Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 09 July 2020

(p. 545) Index

(p. 545) Index

A
Abdulrahim, M. A., 275
Abelson, R. P., 54
Abrams, J. R., 261
Acock, A. C., 367
action video games
attention orienting of, 407–8, 486
cognitive and affective processing tasks influenced by, 415–17
emotions associated with, 413–15, 414f
ERPs and, 412f
history of, 318–19
medical field use of, 320
spatial selective attention in, 408–9
types of, 319–20
vision's temporal processing in, 409–10
visual acuity in, 406
visual enumeration in, 408
visuospatial processing of, 406, 407f, 413
working memory and, 412–13
adaptive unconscious, 450–51
addiction
construct validity and, 387–88
defining, 384–85
measurement of, 386–87
symptoms of, 385
technological, 385–86
video game, 383–84
adolescence
Internet use of, 374–75
media exposure of, 226
media messages processed by, 232
media violence influencing, 225
overweight, 320–21
sexual identities and, 224
sexual interest of, 227
sexuality and, 237–38
sexual materials on Internet and, 377
sexual media content creation of, 238–39
sexual media content exposure of, 225–26
Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA), 31–33, 44
advergames, 340–41, 379f
advertising
Asians and, 255
cognitive response models in, 287
gender and, 269–70
Internet, 378
on television, 272
television sponsored by, 19
advocacy, 106–7
affect
action video games influencing, 415–17
emotion's difference with, 190
parallel processing of, 202
affective arousal, 360
affective character models, 200
affective disposition theory, 189
Affective Presentation Markup Language, 199
Affective Reasoner, 199
affirmative action, 258
after-school programs, 328–29
age-inappropriate content, 179
agency, 307, 308f, 339
aggression
children with scripts of, 162–63
defining, 114
Huesmann studying scripts of, 162–65
implicit association test measuring, 117
media violence link with, 168–69
meta-analysis of media violence causing, 160–61
physical, 113–15, 120
-related outcomes, 356f
trait, 123
verbal, 115
video game violence linked to, 354–55, 358f, 368
violence engendering, 164
word completion task measuring thoughts of, 116
aggressive cognition, 116–17, 120–21
Ajzen, I., 288
Albert, D., 338, 340
Ali, N., 514
Allen, M., 274
Alliance for a Media Literate America (AMLA), 99
Allport, G., 67–69, 71–72, 305, 306
Almonte, D. E., 339
Altheide, D. L., 143, 149
altruism, 180–81
Altschuler, E. A., 339
Amazon Kindle, 27
American Academy of Pediatrics, 373
American Council for Better Broadcasts, 96
American Psychology Association, 4, 160
America Online (AOL), 44
America's Army, 198, 336
Ames, Adelbert, Jr., 68
Analysis for the Social Sciences and Humanities (Holsti), 440
Anderson, C. A., 117, 215, 352, 502, 507n2, 507n4
competitive reaction time task study of, 128
content analysis by, 130
destructive testing used by, 122–23
experimental conditions and, 128
high and low action gamers study of, 129
media violence studies of, 128–29, 168
meta-analysis conducted by, 126, 128, 499
multiple operationalism and, 541
prosocial behavior study of, 119–21
psychological processes warning of, 539
sports video game aggression study of, 114
Supreme Court ruling and, 169
video game pilot testing of, 130n1
video game violence study of, 161, 213, 360–62
violent game influence study of, 355–57, 485
Anderson, J. A., 97
Andrews, F. M., 175
Android, 51
Ang, C. S., 339
anger, 193, 195
Annetta, L. A., 335, 343
anorexia, 198
anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), 411
antisocial programming, 179
Appalachian State University, 99, 105
(p. 546) appearance, 65–67
Apple iPad, 27–28, 28f, 40n19
Arab Spring, 3–4
