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date: 16 June 2019

(p. 521) Index

(p. 521) Index

Aban Aya Youth Project, 213, 215, 264n2
ABCD (affective-behavioral-cognitive-dynamic) model of integrated social personality development, 107
Abecedarian demonstration project, 78
abstract concepts, 51
accomplices, 134, 141, 327
activity spaces, 305, 323, 325
ADHD (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder), 48–49. See also hyperactivity
adolescence-limited offending, 28–29, 102
adolescent conduct disorder, 136
adolescent risk, 143
affirmative action laws, 35–36
African Americans
in CHAC program, 200
code of the streets and, 163
gun violence and, 316
intelligence and attainment regarding, 50
segregation and, 35–36
age
developmental trajectories of risk and, 142–43
gender differences and, 133
-graded theory of informal social control, 37–39
agency, 38–39
aggregated analysis, 164–65
aggression
definition of, 134, 135
gender differences with, 134–36, 144
physical, 134–35, 144
relational, 134–36, 144
studies on, 105
Allan, Emilie, 140–41
Almeida, M. Connie, 116
A Matter of Degree (AMOD), 251
Amelin, K., 494
Anderson, Elijah, 163–64
Andrews, Don, 34, 477
Ang, Rebecca P., 116
anger management, 117
animal puppets, 111
anticipation, 393–94
antisocial attitudes, 473–74
antisocial behavior
antisocial role models, 32
child social skills training in prevention of, 102–29
definition of, 135
gendered approach to understanding, 140–41
rewards for, 33
antisocial pathways, 30–31, 41–42
antisocial personality disorder, 135
antisocial predator, 303
Anti Terror Bag and Tag, 399n6
Antonowicz, Daniel, 478
area risk in neighborhood, 60
Armitage, Rachel, 387
arms race between preventers and offenders, 13, 394
Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring (ADAM), 326
arrests
for domestic violence, 479
estimates of neighborhood characteristics on, 200, 201t–202t
gender differences in, 131–33, 132t
since random assignment, 196, 198t
ARSENAL soccer stadium, 392
Arthur, Michael W., 47
Association for the Advancement of Evidence-Based Practice, 513
attachment theory, 53
attainment, intelligence and, 50–51
Austria, 495
autonomy, 458
awareness, public, 500–501
backfire effects, 446, 452
Bandura, Albert, 302
banking and money laundering, 11
bank robbers, 404
Barr, Robert, 337, 350
bars, 320, 359, 397–98
Bassett, Michael, 440
Battin, Sara R., 59
Beelmann, Andreas, 112, 114–17, 119
beer glasses, safer, 392–93, 396
behavior
criminalization of student misbehavior, 270
past and future, 466, 471
behavioral norms, school culture and, 278–79, 282
(p. 522) behavior-oriented programs
for child social skills training, 105–6
for school-based crime prevention, 272, 275–77, 282
social learning and, 477
Bellair, Paul E., 160, 167
bell curve of crime, 24
Bender, Doris, 9
Benson, Michael, 8, 325
best practices, 226, 249, 512
biases
in estimate of treatment effect, 449–51, 450f–451f
from omitted variables, 454
selection bias, 168
social desirability bias, 216
Big Brothers–Big Sisters (BBBS), 217, 281
bike theft, 386, 387, 397
black box, 241, 460
Blair, C., 494
Blair, Tony, 491
Block Parents program, 501
block-randomized design, 460, 461
block watches, 6. See also Neighborhood Watch
Bloom, Howard, 77
Blueprints for Violence Prevention database, 249
Blumstein, Alfred, 472
bonds. See social bonds
Bonta, James, 34
boot camps, 473, 479, 513
Boruch, Robert, 460
Boston Gun Project (aka Operation Ceasefire), 238–39
Boston Mid-City project, 234
bottom line financial analysis, 516
boundaries of place, 356
bounded rationality
RCP and, 294–95
target selection and, 321
Bowers, Kate
on crime displacement and diffusion of benefits, 12, 340–41, 344, 350n1
on places, 358, 360
Bowlby, John, 53
Braga, Anthony, 12, 323, 358
Braithwaite, John, 34
Brantingham, Patricia, 298, 321
Brantingham, Paul, 298, 321
Brezina, Timothy, 164
bridge building, 368
Britain. See United Kingdom
British Crime Survey (BCS), 167, 324, 397, 502–3, 503t
broad dissemination, 428
broken homes, 56–57
broken windows thesis, 173, 185–86, 321, 323
Brown, Susan L., 55
Bryk, Anthony S., 279
Buddy System, 217
Buehler, Cheryl, 55
Building a Safer Society: Strategic Approaches to Crime Prevention (Tonry and Farrington), 4
Bullying Prevention Program, 278
Burdick-Will, Julia, 10
Bureau of Justice Statistics, 466
Burgess, Ernest, 157–58
burglary
repeat victimization and, 406, 408, 413, 415, 416n1
residential, 294–95, 321, 362
Bursik, Robert J., 158, 159–60
business, product design and, 395–96
California
cost-effectiveness of three-strikes laws, 514–15, 517n1
Reduced Prison Experiment, 457
Cambridge-Somerville Study (Boston), 52–54, 111
Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (London)
IACP Theory and, 31–33
risk and protective factors and, 47–50, 52, 54–58, 60
Campbell Collaboration, 511, 513
Canada, 5
correctional treatment in, 473–74, 477–78
public opinion in, 491–92, 492t, 494, 498–99, 499t, 501–2
Self-Sufficiency Project, 83
capacity building
community, 230–34, 428
levels of, 232
capital disinvestment, 35–37
caregivers, children’s relationship with, 73
Caribbean, 494
carrot and stick approach, 239
car thefts, 396, 397
Catalano, Richard, 7, 29–31, 46
catchment areas, 341, 344
catch the crook model, 431
causal inference, 347
causal mechanisms and product design, 390–91
causal model of intervening effects, 166–68
cause and effect, linking, 459
causes of crime, 62
proximal, 291
responsibility for crime prevention and, 492–93
root, 8, 41, 337, 496
understanding, 24
CeaseFire program, 238
Census, US, 160, 167
Center for Problem-Oriented Policing, 360, 370
(p. 523) Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), 250
Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA), 264
Cernkovich, Stephen, 40
CHAC program, 200, 202, 203t–204t, 204
Chaiken, Jan, 326
Chaiken, Marcia, 326
changes. See also cognitive transformation
in communities, 60
criminal careers and, 26
in disorder, 183–84
environmental change programs, 118, 251, 263
formation of ties without cognitive, 479–80
hooks for, 40
to laws and substance use, 264n1
organizational change and development, 236
Chicago, replication of Project Northland in, 258, 263
Chicago Area Project (CAP), 6, 234
Chicago Housing Authority, 200. See also CHAC program
Chicago Longitudinal Study, 76
Chicago Parent-Child Centers (CPC), 76–77, 78, 79
Chicago School Readiness Project, 75
Chicago School theorists, 155, 157–59, 163
Chicago Youth Development Study, 60
child-based pathways, 72–75
interventions targeting, 74–75
Child Development Associate (CDA), 78
children. See also early childhood programs; preschool education
child abuse and neglect, 428
child-rearing methods, 52–53, 57
early childhood risk, 142–43
parents’ relationships with, 27–28, 37, 38, 52–57, 142–43
protective factors and high-risk, 61
relationship with caregivers, 73
resilience of, 47
skill development programming for, 31
Welsh and Farrington on at-risk, 42, 114
young mothers and child abuse, 53–55
child social skills training, 9, 102–29. See also social competence
behavior-oriented programs for, 105–6
conceptual and theoretical background of, 104–6
discussion and conclusions on, 118–21
effects of, 111–18
examples of, 106–11
Lösel on, 9, 112, 114–17, 119
main results of selected other reviews, 116–18
observations and conclusions regarding, 103–4
program quality and intensity, 115
RCTs and, 111–12, 113t, 114–16, 119
recommendations for, 120–21, 330
results of reviews of randomized studies, 112, 113t, 114–16
Cho, Hyunsan, 214
Christchurch Health and Development Study (2004, New Zealand), 57–58
Christchurch Study (1998, New Zealand), 55
chronic offenders, 326, 330
civil liberties, 275
Clarke, Ron, 358, 426
on CPT, 298
on crime displacement, 12, 338
on product design, 387, 396, 397
on RCP, 294–96, 303, 305
on repeat victimization, 404
on SCP, 11–12, 365, 368
on SCP classification, 299–300, 301t, 302–3, 305, 308–9, 341
clinically relevant interventions, 477
closed circuit television (CCTV), 320, 338, 357, 363, 495, 504–5
Cloward, Richard, 7
Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy, 513
Cocoon Watch, 408
code of the streets, 163–64
