affect. Motive congruence predicts important outcomes, including volitional strength, flow, and well-being. The chapter closes with a discussion of future research directions, such as the distinction between congruence and integration constructs.
Todd M. Thrash, Department of Psychology, College of William and Mary.
Laura A. Maruskin, Graduate School of Business, Stanford University.
Chris C. Martin, Department of Psychology, College of William and Mary.
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