Arendt, Hannah, 65, 66, 73n3
Arguing for a General Framework for Mass Media Scholarship (Potter), 154
Aristotelian model, 16–17
Aristotle, 13, 14f
Arke, Edward T., 7, 101
Armstrong, G. B., 258
Army Battle Zone, 335
Aronson, J., 261
arousal, 118, 232, 360, 482
articles, methodology in, 83t
artificial intelligence (AI), 37, 41n26
Asch, S., 71
Ascione, F. R., 119
Ashworth, L., 354
Asians, 254–55
Atkins, C., 279
attention, 231
attentional state, 432
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 404–5
attention deficits, 404–6
attention orienting, 407–8, 486
Aubrey, J. S., 236
audiences, 179, 240, 317
augmented reality (AR), 37, 48
authors
contributing, 85t
institutions, 82f
lead, 84, 87t, 89t, 89, 90–91
automatic translation systems, 507n5
Avatar, 190
Avatar: The Last Airbender, 254
avatars, 240, 307–8, 311, 338
Averill, J. R., 215
Avraamides, M. N., 214
axial coding, 151
Ayiti: The Cost of Life, 342
B
Bachen, C., 273
Bailenson, J., 306, 310–13, 458
Bailey, K., 129, 412–14, 485–86
Baker, C. N., 270
Baker, K., 268
Baldassaro, R., 362
Baldwin-Philippi, J., 273
Ballard, M. E., 119
Bandura, A., 113, 130, 162, 294, 364
bobo-doll study of, 191
media's influence and, 234–35
Baranowski, T., 327
Bargh, J. A., 260, 504
Barker, C., 312
Barlett, C. P., 115, 118, 277, 357, 362
Barner, M. R., 268
Barron, C., 296
Barthes, Roland, 27
Bartholow, B. D., 218, 365, 414, 482–84, 486
habitual violent game player study of, 119, 362
media use comments of, 535
mind and medium interaction view of, 539–40
modern media use comments of, 3
psychology and media studies history by, 536
video games short-term influence study of, 215–16
Bartlett, F. C., 63
Basak, C., 409, 413
baselines, 444–45
The Basics of Grounded Theory Analysis (Glaser, B. G.), 144
Basics of Qualitative Research (Strauss and Corbin), 144
Baumgardner, J., 217
Bavelier, D., 408–10, 485
Bazalgette, C., 104
Beasley, B., 269, 270
Bechtoldt, H., 217
Bechtoldt-Baldacci, H., 217
Beer Game, 342
behavioral intentions, 288
Behm-Morawitz, E., 256
Being and Time (Heidegger), 145
Berger, A., 365
Berkowitz, L., 114, 115, 130
Bernard, H. R., 516
Berners-Lee, Tim, 35
Bernhardt, J. M., 377
Berntson, G. G., 480
Berry, S. H., 237
Bers, M. U., 341
Betamax, 22
Beuf, A., 278
Beyond the Screen, 98
BIAS map, 259
Bickmore, T., 198
Biddiss, E., 322
Bijvank, M., 125, 363, 368
Bilandzic, H., 453
Binney, J., 458
BITNET, 32
Black Entertainment Television (BET), 242
blacks, 253–54
Blancher, A. T., 76
Blascovich, J., 306, 537
Bleakley, A., 235
Bless, H., 258
Bliesener, T., 215
Blogger, 33–34
blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD), 484
Bloom, Paul, 70, 73
Bluhm, D. J., 522–23
Blumberg, F. C., 339, 537
Blumer, H., 191
bobo-doll study, 191, 336
Bodenhausen, G., 258, 275
body dissatisfaction, 229
body mass index (BMI), 317, 321
Bolls, Paul, 3, 478, 535, 536, 539–40
Bolter, Jay David, 27, 428
boomerang effects, 103, 290, 293–94
Boot, W. R., 409, 413
The Borgias, 166
Bösche, W., 360
Botticelli, 13
Boxer, P., 375
Bradley, S. D., 218
Branch, O. L., 115, 357
The Branded Mind (Du Plessis), 487
Braun, C. M., 353
Braun, K. A., 296
Breed, L., 268
Brehm, J., 368
Brentar, J. E., 258
Brewer, M. B., 164
Brice, P., 125
Brinley plot, 415, 416f
British Board of Film Classification (BBFC), 367
Brock, Timothy, 20, 433, 451
Brockmyer, J. B., 218–19
Brooks, Peter, 17, 20
Brothers Grimm, 16
Brouwer, J., 218
Brown, B. P., 276
Brown, J. D., 377
Brown, R. I. F., 386
Brown, V., 275, 279
Brownell, K. D., 269
Brown Rutledge, Pamela, 3
Bruey, C., 362
Bruner, Jerome, 14, 63
Bryant, J., 76, 94n1–n2
Bryant, Y., 278
Buboltz, W. C., 76
Buchman, D., 214, 217
Buckley, K. E., 120, 355