cognitive-behavioral approaches, 9, 114
cognitive transformation
correctional treatment and, 481
developmental theories and, 39–41
formation of ties without, 479–80
identity and, 40
Cohen, Albert, 155
Cohen, Jacob, 94, 114, 449
Cohen, Jacqueline, 472
Cohen, Lawrence E., 296
Cohen, M., 499
Cohen, Mark, A., 204
collaborative partnerships, 430. See also community collaboratives
Collaborative Perinatal Project, 50
collective efficacy of neighborhood, 59–60, 161–62, 165, 167–68
Columbine High School, 269
command-and-control organizations, 429, 432
Committee to Study Youth Violence in Schools, 280
communal social organization (CSO), 279–81, 282
communities. See also neighborhood
changes in, 60
discussion and conclusions regarding, 168–69
engagement, challenges of, 240
influences, 59–60, 155–72
intellectual foundations of, 157–59
mobilization, 236
readiness to implement, 430
school crime link to crime rates of, 269, 275
(p. 524) Communities Mobilizing for Change on Alcohol (CMCA), 251
Communities That Care (CTC), 7, 230, 233–34, 261–63, 428
Communities That Care Prevention Strategies Guide, 250
community-based substance use prevention, 11, 233–34, 247–68
conclusions and discussion regarding, 248–49, 262–64
cost-benefit analyses of, 264
future research on, 263–64
gender differences with, 250–51, 259
methods of, 249–50
schools and, 251, 257–61
statistical techniques and, 249, 264n4
studies assessing, 250–51, 252t–256t, 257–62
substantial community-based component of, 249, 264n2
community capacity building, 230–34, 428
community collaboratives, 232. See also comprehensive community partnerships
community crime prevention, 4, 9–11. See also comprehensive community initiatives; comprehensive community partnerships; disorder; neighborhood
definition of, 9
effectiveness of, 10–11
promising programs for, 10, 14n3
public opinion and, 494, 502
Community Partnership Program, 230, 250, 262
community policing, 227, 274, 354
community prosecution, 227
Community Trials Project, 264n3
Community Youth Development Study (CYDS), 233, 262
comprehensive community initiatives, 6–7. See also comprehensive community partnerships
comprehensive community partnerships, 10–11, 226–46
community capacity building and, 230–34
conclusions and discussion regarding, 229, 239–41
conditions for effective, 239–40
with criminal justice system, 227, 238–39
ecological theory and, 228, 231
evaluations of, 240–41
evidence-based policy and, 233–34
future research on, 241
gang violence and, 234–39
implementation success of, 231–33
limited effectiveness of, 231
public health and, 227, 230–31
Comprehensive Gang Model, 235–39
CeaseFire program and, 238
early demonstrations of, 236–37
Gang Reduction Program and, 237–38
rural demonstrations of, 237
Safe Futures program and, 237
COMPSTAT, 354
concealable, removable, available, valuable, enjoyable, and disposable (CRAVED), 387
condemnation script of persistent offenders, 40
confidence intervals (CIs)
crime displacement and diffusion of benefits and, 344, 346–47, 347f, 351n3
repeat victimization and, 411, 412f, 417n3
confinement model of imprisonment, 471
conflict-resolution programs, 118
confounding
in evaluation of programs, 448–49, 451–52, 454
knowledge solution to, 448
quasi-experimental evaluations and, 448, 463n1
relationship between confounders and treatment, 451, 451f
construction, product, 391
construct validity, 13, 14n5
context of offending, 133
contingent valuation, 500
control. See also crime control; self-control theory; social controls
command-and-control organizations, 429, 432
hierarchical, 458
of place, 299, 356, 358
controlling out clustering, 165
Control Signals Poster, 108
co-offending, 58, 208
co-offender generation in convergence setting, 296
high-rate youth offenders and, 327–29
Cook, Philip, 11, 272–74, 327
Copenhagen Perinatal project, 48–49
Cornish, Derek B., 294–96, 303, 305, 308, 311n2, 341
correctional services accreditation panel, 512
correctional treatment, 466–86
in Canada, 473–74, 477–78
changing focus of, 469–70
cognitive transformations and, 481
conclusions and discussion regarding, 468, 483
Cullen on, 472, 478, 479
discrimination and, 469–70
effectiveness of, 13, 453, 470–71, 473, 475–83
evidence-based policy and, 467–68
examining programs, intervention and strategies, 478–79
formation of ties without cognitive changes, 479–80
get-tough approach and, 472
goals of, 467, 469, 473, 479
human services and, 481
impact on US, 472–73
justice model and, 471
law and order perspective on, 471–72
rehabilitation and, 42, 469, 472, 473–74, 477–78, 481
(p. 525) research quality and program implementation, 481–83
sentencing and, 470–72, 473
systematic reviews and meta-analyses of, 477–81
theoretical meta-analyses of, 477–78
costs
cost-effectiveness of California’s three-strikes laws, 514–15, 517n1
cost-effectiveness of parent training, 515
cost-effectiveness of preschool education, 79–80
of nonexperimental evaluation methods, 452–53
public opinion on spending priorities, 497–500, 499t
savings from early childhood programs, 513
social costs of crime, 204, 480
cost-benefit analyses
of community-based substance use prevention, 264
of mentoring, 221
new crime policy and, 514–17
counseling, 279, 479
counterfactual inference, 411
CPPRG (Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group), 108–9
Craig, Wendy, 8
credit cards, redesigned, 12
Crick, Nicki R., 135
Crime and Justice Group, Campbell Collaboration, 511
crime attractors, 298–99
crime bill (1994), 7, 511
crime control
balance between crime prevention and, 3, 509, 514, 516–17
web of informal, 296
crime counts, crime rates compared to, 340
crime displacement
Clarke on, 12, 338
forms of, 12, 337
geographic, 341, 348
Guerette on, 12, 340–41, 344, 350n1
Pease on, 337, 350
spatial, 340, 349–50
Weisburd on, 338
crime displacement and diffusion of benefits, 337–53
Bowers on, 12, 340–41, 344, 350n1
CIs and, 344, 346–47, 347f, 351n3
conclusions and discussion regarding, 339, 348–50
prior reviews of, 340
crime displacement and diffusion of benefits meta-analysis, 344–48
best- and worst-case scenarios in, 345–46, 346f, 351n2
criteria for studies, 341, 350n1
details of studies, 342t–343t
research design in, 347–48
results of, 345–48, 346f–348f
search strategy and data for, 340–41, 344
crime enabler, 298–99
crime-events theories, 292, 299. See also situational crime prevention
aspects of, 309
three factors in, 296
crime generators, 298
crime harvests, 393
crime hot spots, 12, 298, 318–21, 356–57
Eck on, 320–21
juvenile, 325
repeat victimization and, 323–24, 405
crime neutral places, 298–99
crime pattern theory (CPT), 11, 297–99, 310–11
Clarke on, 298
on high-crime places and times, 322–23
crime prevention
balance between crime control and, 3, 509, 514, 516–17
causes of crime and responsibility for, 492–93
classification of, 4
definition of, 6, 488
economic argument for, 7
female offending and, 141–44
goals of, 3
history of, 5–7
justice personnel and, 14n1
observations and conclusions regarding, 4–5
participation rates in, 501–3, 503t
public opinion on, 14, 487–507
pure, 3
crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED), 10, 293, 359, 384
crime rates
crime counts compared to, 340
disorder and, 184–86
in neighborhood, 60, 158, 160–62, 166–68, 227
public opinion on lowering, 497–98, 497t
school crime link to community, 269, 275
sentencing and, 488
crime reduction
pillars of, 3, 508
public opinion on, 493–95
Crime Reduction Programme (CRP), 423–26, 432–35
crime reporting, 504, 505n5
crime science, 292, 312n8. See also prevention science
crime scripts, 295, 311n1
Crimestoppers, 501
(p. 526) crime trends, 320
crime triangles, 296, 297f
criminal careers
change and, 26
length of, 326
of places, 12, 319
of products, 393
criminal embeddedness, 35–37
criminal events, 31–33
criminal history, 473
criminal justice system, 4
comprehensive community partnerships with, 227, 238–39
goal of, 496
labeling and, 34–35
loss of faith in, 5
patterns in data from, 329
spending priorities of, 497–98
criminal sanctions, 34
criminal tendencies, 31–33
criminogenic and criminocclusive products, 388
criminological theories on parent training, 97
Criminology (journal), 449
