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date: 09 July 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter reviews the literature on congruence (consistency) between implicit (unconscious) and explicit (conscious) motives. The prevailing wisdom that implicit and explicit motives are uncorrelated is shown to be incorrect. When methodological shortcomings of past research (e.g., unreliability of measurement) are overcome, implicit and explicit motives are positively correlated. Nevertheless, the relation is weak enough that the discrepancy between implicit and explicit motives carries important information about personality congruence. The relation between implicit and explicit motives has been found to vary systematically and meaningfully as a function of substantive moderator variables, such as self-determination and self-monitoring. Motive congruence is predicted distally by satisfaction of basic needs during childhood and proximally by stress among individuals who have difficulty regulating affect. Motive congruence predicts important outcomes, including volitional strength, flow, and well-being. The chapter closes with a discussion of future research directions, such as the distinction between congruence and integration constructs.

Keywords: motive congruence, incongruence, implicit motives, explicit motives, moderators, self-determination, self-monitoring, well-being, personality, motivation

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