Buhi, E. R., 241
bulletin boards, 33
bullying, 198
Burgess, M. C., 256, 259
Burggraf, K., 269, 270
Burke, B., 340
Busching, R., 367
Bushman, B. J., 116, 117, 165, 363, 482–83
content analysis by, 130
ERPs used by, 365
habitual violent game playing study of, 119–21
media violence study of, 168
video game violence and angry feelings study of, 354–55, 360–61
violence exposure and giving assistance study of, 215–16
violent video game influence study of, 161
wishful identification and, 125
Bushnell, Nolan, 24
Buss, A. H., 116
Buss aggression machine paradigm, 114
Busselle, R., 453
Butler-Kisbe, L., 521
Byrne, S., 103, 290, 367
C
Cacioppo, J. T., 233, 286–87, 480, 490
Caggiula, A. R., 115
Cagiltay, K., 339
Cai, X., 378
Callister, M. A., 271
Campbell, Joseph, 16
Canada, 98
Cañas, A. J., 520
Cantor, J., 164, 276, 367, 457
Cantril, Albert, 68, 70, 71
Cantril, H., 67–72
(p. 547) Cappella, J. N., 291
Caprara Irritability Scale (CIS), 118
Carley, K., 514
Carmageddon, 128
Carnagey, N. L., 117, 119, 128, 357, 361
Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, 104
Carroll, M. V., 101
Carroll, N., 64
cartoons, 268
Caruthers, A., 236
Castonguay, J., 378
Castro, Fidel, 113
categorization, 457
category-continuum problem, 442
catharsis hypothesis, 118
Catrambone, R., 312
causality, 110–11
in longitudinal studies, 124–25
media violence and, 164
probabilistic, 111
scientific, 111–12
cause-effect relations, 159
CBS Radio Workshop, 18
CD-ROMs, 24
Center for Media Literacy (CML), 98
Cezanne, Paul, 63
Chakinsska, D., 335
Chamberlin, B., 537
Chambers, J. H., 119
Chan, M., 218
Chan, P. A., 405
Chappell, D., 218
chapter titles, 525t
characters, 270, 276, 454–55
Charlton, J. P., 393
cheating behavior, 193
Chen, S-W., 256
children
ADHD in U.S. of, 404–5
aggressive scripts and, 162–63
FCC ruling involving, 469–72
FearNot! system and, 198
fictional stories influencing, 457
fright response of, 191
Internet advertising to, 378
media violence and, 463–65
prosocial media benefiting, 180
radio and fear of impact on, 54
research on media for, 463
well-being of, 177–78
Children's Digital Media Center (CDMC), 468–69
children's media
age-inappropriate content of, 179
antisocial programming turned off for, 179
appeal and trends in, 183–84
positive psychology framework for, 182–83
research, 463
science/practice model for, 173
Children's Media Policy Coalition, 469–72
Children's Television Act (CTA), 268, 462, 469
Chisholm, J. D., 408
Cho, C.-H., 287
Chomsky, Noam, 72
Chory, R. M., 277
Chou, T. J., 393
Choueiti, M., 268
Christ, W., 97
cinema, 17
citizen participation, 46–47
civic engagement games, 341–42
Clinton, Bill, 537
codes, open and closed, 434
coding, 150, 151, 440, 516–19
cognition, 64, 71. See also aggressive cognition
action video games influencing, 415–17
consistency in, 166–67
executive functions and, 410, 413
film similar to, 64
stereotype and, 68, 71–72
video game violence and, 485–86
cognitive-behavioral therapy, 344
cognitive functional model (CFM), 289
cognitive neuroscience approach, 477
cognitive processing model, 162
cognitive psychology, 142
cognitive response models, 286–87, 297–98
Cohen, A. A., 278
Cohen, J., 356
Cole, D., 81
collaborations, 56, 83–84, 88t, 90, 91
collective narratives, 30
Collins, M. A., 276
Collins, R., 237, 274
Collins Standley, T., 269, 270
common sense, 464
Communication & Mass Media Complete Database, 78
communications, 6, 44, 538
mass, 76, 242
multiple platform, 52
parent-child, 391
science, 44
communicative realism, 307, 308f, 309
community, 29
community programs, 328–29
comorbidity, 389t–391t
compact discs, 23, 24f, 40n13
compact videocassette, 22