CRITIC planning tool, 398, 399n14
Cullen, Francis T., 325
on correctional treatment, 472, 478, 479
on developmental theories, 8
on social control, 227
cultural attenuation approach, 162–63
culture
neighborhood and, 158, 162–64
school, 277–81, 282
cures that harm, 448, 452
Curriculum for School Age Child Care Providers (PATHS), 108
Currie, Janet, 80
D’Afflitti, Joanna, 227, 231
Davis, Robert, 417n3
death penalty
crimes eligible for, 7
race and, 453–54
decay, 515
defensible space, 10, 308
delinquency, 23
consequences of girls’ delinquent involvement, 136–37
peer influence, mentoring and, 208–9, 212
Demuth, Stephen, 55
Denham, Susanne A., 116
Department of Education, 143
Safe and Drug-Free Schools program, 512
Department of Justice, US, 274, 326
depression, 135
Derzon, James H., 53
designagainstcrime.com, 396
Design Against Crime Research Centre, 396
Design Against Crime Solution Centre, 396
Design and Technology Alliance against crime, 396
Design Council for the Home Office, 396, 397
Designing Out Crime Research Centre, 396
desistance, 337
influences on, 38–39
persistence versus, 62
redemption script of desisters, 40
deterrence
incapacitation and, 472, 473, 479
labeling theory and, 33
situational, 293
deterrent effects, 273, 338, 512
developmental crime prevention, 4
on female offending, 9, 130–51
key characteristics of effective, 8
developmental-ecological models of risk, 141–42
developmental theories, 23–45. See also life-course theories
cognitive transformation and, 39–41
Cullen on, 8
functions and limitations of, 23
IACP, 31–33
key lessons on, 25–26
labeling theory, 33–35
prosocial and antisocial pathways in, 30–31, 41–42
social development, 29–31
developmental trajectories of risk, 142–43
deviance
primary and secondary, 34
service industry, 36–37
views of, 40–41
differential association theory, 30, 207
diffusion of benefits, 12, 337–53. See also crime displacement and diffusion of benefits
Dinosaur Problem Solving Training Program, 110–11
direct-contact predatory crime, 296
disaggregated analysis, 164
discipline. See also punishment
parental, 52
school-based crime prevention and, 269–70, 273–77, 281–82
discouragement, 339, 390
discrimination
correctional treatment and, 469–70
social class, 198–99
Dishion, Thomas J., 214
disinhibition, 50
disorder, 10, 173–88. See also ADHD; social disorder
(p. 527) adolescent conduct, 136
antisocial personality, 135
broken windows thesis and, 173, 185–86, 321, 323
changes in, 183–84
crime rates and, 184–86
discussion and conclusions regarding, 186–87
health problems and, 184
impact of, 182–86
observations and conclusions regarding, 174
physical, 175–76, 323
public morals, 346
race and, 177–79, 184–85
Raudenbush and Sampson on, 176–77, 179–80, 184–85
school, 184, 272
disorder measures, 175–82
agreement among, 181–82
complaints to police as, 178–79
observation as, 179–81
surveys for, 176–78
displacement of crime. See crime displacement
dispositional theories, 338
disposition to offend, 291, 305, 309
Dodge, Kenneth, 214
Dolan, Mairead C., 62
domestic violence, 408, 479
Donnelly, D., 494
Donohue, John, 515–16
Doob, A. N., 500
drugs. See also substance use
dealers’ social ties with gangs, 160
high-crime places, times and offenders with, 319–21, 326
minorities and, 200, 202
places and, 359, 362
rehabilitation program, 448
repeat victimization and, 405
Safe and Drug-Free Schools program, 512
Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE), 512
Plus program, 259
drug economy, 36
drug law enforcement (DLE), 437–38, 439t
Duncan, Greg, 8
Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, 136
Dunedin Study (New Zealand, 1993), 55
Dunedin Study (New Zealand, 2001), 54
Dunham, Jessica, 297
Durlauf, Steven, 514
Earls, Felton, 59–60, 161–62, 165
Early, Diane M., 78
Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE), 80
Early Childhood Environment Ratings Scale, 80
early childhood programs. See also home visitations; parent training; preschool education
cost savings from, 513
public opinion on, 498, 499, 505nn34
studies on, 513, 515–16
early childhood risk, 142–43
Eck, John, 427
on crime hot spots, 320–21
on places, 12, 296–98, 322, 357, 358, 368
ecological advantages, 323
ecological theory, 228, 231
economy. See also drug economy
criminal embeddedness and, 35–37
crisis in 2008–2009, 499
Edgar, Laura, 440
effectiveness, 428. See also specific programs
effect sizes. See also weighted mean effect size
failure to show large, 458–59
mean, 344–45
of parent training, 94–95, 94f–95f, 96
efficacy, 427–28
egocentrism, 9, 105
Eisenhower, Milton S., 6
Eisner, Manuel, 108
Ekblom, Paul
on 5Is model of knowledge transfer, 426
on opportunity, 293
on product design, 13, 388, 390, 396
elder abuse, 417n3
electronic monitoring, 473, 479
Elmira Prenatal/Early Infancy Project, 93, 428
emotional design, 386
employment
criminal embeddedness and, 35–37
as hook for change, 40
as source of informal social control, 38
welfare and, 82
work programs, 479–81
energizing factors, 32
England. See United Kingdom
envelope-theft experiment, 186
environment. See also crime prevention through environmental design
actor and, 155
adapting to, 157
environmental change programs, 118, 251, 263
environmental criminology, 322, 324. See also crime pattern theory
environmental risk factors, 32–33. See also communities; neighborhood
Environmental Risk Study (2007), 55
Environmental Risk Study (2009), 60
Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study (Germany), 107
Esmee Fairburn Foundation, 494
ethical concerns, 454–55. See also morality
(p. 528) European countries, 493–95, 495t. See also specific countries
evaluation of programs. See also specific methods and programs
confounding in, 448–49, 451–52, 454
gender differences, 143–44
key issues in, 116
randomized experiments and, 13, 446–65
suggestions for future, 462
evidence-based policy
comprehensive community partnerships and, 233–34
correctional treatment and, 467–68
prevention science and, 233–34, 510–11
Sherman on, 467
exact-change policies, 12
executive functions in brain, 51, 72–73, 75
exploration stage, 429–30
expressive and instrumental rewards, 295
external constraints, 30
external validity, 456, 461
facilities, 320, 322, 356, 357
Fagan, Abigail, 11, 46
Fair Market Rent (FMR), 205n1
families. See also Moving to Opportunity
neighborhoods and, 139–40, 165–66
parent training and, 9, 89–91, 97
poverty and, 76, 82–83
violence, 417n3
family factors, 47, 52–57. See also children; parents
child-rearing methods as, 52–53, 57
parental conflict and disrupted families as, 55–57
variables, 59
young mothers and child abuse as, 53–55
Farrell, Albert D., 215
Farrell, Graham, 13, 324
Farrington, David, 4, 325
on at-risk children, 42, 114
Building a Safer Society, 4
on CCTV, 504
on IACP Theory, 31–33
on mentoring, 216–19
on public places, 359
on randomized experiments, 456
on risk and protective factors, 8, 46, 49
FAST (Family and School Together) Track Prevention Trial, 108–9
Fawcett, Stephen B., 230, 232
fear of crime, 5, 183–84
Federal Bureau of Prisons, 469
feedback loops, 167, 169
Feeley, Malcolm M., 472–73
Feinberg, Mark E., 232, 261
Felson, Marcus
on accomplices, 327
on high-crime places and times, 320, 322–25
on RAA, 296
Felson, Richard B., 50
female offending, 9, 130–51
conclusions on, 145
crime prevention and, 141–44
health problems from, 136
rates and patterns of, 131–37
risk factors and, 137–41
Fergusson, David M., 57, 58
Fighting Back Initiative, 230, 250, 262
Figlio, Roberto, 326
5Is model of knowledge transfer, 426
Fixsen, Dean L., 429, 440, 442
Flay, Brian R., 215
Fo, Walter S.O., 217
folklore, 453–57
Foshee, Vangie A., 278
full implementation stage, 431
functional displacement of crime, 12
function of place, 356
funding, 512–14. See also costs
future criminal activities, 3, 33, 466–86. See also correctional treatment; recidivism
Gamman, Lorraine, 392
Gang Reduction Program (GRP), 237–38
Gang Resistance Education and Training (GREAT), 215
gangs, 24
Comprehensive Gang Model, 235–39
drug dealers’ social ties with, 160
gun violence and, 328
peer influence and, 58–59, 215
risk factors for, 234–35
violence, 234–39
Gansle, Kristin A., 117
Garrard, Wendy M., 118
Gatti, Uberto, 59
gender differences. See also female offending
age and, 133
with aggression, 134–36, 144
in arrests, 131–33, 132t
with community-based substance use prevention, 250–51, 259
in context of offending, 133
evaluation of programs and, 143–44
main conclusions on, 131
MTO and, 196–200, 197t, 202, 205n3
with murder and homicide, 134, 141
neighborhood and, 139–40
in rates and patterns of offending, 131–34, 132t
in risk factors, 46, 137–38
in sexual abuse, 138
in understanding antisocial behavior, 140–41
in victimization, 138
Gendreau, Paul, 472
generalizability of theories, 461–62
(p. 529) geographic displacement, 341, 348
geometry of crime, 298
Germany, 107
get-tough approach
correctional treatment and, 472
media and, 490
politics and, 513
in schools, 270, 274, 282
Ginsberg, C., 274
Giordano, Peggy, 40–41, 481
Girls Study Group (OJJDP), 132, 143
Goldstein, Herman, 426
Good Behavior Game (GBG), 275–76
good enough theory
RCP as, 295–96, 310
SCP as, 292, 293, 299, 310–11
good governance, 13, 423–26
conclusions and discussion regarding, 438–40, 442–43
five principles of, 440, 441t
societal context and participants in, 439–40, 440f
Gordon, Rachel A., 59
Gorman-Smith, Deborah, 9, 60
Gottfredson, Denise, 11, 60, 116, 271–75, 278–80
Gottfredson, Gary, 60, 212–13, 271–72, 280
Gottfredson, Michael, 26–27
Gottfredson, Stephen, 318
governance, 424. See also good governance
government
funding, 512–14
place-based crime prevention and, 368–70
product design and, 393, 396
Graham, Kathryn, 436
Grasmick, Harold G., 159–60
Green, Lorraine, 321
Greenberg, M. T., 232, 261, 429
Greenwood, Peter, 91, 516
Grippa clip, 393, 394–95, 397–98
Groff, Elizabeth, 325
gross domestic product (GDP), 514
Grossman, Jean Baldwin, 217
Grossman, M., 500
Grotpeter, Jennifer K., 135
groups. See also co-offending
peer influence and, 58
small group sizes in preschool education, 78–79
Grove, Louise, 13, 324, 408, 417n3
guardianship, 305, 308, 358, 366
Guerette, Rob
on crime displacement, 12, 340–41, 344, 350n1
on places, 358, 360
guilt, 302
Gun-Free Schools Act (1994), 274
gun violence
African Americans and, 316
CeaseFire program and, 238
gangs and, 328
high-crime places and times with, 316, 324
high-rate youth offenders and, 327–29
murder and homicide with, 238–39, 328
peer influence on, 227
Hagan, John, 35–37
Hahn, Robert, 118
Hallfors, Denise Dion, 214
Hampton, Keith N., 160
handler, 296
Hansen, David J., 54
Harcourt, Bernard, 181
harm
cures that harm, 448, 452
low-harm units, 459
possibility, probability, risk and, 387
Hastings, Ross, 14
Hawkins, David, 7, 11
on risk and protective factors, 46, 47
on social development, 29–31
Head Start, 7
parent-based pathways and, 76–78
ratings for, 80
REDI program, 75
health problems
disorder and, 184
from female offending, 136
types of, 230
Hempel, L., 495
Henry, David B., 60
Herrenkohl, Todd I., 55
heterogeneity of samples, 459
hierarchical control, 458
hierarchical data structures, 164–65
high-crime offenders, 325–29
co-offending and youth, 327–29
discussion and conclusions regarding, 329–30
observations and conclusions regarding, 317
high-crime places and times, 12, 316–36. See also crime hot spots
CPT on, 322–23
discussion and conclusions regarding, 329–30
Felson, M., on, 320, 322–25
with gun violence, 316, 324
link between, 324–25
observations and conclusions regarding, 317
RCP on, 321–22
repeat victimization and, 323–24
Sherman on, 323, 329
theoretical perspectives on, 321–23
Weisburd on, 320–23, 325
high-risk offenders, recidivism of, 474, 478
High/Scope Perry Preschool Project, 111
Hinkle, Joshua, 13
Hipp, John R., 177–78, 182
(p. 530) Hirschi, Travis, 26–27, 209
home-based reinforcement (HBR), 276
Homel, Peter, 13, 432
Homel, Ross, 13, 301t, 302, 303, 308, 436
Home Office, UK, 175, 396, 397, 423–24, 432
Research Unit, 300
home visitations
by nurses, 91, 93, 461
parent training and, 90, 91, 93
by teachers, 76, 79
homogeneity tests with parent training, 94–95
Hope, Tim, 9, 10
Hopfer, E., 495
horizon-scanning and foresight approaches, 393–94
Horwood, L. John, 57
Hoshi, Akemi, 430
hot products, 387, 405, 416n1
hot spots, crime. See crime hotspots
Hough, J. M., 309
Housing and Urban Development (HUD), 190. See also Moving to Opportunity
housing voucher programs, 191, 205n1. See also CHAC program; Moving to Opportunity
Houston Parent-Child Development Center, 77
Howes, Carollee, 79
Hughes, Jan N., 116
human action, 295, 311n2
human agency, 38–39, 40
human capital, parent, 73–74, 82–83
human ecology, 157–59
human services
in confinement model, 471
correctional treatment and, 481
implementation of programs and, 429, 440
Hunter, Albert J., 159
hydraulic view of crime, 337, 338
hygiene requirement and product design, 389
hyperactivity, 28–29, 31, 48–49
hyper-ghettos, 36
I Can Problem Solve (ICPS), 106–7
idea men, 329
identity, 34, 40
implementation of programs, 5, 13, 423–45. See also specific programs
comprehensive community partnerships, 231–33
conclusions and discussion regarding, 425–26, 438–40, 442–43
core components for, 440, 442, 442f
correctional treatment research quality and, 481–83
DLE, 437–38, 439t
human services and, 429, 440
implementation at scale, 80–81
integrity and, 474, 482
New Zealand, 426, 435–36
prevention science and, 426–32
Queensland and Stockholm projects, 436–37
for repeat victimization, 411–13, 413f, 414t, 415
stages of, 426, 429–32
Welsh on, 430
imposed use, 512
imprisonment, 35, 326, 471
impulsivity, 9, 28, 48–49
incapacitated offenders, 337
incapacitation, 472, 473, 479
incarceration rates, 35, 514
incivilities, 173
Incredible Years Parenting Program, 75, 76, 93, 110
individual constitutional factors, 31
individual factors, 47, 48–51
hyperactivity as, 31, 48–49
impulsivity as, 48–49
intelligence and attainment as, 50–51
within neighborhood, 164–66, 169
temperament as, 31
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 276
initial implementation stage, 430–31
innovation stage, 431
IN SAFE HANDS (identifiable, neutral, seen, attached, findable, executable, hidden, automatic, necessary, detectable, and secure), 387
installation stage, 430
instrumental variables (IV), 199–200
Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential (IACP) Theory, 31–33
integrated social personality development, ABCD model of, 107
integrity of programs, 474, 482
intelligence and attainment, 50–51
intensive supervision, 473, 475, 479
intent to treated (ITT) effect, 205n2
Inter-Agency Plan for Conduct Disorder/Severe Antisocial Behavior (New Zealand), 426
intergenerational accounting, 514
internal validity, 13, 14n5, 456
International Centre for the Prevention of Crime (ICPC), 424
International Report on Crime Prevention and Community Safety, 424
interpersonal cognitive problem solving skills, 116
(p. 531) interventions. See also peer risk interventions; specific programs
clinically relevant, 477
mentoring as part of multimodal, 219
nonplace-based, 370n1
preschool education and, 74–78, 82
pulling levers, 238
social, 235
targeting child-based pathways, 74–75
targeting parent-based pathways, 76–78
IQ (intelligence quotient), 50–51
Ireland. See United Kingdom
Jacobs, Bruce A., 294
Jacobs, Jane, 300
Jaffee, Sara R., 54, 55
J-curve, 398
Jeffery, C. Ray, 10
Jennings, Wesley, 9
Johnson, Lyndon, 469
Johnson, Shane, 12, 358
Jolliffe, Darrick, 10, 49, 216–19
just deserts theory of criminal justice, 471
justice model of sentencing, 471
justice personnel, 14n1
juvenile crime hot spots, 325
juvenile justice system, 55
Karrysafe handbag, 386
Katz, Lawrence F., 196, 199
Katzenbach, Nicholas, 6
Keiley, Margaret K., 54
Kelling, George, 173, 175, 185, 323
kernel density estimation, 356–57
Kirkholt burglary-prevention project, 406
Kleiman, Mark A. R., 326
Kling, Jeffrey R., 196, 199–200, 204
knowledge diffusion and brokering, 429–30
Knutsson, Johannes, 426
Kochel, Tammy R., 274
Kolvin, Israel, 51, 55
Komro, Kelli, 263
Kubrin, Charis E., 163
labeling theory, 33–35
criminal justice system and, 34–35
deterrence and, 33
juvenile justice system and, 55
Lansford, Jennifer E., 214
laptop-carrier backpack, 389–90
Larzelere, Robert E., 57
Laszlo, Anna T., 274
Laub, John H.