competitive reaction time task, 114, 120, 128
compulsory heterosexuality, 229
CompuServe, 32, 44
computer-mediated communication (CMC), 262
computers, 23, 25–26, 103
Comstock, G., 160–61
concept labels, 520f
concept maps, 520–21, 521f, 527t, 528f, 529f, 530t
concepts, 139–40, 142
conceptual hypothesis, 110
conformity, 71
Conrad, K., 269
Consalvo, M., 269
constant angular velocity (CAV), 22
Constock, G., 106
constructionism, 144
construct validity, 387–88
consumers, 50, 104
content analysis, 130
of gender roles, 268
inferences from, 440
of Oxford Handbook of Media Psychology, 513–14, 517, 531t, 532
of public messages, 151
quantitative, 439
semantic tool for, 6
studies of, 130
systematic methodology of, 77
of television, 98
Content Analysis Handbook (Neuendorf), 77
content producers, 47
Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), 177
convergent validity, 388t
Cook, I. A., 490
Cooper, R., 425
Coover, R., 27
Corbin, J., 144
corporate entities, 19
cosmetic surgery makeover programs, 277
counterarguing, 233–34, 452–53
Counterstrike, 352
covariates, 123f
Covell, K., 235
Cowley, E., 296
Craig, K. M., 361
Crano, W. D., 164
critical consuming, 366–67
critical incident technique (CIT), 514
critical thinking, 168
Crookall, D., 335
cross-cultural generalization, 502–3
cross-sectional correlation studies, 122–24
Csikszentmihalyi, M., 174, 432, 452
cultivation, 21
Cultivation Theory, 235
cultural homogenization, 22
culture, 65, 66
Curious Conservatives, 227
Curtis, 180
Curtiss, K., 180, 218
Cushing, Richard Cardinal, 113
cyberbullying, 375–76
D
Dancaster, I., 387
DanceDanceRevolution (DDR), 316, 344
Dance Factory, 330
Darksiders, 147
Das, E., 256
data, 147
database, 78–79, 78t–79t
Davies, M. N., 218
Davis, E. B., 218, 362
Davis, S., 235
debriefing, 345
Decambre, M., 343
(p. 548) Deci, E. L., 336
DeFleur, M. L., 426
deMerode, J., 4, 6–7, 539
Denson, T. F., 260
departmental collaborations, 88t, 90, 91
Dertouzos, M., 28, 40
Dervin, B., 424
Derwin, E. B., 4, 6–7, 539
desensitization
defining, 213–14
long-term physiological measures of, 216–17
measuring, 214
to media violence, 119, 167–68, 214
physiological measures of, 215–16
short-term, 214–15
to violence, 212–13, 483–84
Deshpande, G., 215
Desperate Housewives, 22, 233
destructive testing, 122–23
developmental psychology, 63
Dewey, J., 71
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 141
Dick, B., 77
DiClemente, R., 377
Diener, E., 175
Dietz, T., 270, 353
digital cameras, 26
digital citizenship, 39, 55
digital community, 34, 35
digital environment, 43
digital literature, 27
digital media, 243
digital video editing, 31
Dill, J. C., 191
Dill, K. E., 120, 122–23, 191, 259, 276, 507n5, 539
Dire Straits, 40n13
Discovery of Grounded Theory (Glaser and Strauss), 143–44, 150
disinhibition effect, 446
Ditton, R., 432
Dixon, T. L., 269
doctoral program, 49
Dohnt, H., 276
domestic roles, 271–72, 277–78
Domschke, T., 193, 195
Donnerstein, E., 114
Donohew, L., 437
Doom, 467
Dora the Explorer, 181
Doré, Gustave, 16f
Dorr, Aimee, 97
Dotsch, R., 310
Douglas, S. J., 271
Dowling, N., 395
Downs, E., 269, 270
Doyle, G., 431
Dozier, D. M., 270
Drabman, R. S., 215
Dubow, E. F., 7, 539
Dupagne, M., 425
Du Plessis, E., 487
Duran, R. L., 101
duration, 444
Durkin, K., 275
DVDs, 23
Dye, M. W. G., 407, 415–16
Dynasty, 21f, 22
E
Eastin, M., 269, 386
Eastwick, P. W., 259
e-books, 27, 28f
Edison, Thomas, 20
editorship, 80t, 82t, 83t
education, 46, 245, 343
educational psychology, 76
educational software programs, 180
effect-criterion problem, 442–43
effects research, 273–74, 277f
Eindhoven NatLab, 23
elaboration likelihood model (ELM), 286–87, 337
elasticity, 444
The Electric Company, 173
elevator speech, 463
Elliott, M. N., 237
emotional contagion, 196
emotional habituation, 163
emotion modeling, 199–200
emotions
action video games associated with, 413–15, 414f
affect difference with, 190
entertainment creating identification and, 188–89, 201
in fictional narratives, 456
information processing influenced by, 195–97, 202–3
involvement of, 189
media and involvement of, 190–94
media research and role of, 187–88
mediated society influencing, 194
message reception influenced by, 194–95
moral, 193
multileveled, 202
multimodal automatic recognition of, 200, 204
negative, 196
persuasion influenced by, 289–90
psychological models for, 200
video games positive arousal of, 215
in virtual environment, 197–99
emotions-as-frames model, 289, 293
empathy, 118, 180, 189, 217–18
empirical realization, 110
empirical research articles, 84t
energy expenditure, 321–22
Engelbart, Douglas, 30–31
Engelhardt, C. E., 483–86
Engelhardt, C. R., 215, 365
entertainment, 188–89, 201, 330
Entertainment-Education (E-E), 242–43, 293–94
entertainment overcoming resistance model (EORM), 295
Entertainment Software Ratings Board (ESRB), 359
Entman, R. M., 290
Epstein, M., 236
Eron, L. D., 125, 359
ethnic identity gratification avoidance, 261
ethnography research, 143
etiology, 395–96
Ettema, J. S., 279
Eubanks, J., 117
eudaemonia, 193
evaluation paradigm, 115
event-related brain potentials (ERPs), 129, 365, 412, 412f
EverQuest, 384
Ex, C. T. G., 278
excitation transfer, 162
executive functions, 410, 413
exergames
adverse influence of, 324
after-school programs with, 328–29
case study of, 324–25
community programs with, 328–29
design considerations for, 329–30
energy expenditure with, 321–22
fitness and entertainment in, 330
home use of, 327–28
implementation of, 325–26
for medical conditions, 324
neurocognitive benefits of, 323–24
Olympics, 328
overweight adolescence using, 320–21
physiological impact of, 321–23
psychological impact of, 323
research on, 318, 324
schools with, 326–27
special needs people using, 329
as video game, 316–17
Exner, A., 344
The Exorcist, 191
expectancy value theories, 287–88
experimental manipulations, 127–28
experimental studies, 120–22, 244, 357
exposure states, 431–32
extended elaboration likelihood model (E-ELM), 295
extended parallel process model (EPPM), 289
Eyal, K., 236
eye-tracking technology, 199
F
Faber, R. J., 341
Facebook, 27, 45–47, 240, 376, 535
facial expressions, 413–14, 414f
Falloon, G., 338
false-positives, 196
Fanti, K. H., 214
Faria, A. J., 342
FarmVille, 48, 57n5
Farr, R. M., 62, 68
Faulk, E. B., 489
Fazio, L. K., 452
fear appeal research, 289–90
fear-evoking responses, 195, 196
FearNot! system, 198
The Feast of Ishtar, 476
Fechner, G. T., 63
Federal Trade Commission (FTC), 465, 469–72
feedback, 340
(p. 549) Fehr, T., 216
Felber, J., 365
Feldon, D. F., 338
female characters, 270, 276
Feng, J., 409
Ferguson, C. J., 165, 342, 355–56, 359–60
Fernandez, G., 490
Ferris, A. L., 278
fictional narratives, 451, 456–58
Fielding Graduate University (FGU), 49, 92
figure-ground perspective, 29
film
cognition similar to, 64
foreign, 22
reality transformed by, 64
storytelling on, 17
Filoli Mansion, 21f
Fine, C., 458
Fine, M. J., 101
Finnerty, K., 193
FireWire, 26–27
Fischer, P., 125, 361, 362
Fischoff, Stuart, 4–5, 44
Fishbein, M., 235, 288
Fisher, D. A., 236
fitness, 322, 330
Flanagan, James, 514
flanker task, 411–12, 486
Flash Gordon, 20
Fleischauer, P. J., 377
flow, 452
flow experiences, 177, 219
Foley artists, 18
Folkman, S., 175
foreign films, 22
Forgas, J. P., 260
formal education, 70
Foucault, M., 140
Foulkes, D., 188
Foursquare, 341