on families and neighborhood, 165–66
on imprisonment, 35, 326
on social bonds, 37–39, 480
Lavrakas, Paul, 5–6
law and order perspective, 471–72
Laycock, Gloria, 406, 426
learning processes, 105. See also social learning theory
learning styles, 474, 478
Lejins, Peter, 3
Lemert, Edwin, 34
Leschied, Alan, 52
life-course theories, 8, 23–45
age-graded theory of informal social control, 37–39
criminal embeddedness as, 35–37
on disrupted families, 56–57
life-course-persistent offenders, 28–29, 102
self-control theory, 26–27
train metaphor with, 41–42
life skills, 215, 479–81
Life Skills Training program, 258–59
lifestyle, 405
limited ecological reach, 231
Lipsey, Mark W., 117, 118, 477–78
Lipton, Douglas, 470, 475
Liska, Allen E., 167
Lizotte, Alan J., 54
location of place, 298, 356
Loeber, Rolf, 325
on neighborhood socioeconomic status, 166
on risk and protective factors, 8, 46, 47, 57, 60, 62
Loffredo, L., 274
Logan, Charles H., 471
logistic regression models, 453–54
longitudinal panel design, 31
long-term risk factors for offending, 32–33
loosening up measures, 302
Lösel, Friedrich
on child social skills training, 9, 112, 114–17, 119
meta-analyses by, 477
low empathy, 9
low-harm units, 459
Ludwig, Jens, 10, 77, 514
on CHAC program, 200, 202
on MTO, 196, 199–200, 204
Lum, Cynthia, 452, 455
Lydgate, Tony, 217
Lynam, Donald R., 49, 50
machine rage, 386
MacKenzie, Doris, 13, 453
Magnuson, Katherine, 8
Maher, Lisa, 323
Makarios, Matthew, 8, 325
Making Good: How Ex-Convicts Reform and Rebuild Their Lives (Maruna), 39–40
Malinosky-Rummell, Robin, 54
mandatory sentencing, 490, 491, 500
manufacture, product, 391
mapping, 328, 357
Markowitz, Fred E., 167
(p. 532) marriage
as hook for change, 40
remarriage, 56
as social bond, 38, 480
Marshall, Claire, 440
Martinson, Robert, 470, 475, 481–82
Maruna, Shadd, 39–40, 41
Maryland Report, 452–53, 455
Maryland Scientific Scale, 217
Mashburn, Andrew J., 79
Matza, David, 302
Maxfield, Michael G., 54
Mayhew, P., 309
McCord, Joan, 52, 54, 56, 452
McGarrell, Edmund F., 239
McKay, Henry, 6, 158, 162, 189
McNeil, Richard J., 60
mean effect size, 344–45
media, 490–91
Meeks, John W., 181
mental health, 73, 184
mentoring, 10
conclusions and discussion regarding, 207–8, 220–21
cost-benefit analyses of, 221
delinquency, peer influence and, 208–9, 212
Farrington on, 216–19
impact of, 216–20
main conclusions regarding, 207–8
as part of multimodal intervention, 219
role models and, 209, 217
in schools, 280–81, 282
social bonds and, 209, 221, 280–81
Merzel, Cheryl, 227, 231
Messner, Steven, 10
meta-analyses. See also crime displacement and diffusion of benefits meta-analysis
benefits of, 476–77
by Lösel, 477
regression results with parent training, 95
replication, systematic reviews and, 461
research design and, 476
theoretical, 477–78
metal detectors and weapons in schools, 274
Mexico, 83
micro places, 317, 318, 320
Midwest Prevention Project (MPP), 230, 251, 257, 264
Miller, Ted R., 204
Minnesota Family Investment Program, 83
minorities. See also race
criminal embeddedness and, 35–37
drugs and, 200, 202
neighborhood and, 163, 167
Mirowsky, John, 176
Misdeeds and Security framework, 387–88
Mitchell, Roger E., 232, 241
mobile phones, 386–87, 393, 395
Mobilization for Youth (MOBY), 6–7, 234
modeling factors, 32
Model Programs Guide, 250
moderator analyses with parent training, 94–95
Moffitt, Terrie
on intelligence and attainment, 50
on life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited offending, 28–29, 102
on taxonomy theory, 28–29
Molnar, Beth E., 139
Monitoring the Future study, 247
Monte Carlo simulation, 346
Montréal Longitudinal and Experimental Study, 51, 59, 109–10
morality. See also public morals disorder
moral commitment against offending, 302
moralistic views about crime, 512
risk versus moral outrage, 167
Morash, Merry, 54
Morenoff, Jeffrey D., 60
Moretti, Marlene M., 137
Morris, Nancy, 325
Morris, Pamela, 82
motivation
for offending, 291, 309
of volunteers, 448–49
Moving to Opportunity (MTO), 10, 190–204, 205nn13
annual arrests since random assignment, 196, 198t
baseline characteristics for, 192t–194t
description of experiment, 191
discussion and conclusions on, 202, 204
estimates of neighborhood characteristics on arrest rates, 200, 201t–202t
findings from, 195–96, 205n2
gender differences and, 196–200, 197t, 202, 205n3
key results of, 190
Ludwig on, 196, 199–200, 204
mobility outcomes for, 191, 195t
peer influence and, 199, 205n3
race and, 191, 196
schools and, 199, 205n3
multimodal programs, 106, 119, 477
mentoring as part of, 219
monomodal compared, 116
mundane offender, 303
murder and homicide
gender differences with, 134, 141
gun violence and, 238–39, 328
Mytton, Julie A., 117
Na, Chongmin, 11, 272–74
Nagin, Daniel, 500, 514, 516
Najaka, Stacy S., 116, 271–72, 275, 278–79
naming and shaming, 395
National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, 6
(p. 533) National Crime Victimization Survey, School Crime Supplement to, 274
National Head Start Impact Study, 77–78
National Implementation Research Network (NIRN), 429
National Institute of Justice, 457
National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, 55
National Longitudinal Survey of Youth–Child Supplement, 80
National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices (NREPP), 250
National Reporting System in Head Start, 80
National Research Council, 280, 460
National Study of Delinquency Prevention in Schools (NSDPS), 271, 273, 280
National Survey of Health and Development, UK, 56
National Youth Survey (NYS), 59, 164
Native American Project, 258–59
natural surveillance, 300, 305, 308
Naus, Joseph, 454
near repeat victimization, 405
Neidell, Matthew, 80
neighborhood. See also disorder
area risk in, 60
collective efficacy of, 59–60, 161–62, 165, 167–68
crime rates in, 60, 158, 160–62, 166–68, 227
culture and, 158, 162–64
definition of, 166
estimates of characteristics on arrests, 200, 201t–202t
families and, 139–40, 165–66
gender differences and, 139–40
individual factors within, 164–66, 169
minorities and, 163, 167
multilevel analysis of, 164–66, 169
observations and conclusions regarding, 156
parenting practices in, 139–40
patrols, 6
poverty and, 167–68
as protective factor against impulsivity, 49
race and, 60
reciprocal causation and stratification of, 166–68
SES and, 157, 166
social cohesion in, 59, 167
social controls in, 59, 158, 159–62, 183
as social factor, 59–60
social organization of, 139–40, 156, 158–59, 227
social ties in, 160–61, 183
structural characteristics of, 139
systemic model of crime and, 159–61
trust among neighbors, 161, 183
neighborhood effects, 155, 158–66, 189–90. See also Moving to Opportunity
neighborhood stability, 174, 186, 227
Neighborhood Watch, 408
public opinion and, 487, 494–95, 501–3, 503t
Netherlands, 82, 186
networks
primary and secondary, 160
relational, 160
neurocognitive impairments, 51
neuropsychological deficits, 28
Newburn, Tim, 216
Newcastle Thousand Family Study, 51, 53, 54, 55, 57
new crime policy, 14
cost-benefit analyses and, 514–17
observations and conclusions regarding, 509
New Hope programs, 83
Newman, Oscar
on defensible space, 10, 308
on natural surveillance, 300
on product design, 396, 397
new penology, 473
Newson, Elizabeth, 52
Newson, John, 52
New York Times, 274
New Zealand
implementation of programs and, 426, 435–36
studies, 54, 55, 57–58
Ngwe, Job E, 215
Nickles, Laura B., 274
nonexperimental evaluation methods
cost of, 452–53
folklore justifying use of, 453
limitations of, 448–50
randomized experiments compared to, 452, 455–57
nonplace-based interventions, 370n1
nonprofit organizations, 6
Norman, Donald, 386
null effects, 458–59
Nurse Family Partnership (NFP), 91
nurse home visitations, 91, 93, 461
Nuttall, C., 494
Obama, Barack, 512–13
observation, as disorder measure, 179–81
occupational prestige, 57
odds ratio (OR), 344
Odgers, Candice L., 60, 137
O’Donnell, Clifford R., 217
offenders. See also co-offending; high-crime offenders
arms race between preventers and, 13, 394
(p. 534) causal mechanisms and, 390–91
chronic, 326, 330
countermoves against secure product design, 393
ideal types of, 303
incapacitated, 337
legal rights of, 471
life-course-persistent offenders, 28–29, 102
mobility, 321
motivation for offending, 291, 309
mundane, 303
notification meetings, 239
persistence versus desistance, 62
provoked, 303
recidivism of high-risk, 474, 478
offender decision making
four models of, 294
with high-crime places and times, 321–23
influences on, 339
involvement and, 294, 311n1
situational precipitators and, 302–3
25-techniques and, 303, 305
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), 132, 143
Comprehensive Gang Model, 235–39
Ohlin, Lloyd, 7
Olds, David, 93, 461
Olweus, Dan, 278
ontogenetic differences between individuals, 38
operation, product, 391
Operation Ceasefire (Boston Gun Project), 238–39
Oportunidades (formerly Progresa), 83
opportunities
blocking of, 337–39, 354, 359
Ekblom on, 293
for legitimate success, 7
provision, 235
opportunity theories, 302–3. See also crime pattern theory; rational choice perspective; routine activity approach
dispositional theories compared to, 338
SCP and, 11, 291
OR. See odds ratio
order maintenance policing, 173, 186
ordinary least squares regression (OLS), 164, 200
Orebro longitudinal study (Sweden), 49
Oregon Youth Study, 57
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, 71, 81
organization of gender, 141
PACT (Pulling America’s Communities Together), 6
paint manufacturers, 392
paranoid products, 392
parents. See also children
children’s relationships with, 27–28, 37, 38, 52–57, 142–43
neighborhoods and, 139–40
parental conflict and disrupted families, 55–57
parental discipline, 52
parental supervision, 47, 52
parent human capital, 73–74, 82–83
parenting services, 73
parenting skills, 73
parent support services, 71, 82
stepparents, 56
parent-based pathways, 73–74
interventions targeting, 76–78
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy, 93
parent training, 89–101. See also specific programs
conclusions and discussion regarding, 90, 95–97
cost-effectiveness of, 515
criminological theories on, 97
effectiveness of, 95–97
effect sizes of, 94–95, 94f–95f, 96
families and, 9, 89–91, 97
home visitations and, 90, 91, 93
homogeneity tests and moderator analyses with, 94–95
meta-analysis regression results with, 95
methods and, 92–93
policy relevance with, 91
prior reviews on, 91–92
results and, 94–95
social development and, 31
systematic review of, 92–95
US studies compared to outside US, 95, 96
parochial social control, 159–60
participation rates in crime prevention, 501–3, 503t
pathways
child-based, 72–75
parent-based, 73–74, 76–78
prosocial and antisocial, 30–31, 41–42
Patterson, Gerald R., 57
Pattillo-McCoy, Mary E., 160
Payne, Allison A., 280
Pease, Kenneth
on crime displacement, 337, 350
on product design, 387
on repeat victimization, 324
peer effects, 208–9
peer influence, 10, 207–16
conclusions and discussion regarding, 207–8, 220–21
delinquency, mentoring and, 208–9, 212
gangs and, 58–59, 215
(p. 535) groups and, 58
on gun violence, 227
MTO and, 199, 205n3
schools and, 213–14, 216, 279
as social factor, 58–59, 142
social learning theory on, 207, 209
peer pressure refusal skills, 213
peer risk interventions, 212–16
characteristics of evaluation methods, 213–14
conclusions from research, 214–15
future studies of, 220
shortcomings in research, 216
summaries of studies, 210t–211t
targeted youths and nature of intervention, 213
Pentz, Mary Ann, 232–33
Perkins, Douglas D., 180–81
Perkins, Elizabeth, 404
Perry, Cheryl L., 263
Perry Preschool program, 50, 76, 78, 79, 111, 516
persistent offenders
condemnation script of, 40
life-course, 28–29, 102
Petrosino, Anthony, 452, 455
Pfingsten, Ulrich, 116
Phillips, Deborah, 77
physical aggression, 134–35, 144
physical disorder, 175–76, 323
Piquero, Alex, 9, 449
Pittsburgh Youth Study, 47–51, 54, 57–61
places. See also high-crime places and times
boundaries of, 356
Bowers on, 358, 360
control of, 299, 356, 358
criminal careers of, 12, 319
criminology of, 293
definition of, 356–58
Eck on, 12, 296–98, 322, 357, 358, 368
five related features of, 356
function of, 356
Guerette on, 358, 360
importance of, 358–59
micro, 317, 318, 320
mixed-use, 356
recreational, 360, 367, 367t, 381t
residential, 362–63, 363t, 371t–373t
retail, 365, 365t, 377t–378t
Sherman on, 356
size of, 356
transportation, 366, 366t, 379t–380t
types of, 358, 360–61, 370n1
place-based crime prevention, 12, 296–99, 354–83
conclusions and discussion regarding, 355, 367–70
effectiveness by place type, 361t, 370n1
effectiveness of, 360–67
effects of most used interventions, 368–69, 369t
evaluation designs by place type, 362t
government and, 368–70
selection of evaluations for, 360
place managers, 296, 308–9, 358–59
Pogarsky, Greg, 54
Poisson process, 344
police
catch the crook model and, 431
complaints to, 178–79
repeat victimization and, 415
in schools, 270, 274
studies of, 456
suppression programs, 234
policing
community, 227, 274, 354
order maintenance, 173, 186
problem-oriented, 341, 354, 368, 384
third party, 359
politics
barriers to randomized experiments, 457–58
challenges and remedies, 511–14
get-tough approach and, 513
of punishment versus prevention, 491–92
short-termism, 14, 513–14
soft on crime approach and, 509, 512–13
Pollard, John A., 47
polluter pays policies, 395, 396
Popper, Karl, 295
population-based strategies, 227
pork-barreling, 7
position in social structure, 30
possibility, probability, harm and risk, 387
potential sleeper effects, 109
Poulsen, Erika, 324
poverty. See also hyper-ghettos
deconcentration, 10, 189–206
families and, 76, 82–83
neighborhood and, 167–68
preschool education and, 76, 82–83
race, disorder and, 184–85
power few, 458–59
Poyner, Barry, 338
precipitating conditions, 303
prediction of offending, 47, 61–62
predictors of crime, 473–74
preschool education, 70–88. See also specific programs
child-based pathways and, 72–75
conclusions and observations regarding, 71–72, 81
cost-effectiveness of, 79–80
cross-cutting issues in, 78–81
definition of, 71
intellectual enrichment programs, 8–9
interventions and, 74–78, 82
overlooked populations and global contexts for, 81–82
parent-based pathways and, 73–74, 76–78
parent support services with, 71
poverty and, 76, 82–83
(p. 536) replication, implementation at scale, and policy supports for, 80–81
small group sizes in, 78–79
structural characteristics of, 78–79
teachers and, 72–73, 75–76, 78–79
two-generation programs for, 9, 71, 76, 77, 81–82
President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, 6, 469
Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn’t, What’s Promising (Sherman), 511
prevention science. See also crime prevention
evidence-based policy and, 233–34, 510–11
implementation of programs and, 426–32
roots in public health, 510
primary and secondary deviance, 34
primary and secondary networks, 160
principles
of effective correctional intervention, 473–74
of good governance, 440, 441t
risk, 220, 478
prisoners
early release of, 457
RAND survey on, 326
releasees and recidivism, 466
situational influences on, 302–3
prisons. See also imprisonment
construction, 7, 500, 517
industries, 479, 480
overcrowded, 327
performance criteria for effectiveness of, 471
studies, 456, 515–17
private social control, 159–60
probability, possibility, harm and risk, 387
problem analysis triangle, 296, 297f
problem-oriented policing, 341, 354, 368, 384
problem-solving dialogue, 107
product design, 384–403
business and, 395–96
causal mechanisms and, 390–91
Clarke on, 387, 396, 397
criminal careers of products and, 393
discussion and conclusions on, 398–99
Ekblom on, 13, 388, 390, 396
empirical links with risk factors, 387–88
evaluation of, 396–98
government and, 393, 396
hygiene requirement and, 389
judging, 388
key points on, 385–86
Newman on, 396, 397
Pease on, 387
purpose and, 388–89
research centers for, 396
SCP and, 11, 13, 386–87
scripts and, 391, 394
secure, 392–94
security function and, 388–91
theft and, 387–88, 393
vulnerability and, 388, 392
program drift, 431
Project MARC, 387, 388, 393
Project Northland, 257–58, 263, 264
Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, 59–60, 139
Project Safe Neighborhoods (PSN), 238, 239
Project SixTeen, 257
Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS), 75, 107–9
Curriculum for School Age Child Care Providers, 108
PROmoting School-community-university Partnerships to Enhance Resilience (PROSPER) project, 259–60, 263
promotive factors
definition of, 47
studies on, 49
propensity theory, 27
property marking, 408
prosocial and antisocial pathways, 30–31, 41–42
prostitution, 36
protective factors. See also risk and protective factors
definition of, 47
high-risk children and, 61
provoked offender, 303
psychosocial sex offender treatment, 479
public awareness, 500–501
public health
comprehensive community partnerships and, 227, 230–31
prevention science roots in, 510
public morals disorder, 346
public opinion
in Canada, 491–92, 492t, 494, 498–99, 499t, 501–2
on CCTV, 495, 504–5
community crime prevention and, 494, 502
conclusions and discussion regarding, 488–89, 503–5
on crime prevention, 14, 487–507
on crime reduction, 493–95
cross-jurisdictional variation in, 494–95
on early childhood programs, 498, 499, 505nn34
in European countries, 493–95, 495t
on lowering crime rates, 497–98, 497t
methodology for, 489–90, 500
Neighborhood Watch and, 487, 494–95, 501–3, 503t
participation rates and, 501–3, 503t
public awareness and, 500–501
on punishment versus prevention, 488–90, 495–500
(p. 537) on punitive approaches, 7, 14, 493, 505n2, 513
on soft on crime approach, 491, 505n1
on spending priorities, 497–500, 499t
United Kingdom and, 491, 492t, 494, 499, 502–3, 503t
in US, 491, 492t, 496, 497t, 498–502
public places, 319, 359, 360–61, 364–65, 364t, 374t–376t
public safety, 234, 467
public social control, 159–60
published versus unpublished studies, 95, 115
pulling levers intervention, 238
punishment
erratic or inconsistent, 52–53
stability of punishment theory, 472
punishment versus prevention
balance between, 7, 488
politics of, 491–92
public opinion on, 488–89, 495–500
punitive approaches. See also crime control; law and order perspective
failure of, 478
public opinion on, 7, 14, 493, 505n2, 513
purpose, product, 388–89
Q statistic, 345–46
quasi-experimental evaluations, 13, 62, 74, 348, 348f, 349
confounding and, 448, 463n1
Quebec, 91
Queensland, 436–37
race
death penalty and, 453–54
disorder and, 177–79, 184–85
MTO and, 191, 196
neighborhood and, 60
poverty, disorder and, 184–85
racial inequality, 36
radical non-intervention policy, 34
RAND Corporation
study on California’s three-strikes laws, 514–15, 517n1
survey on jail and prison inmates, 326
random breath testing (RBT), 430–32
random effects model, 345–46, 417n3
randomized control trials (RCTs)
child social skills training and, 111–12, 113t, 114–16, 119
impacts of, 349
randomized experiments
conditions for successful, 457–59
discussion and conclusions regarding, 462
ethical concerns about, 454–55
evaluation of programs and, 13, 446–65
external validity of, 456, 461
Farrington on, 456
folklore and, 453–57
key points regarding, 447
linking cause and effect with, 459
multisite, 462
as naïve and rigid, 459–62
nonexperimental evaluation methods compared to, 452, 455–57
political barriers to, 457–58
power few and, 458–59
practical barriers to, 458
on school-based crime prevention, 460
Sherman on, 458–59, 461
statistical advantage of, 450–52
Weisburd on, 13, 449, 452, 459
Welsh on, 456
Rankin, Joseph H., 56
rates and patterns of offending, 131–37, 132t
rational choice perspective (RCP), 11
bounded rationality and, 294–95
Clarke, R., on, 294–96, 303, 305
as good enough theory, 295–96, 310
on high-crime places and times, 321–22
Raudenbush, Stephen W.
on community influences, 59–60, 161–62, 165
on disorder, 176–77, 179–80, 184–85
recapitalization, 36
recidivism
of high-risk offenders, 474, 478
impacts on, 34, 452
prison releasees and, 466
rates, 466
reducing, 466–67, 473–74
statistics on, 326
reciprocal causation and stratification of neighborhood, 166–68
Reconnecting Youth program, 279
recreational places, 360, 367, 367t, 381t
redemption script of desisters, 40
reducing crime. See crime reduction
regression techniques, 164, 166, 448
rehabilitation
correctional treatment and, 42, 469, 472, 473–74, 477–78, 481
drug program, 448
Reid, Jamila, 110–11
Reiss, Albert, 175
relational networks, 160
relationships. See also mentoring; peer influence
caregiver-child, 73
between confounders and treatment, 451, 451f
inverse, between outcomes and research design, 452
parent-child, 27–28, 37, 38, 52–57, 142–43
relational aggression, 134–36, 144
(p. 538) Rengert, George, 321
Rennie, Charlotte E., 62
repeat victimization, 13, 404–19
advice and education on, 412–13, 415, 417n3
burglary and, 406, 408, 413, 415, 416n1
CIs and, 411, 412f, 417n3
Clarke on, 404
crime hot spots and, 323–24, 405
crime incidence and, 411, 412f
development and implementation of tactics, 411–13, 413f, 414t, 415
discussion and conclusions regarding, 415–16
drugs and, 405
high-crime places and times and, 323–24
of hot products, 405, 416n1
main points on, 406
near, 405
Pease on, 324
police and, 415
prevention studies by year, 416f
research, policy and practice on, 406, 407t–408t
schools and, 405
studies in industrialized countries, 405
success of prevention efforts, 408, 410–12
summary of outcomes for studies, 408, 409t–410t, 410–11, 417nn23
targets and, 404, 405
replacement self, 40
replication
preschool education and, 80–81
of Project Northland in Chicago, 258, 263
systematic reviews, meta-analyses and, 461
Reppetto, Thomas, 12
repression, 3
Research Based, Developmentally Informed (REDI) program, 75
research design
correctional treatment implementation and, 481–83
in crime displacement and diffusion of benefits meta-analysis, 347–48
inverse relationship between outcomes and, 452
meta-analyses and, 476
in public surveillance, 452
researchers, 116
residential burglary, 294–95, 321, 362
residential places, 362–63, 363t, 371t–373t
residential segregation, 35–36
respect, 163–64
Responding in Peaceful and Positive Ways (RIPP), 213, 215
restorative justice programs, 491
retail places, 365, 365t, 377t–378t
retaliation, 163–64
retribution, 471, 473
rewards
for antisocial behavior, 33
expressive and instrumental, 295
reward and reminder program, 257
risks, rewards and efforts in SCP, 296, 302, 303, 308–9, 386
school discipline and, 275
Rich, John, 316
Ridenour, Ty A., 232
risks. See also peer risk interventions
developmental-ecological models of, 141–42
developmental trajectories of, 142–43
early childhood, 142–43
moral outrage versus, 167
possibility, probability, harm and, 387
rewards and efforts in SCP, 296, 302, 303, 308–9, 386
risk-assessment instruments, 61–62
risk principle, 220, 478
risk and protective factors, 8, 46–69. See also risk factors
Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development and, 47–50, 52, 54–58, 60
conclusions and discussion regarding, 48, 61–62
family factors, 47, 52–57, 59
Farrington on, 8, 46, 49
Hawkins on, 46, 47
individual factors, 47, 48–51
Loeber on, 8, 46, 47, 57, 60, 62
social factors, 47, 57–60
SSDP and, 49, 53, 58–59, 110
variables in, 47
risk factors
definition of, 46
empirical links with, 387–88
environmental, 32–33
female offending and, 137–41
for gangs, 234–35
gender differences in, 46, 137–38
identifying, 23–24, 510
long-term, 32–33
short-term environmental, 32–33
for substance use, 228
Roberts, Julian, 14, 500
Robins, Lee N., 52
Robinson, Jennifer B., 183
Rochester Youth Development Study, 51, 53, 54, 58, 59
role models
antisocial, 32
mentors as, 209, 217
Rose, Geoffrey, 227
Rosenbaum, Dennis P., 10–11
Ross, Catherine E., 176
Ross, Nick, 395
Ross, Robert R., 478
Rountree, Pamela, 160
Roussos, Stergios Tsai, 230, 232
(p. 539) routine activities of criminals, 32–33
routine activity approach (RAA), 11, 296–97, 310, 322, 324
routine activity theory, 296, 322, 356, 358
Rucker, Lila, 54
Rudolph, Jennifer, 40
Sacramento Neighborhood Alcohol Prevention Project, 264n3
Safe Dates Program, 278
Safe Futures program, 237
Safer Community Council (SCC), 435
Sameroff, Arnold J., 47
Sampson, Robert J.
on community influences, 59–60, 161–62, 165–66, 167–68
on disorder, 176–77, 179–80, 184–85
on imprisonment, 35, 326
on social bonds, 37–39, 480
on super controllers and social control, 297
Sánchez, Victoria, 214
scale-up, 515
Scared Straight, 479
Schindler, Holly, 8–9
schools
community-based substance use prevention and, 251, 257–61
crime link to community crime rates, 269, 275
disorder, 184, 272
get-tough approach in, 270, 274, 282
intelligence and attainment in, 50–51
mentoring in, 280–81, 282
metal detectors and weapons in, 274
MTO and, 199, 205n3
peer influence and, 213–14, 216, 279
police in, 270, 274
readiness, 72
repeat victimization and, 405
Safe and Drug-Free Schools program, 512
security and surveillance strategies in, 273–75
social bonds and, 279–80
transition to primary, 74
zero-tolerance policies in, 270, 274–75, 282
school-based crime prevention, 269–87
behavior-oriented programs for, 272, 275–77, 282
curricula and, 271–72
discipline and, 269–70, 273–77, 281–82
discussion and conclusions regarding, 281–83
findings on, 270–71
Gottfredson, D., on, 11, 116, 271–75, 278–80
Gottfredson, G., on, 212–13, 271–72, 280
programs against violence, 117, 118
randomized experiment on, 460
school organization and, 272–73
school-based mentoring (SBM), 281
School Crime and Safety data, 274
school culture, 277–81
behavioral norms and, 278–79, 282
CSO and, 279–81
definition of, 277
school resource officers (SROs), 274, 282
School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS), 277, 282
Schorr, Lisbeth, 424
Schreck, Christopher J., 163–64
Schuck, Amie, 10–11
Schweinhart, Lawrence J., 61
science, prevention. See prevention science
science of implementation, 13, 425–26, 442, 508. See also implementation of programs
science to service model, 425
scientific methods scale, 511
Scott, Michael S., 429
scripts
condemnation and redemption, 40
product design and, 391, 394
RCP and crime, 295, 311n1
Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP), 29–31
risk and protective factors and, 49, 53, 58–59, 110
secure product design, 392–94
anticipation and, 393–94
co-evolution and arms races in, 394
contradictions and trade-offs in, 392–93
issues in, 392–94
offender countermoves against, 393
responsibility for, 394–96
security function of product, 388–91
causal mechanisms and, 390–91
purpose and, 388–89
security niche and, 389–90
technology and, 391
segregation, residential, 35–36
selection and facilitation hypotheses, 59
selection bias, 168
selection theories, 56–57
self-concept, 34
self-control theory, 26–27
self-efficacy, 161
self-exoneration, 302
Self-Sufficiency Project (Canada), 83
Sellin, Thorsten, 326
semiotics, 390
sentencing
correctional treatment and, 470–72, 473
crime rates and, 488
justice model of, 471
mandatory, 490, 491, 500
sexual abuse, 138
(p. 540) sexual victimization, 413
shaming
naming and, 395
in reintegrative way, 34
Shaw, Clifford, 6, 158, 162, 189
Sherman, Lawrence
on criminal sanctions, 34
on evidence-based policy, 467
on high-crime places and times, 323, 329
on place, 356
Preventing Crime, 511
on randomized experiments, 458–59, 461
Shiner, Michael, 216
short-term environmental risk factors, 32–33
short-termism politics, 14, 513–14
Shure, Myrna B., 106–7
Sidebottom, Aiden, 388
Siegelman, Peter, 515–16
Simon, Jonathan, 472–73
Simons, Ronald L., 163–64
situational crime prevention (SCP), 4, 11–13, 209. See also crime displacement; crime pattern theory; environmental criminology; place-based crime prevention; rational choice perspective; routine activity approach
Clarke on, 11–12, 365, 368
community mobilization and, 33
Cornish on, 294–96, 303, 305, 308, 311n2, 341
definition of, 11
discussion and conclusions regarding, 310–11, 312n8
effectiveness of, 12–13
general observations on, 292–93
as good enough theory, 292, 293, 299, 310–11
influences on, 10
opportunity theory and, 11, 291
product design and, 11, 13, 386–87
risks, rewards and efforts in, 296, 302, 303, 308–9, 386
situational crime prevention (SCP) classification, 11, 299–310
Clarke on, 299–300, 301t, 302–3, 305, 308–9, 341
next iteration of, 309–10
original, 300
16-techniques, 301t, 302, 303
12-techniques, 300, 301t
25-techniques, 299, 303, 305, 306t–307t, 308–9, 311n4, 311nn67
Wortley on, 299, 302–3, 304t, 305, 308–9
situational deterrence, 293
situational precipitators, 293, 302–3, 304t, 310, 386
16-techniques SCP classification, 301t, 302, 303
size of place, 356
skill-based programs, 477
skills for interaction, 30
Skogan, Wesley, 10, 182, 238
SmartWater, 408
Smith, Carolyn A., 51
Smith, Donald J., Jr., 404
Smith, Martha, 11, 358
Smith, Ruth S., 50–51
smoking. See substance use
smoking cessation study, 230
social bonds, 30. See also social ties
marriage as, 38, 480
mentoring and, 209, 221, 280–81
Sampson and Laub on, 37–39, 480
schools and, 279–80
social capital, 161, 480
social class discrimination, 198–99
social-cognitive learning theories, 105
social-cognitive skills, 106, 116
social cohesion in neighborhood, 59, 167
social competence, 9, 104
social conditions of crime, 9–10
social controls, 207. See also social bonds
age-graded theory of informal, 37–39
Cullen on, 227
in neighborhood, 59, 158, 159–62, 183
super controllers and, 297
social costs of crime, 204, 480
social desirability bias, 216
social development, 29–31, 493–94. See also Seattle Social Development Project
social disorder, 175–76, 323
correctional treatment changes and, 470
Taylor, R., on, 180–81
social disorganization theory, 158–59, 162, 164, 185, 227
social factors, 47, 57–60
neighborhood as, 59–60
peer influence as, 58–59, 142
socioeconomic status as, 57–58
social information processing, 105
social interaction skills, 17, 116
social intervention, 235
social isolation, 178
socialization, 32, 97
social learning theory, 30
behavioral programs based on, 477
child-rearing methods and, 53
on peer influence, 207, 209
social organization, 139–40, 156, 158–59, 227. See also communal social organization
social problems, 9, 446, 472
social problem solving, skills for effective, 106, 111, 116
social process variable, 166–68
social science fields, 212
social skills, 104. See also child social skills training
social structural variable, 166–68
social systems, nested, 141, 164–65
social ties
without cognitive changes, 479–81
(p. 541) of drug dealers with gangs, 160
in neighborhood, 160–61, 183
Society for Prevention Research (SPR), 427–29
socioeconomic status (SES), 57–58, 157, 166
sociological approach to crime, 155–56
soft crimes, 175
soft on crime approach
politics and, 509, 512–13
public opinion on, 491, 505n1
South Africa, 502
spatial displacement, 340, 349–50
spatial dynamics, 157–58, 166
specialists, criminal, 326
Spelman, William, 319, 320, 326–27
Spergel, Irving, 235
Spergel Model, 235–36
Spivack, George, 106–7
St. Jean, Peter K. B., 323
stability
of crime at place over time, 319–20
neighborhood, 174, 186, 227
of punishment theory, 472
Staff, Jeremy, 50
standardized coefficients, 449, 450f
Standards of Evidence (SPR), 427
State Incentive Grants (SIGs), 260–61
static predictors of crime, 473–74
statistical conclusion validity, 13, 14n5
statistical techniques, 249, 264n4, 476. See also meta-analyses
steering-column locks, 12
Steffensmeier, Darrell, 140–41
stepparents, 56
stereotyping, 182, 184–85
Stevens, Sir John, 395
Stevenson, John F., 232, 241
Stewart, Eric A., 163–64
Stockholm Prevents Alcohol and Drug Problems Project (STAD), 436–37
Stop Thief chairs, 389, 391, 392
Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda, 47, 49–50, 57
Strategic Approaches to Community Safety Initiatives (SACSI), 239
Strategic Approaches to Public Safety Initiative, 238
street segments, 318, 320, 323, 338, 357
strong theories, 461
Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY), 62
substance use. See also Communities That Care; community-based substance use prevention
changes to laws and, 264n1
risk factors for, 228
Sullivan, Christopher, 10
super controllers, 297, 308
supertargets, 404
suppression, 234, 235
Sure Start programs, 432
surveillance. See also closed circuit television
alternative form of, 358
improvement to, 349
natural, 300, 305, 308
predictor of crime, 167
research design in public, 452
in schools, 273–75
surveys, 176–78. See also public opinion; specific surveys
sustainability stage, 431–32
Sutton, Adam, 423
Swain-Campbell, Naomi, 57
Sweden, 49, 74, 495
Sykes, Gresham M., 302
Syracuse Family Development Program, 77, 516
systematic reviews
and meta-analyses of correctional treatment, 477–81
replication, meta-analyses and, 461
systemic model of crime, 159–61
tactical displacement of crime, 12
targeting, 515
targets. See also supertargets
repeat victimization and, 404, 405
target displacement of crime, 12
target selection, 321, 322–23
target softening, 386
taxonomy theory, 28–29
Taylor, Ralph B., 180–81, 318–20
T-CAP (Texas City Action Plan to Prevent Crime), 6
teachers
education of, 78
home visitations by, 76, 79
preschool education and, 72–73, 75–76, 78–79
training programs, 31
technology, 391
Telep, Cody W., 455
temperament, 31
temporal displacement of crime, 12
territorial displacement of crime, 12
theft
bike, 386, 387, 397
car, 396, 397
envelope-theft experiment, 186
product design and, 387–88, 393
theoretical meta-analyses, 477–78
think thief mindset, 384
third party policing, 359
Thornberry, Terence P., 54, 58, 59
Thorpe, Adam, 392
three-strikes laws, 472, 473, 490, 513, 514–15, 517n1
(p. 542) Tierney, Joseph P., 217
TIES framework, 429
tightening up measures, 302
Tilley, Nick, 295
times. See also high-crime places and times
duration of programs, 474
stability of crime at place over, 319–20
Tolan, Patrick H., 60, 218–19
Tonry, Michael, 4, 512
Tools of the Mind curriculum, 75
toxic stress, 81–82
traditional mores, 470, 471
train carriages, 397
train metaphor, 41–42
transportation places, 366, 366t, 379t–380t
trauma theory, 56–57
treatment. See also correctional treatment
definition of, 475
effect, biases in estimate of, 449–51, 450f–451f
relationship between confounders and, 451, 451f
Tremblay, Richard, 8
Triple P-Positive Parenting Program, 93, 426, 428
trust among neighbors, 161, 183
Ttofi, Maria, 8, 325
TV sets, 394
12-techniques SCP classification, 300, 301t
25-techniques SCP classification, 299, 306t–307t, 311n4
general categories and, 305, 311nn67
techniques of, 305, 308–9
theoretical background of, 303, 305
Type 1 errors, 452
Type 1 translation, 428–29
Type 2 translation, 428–29
Typhoid Marys, 329
United Kingdom, 5
correctional services accreditation panel in, 512
Home Office, 175, 396, 397, 423–24, 432
Home Office Research Unit, 300
National Survey of Health and Development, 56
public opinion and, 491, 492t, 494, 499, 502–3, 503t
United States (US)
correctional treatment in, 472–73
parent training studies compared to outside US, 95, 96
public opinion in, 491, 492t, 496, 497t, 498–502
urine tests, 473, 475
validity
construct, 13, 14n5
external, 456, 461
internal, 13, 14n5, 456
statistical conclusion, 13, 14n5
value, visibility, accessibility, and inertia (VIVA), 296
variables
bias from omitted, 454
family factors, 59
instrumental, 199–200
in risk and protective factors, 47
social process, 166–68
social structural, 166–68
victimization. See also repeat victimization
gender differences in, 138
respect and, 163–64
Vietnam war, 470
violence. See also gun violence
domestic, 408, 479
family, 417n3
frustration and, 339
gang, 234–39
interrupters, 238
school-based programs against, 117, 118
Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act (1994), 7
Vivolo, Alan, 9
volunteers, motivation of, 448–49
vote-counting methodology, 340
vulnerability, product design and, 388, 392
Wadsworth, Michael, 56
Warner, Barbara D., 160
Warr, Mark, 208, 327
Washington State Institute for Public Policy, 264, 516–17, 517n2
Wasilchick, John, 321
web of informal crime control, 296
web of life, 157
Webster-Stratton, Carolyn M., 110–11
weighted displacement quotient, 344
weighted mean effect size (WMES), 346–47, 347f, 417n3
Weirsema, Brian, 204
Weisburd, David
on complaints to police, 179
on crime displacement, 338
on death penalty and race, 454
on high-crime places and times, 320–23, 325
on randomized experiments, 13, 449, 452, 459
Weisburd’s paradox, 459
Weiss, Carol, 512
Weitzer, Ronald, 163
welfare, 82, 512–13
Wellman, Barry, 160
Wells, L. Edward, 56
Welsh, Brandon C.
on at-risk children, 42, 114
on CCTV, 504
on implementation of programs, 430
on public places, 359
on randomized experiments, 456
Werner, Emmy E., 50–51
(p. 543) “What Works? Questions and Answers About Prison Reform” (Martinson), 470
“What Works Repository” (Department of Education), 143
White, Jennifer L., 49
Widom, Cathy S., 54, 55
Wikström, Per-Olof H., 60, 166
Wilkinson, Deanna L., 246
Wilks, Judith, 470
Wilson, Denise B., 116, 271–72, 275, 278–79
Wilson, James Q., 173, 175, 185, 323
Wilson, Sandra J., 117
Wolfgang, Marvin, 326
work programs, 479–81
Wortley, Richard
on frustration and violence, 339
on SCP classification, 299, 302–3, 304t, 305, 308–9
on situational precipitators, 293, 302–3, 304t, 310, 386
Wright, A. Jordan, 213
Yale Child Welfare program, 77
Yang, Sue-Ming, 323, 455
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu, 8–9
young mothers, child abuse and, 53–55
zero-tolerance policies in schools, 270, 274–75, 282
Zimmerman, Gregory, 10
zonal theory of urban social life, 157–58