Fouts, G., 269, 270
Fowles, J., 165
Fox, J., 313, 458
Fox, R. F., 101
framing, 290–93
Fredrickson, 176
Fredrickson, B. L., 56
Freedman, J., 164–65
Freitag, A., 425, 438
Fremlin, Jenny Whittemore, 4
Freud, Sigmund, 73
Frey, A., 339
Friedland, Lilly, 4
Friedman, K., 232
fright response, 191
From Moses to Muhammad, 28f
Frost, N., 515
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 129
brain activity from, 364
neural recruitment examined by, 411
research using, 196
functional regret theory, 195
Fun in the Bakery Shop, 17f
Funk, J. B., 214, 217–18, 365
G
Gadarian, S., 255
Game Experience Questionnaire (GEQ), 219
Gamer, M., 311
games. See also action video games; exergames; serious games; video games
adver, 340–41, 379f
civic engagement, 341–42
industrial/organizational, 342–43
pervasive, 398
Games for Change (G4C), 342
Games for Health Project, 335, 344
Ganz, Joan Cooney, 173
Gardner, Howard, 34
Gardner, W. I., 259
Garst, J., 275, 433
Garza, A., 342
Gates, Bill, 319
gays, 240
Gedeon, T., 339
Geertz, C., 143
Geis, F. L., 275, 279
gender
advertisers and, 269–70
attitudes and behavior of, 274–76
content analysis of, 268
domestic roles and, 271–72
media messages about, 267–68
occupational roles by, 272–73
physical appearance and, 276–77
television and physical appearance of, 269–71
video game violence and role of, 362
General Aggression Model (GAM), 110, 365, 501
general learning model (GLM), 110
General Social Survey (GSS), 275
Generating-Findings perspective, 424–26
genetic engineering, 38
Gentile, D. A., 115, 169, 387, 394, 396, 405
multiple violent video games study of, 364
tangram task of, 119–20
violent game influence study of, 355–57
Gentile, J. R., 364
Gerber, George, 21–22
Gerbner, G., 280, 475, 502
Gerrig, Richard, 20, 454
Gestalt, theory, 63
Gilbert, D. T., 457
Giles, David, 4, 540–42
Giles, H., 261
Giorgi, A., 145
Giroux, J., 353
Glascock, J., 269
Glaser, B. G., 143–44, 150, 516
Glaserian Ground Theory, 144
global Internet usage, 51–52, 52t
global positioning services (GPS), 47
global village, 29, 33
Goals 2000: Educate America Act, 100
Goebbels, Josef, 18
Gold, S., 342
Golden Age of Radio, 17–18, 40n9
Gombrich, E. H., 63
Goodman, S., 36
Google, 31, 35, 47
Google Trends, 49f
Gotlieb, M. R., 291
Gottsegen, M., 65
Grabe, S., 276
graduate program, 5, 105
Graf, D. L., 344
Granados, A., 268
Grand Theft Auto, 153, 166, 213, 467
Granovetter, M., 45
Gratch, J., 200
Graumann, C. F., 72
Graziano, W. G., 119
The Great Train Robbery, 481
Green, C. S., 408–10, 417, 485
Green, Melanie, 20, 433, 539
Greenberg, B. S., 269, 278
Greeson, L. E., 235
Greitemeyer, T., 361, 362
Gremlins, 464
Griffiths, M. D., 218, 383, 387, 393, 396
Grinband, J., 215, 484
Groesz, L. M., 276
Grolier encyclopedia, 24
Gross, A. M., 357
Gross, L., 502
Gross, M. L., 341
grounded reality, 306
grounded theory, 76–77, 91–92, 143, 516
Groups-Differences strategy, 441–43
Gruber, A., 198
Gruel Brief, 169
Grusin, R., 428
Guerra, N., 213
Guiding Light, 20
guilt, 193
Gutierrez-Arranz, A. M., 287
Gutierrez-Cillan, J., 287
Gutnick, A., 374
H
habitual violent game playing, 119, 362, 364–65
Haddock, B., 323
Hale, 64
Hall, A., 453
Hall, Edward T., 33–34
Hall, S., 434–35
Halton, M., 270
Hamburger, M., 375
Hamlet: A Murder Mystery, 25, 26f
Haninger, K., 353
Hanks, Tom, 38
Hansbrough, E., 275, 278
happiness, 174–75
Haridakis, 446
Haring, R. T., 335
Harman, W., 522
Harris, R., 115, 357, 362
Harrison, K., 276, 457
Harrison, L. E., 505
(p. 550) Hartmann, T., 339
Hasanen, M., 275
Hashimoto, Y., 502
Hasson, U., 453
Hastorf, A., 72
Haydel, K. F., 366
Hays, R. T., 335, 345
health, 343–44
Healthy Media for Youth Act, 102
Hebrew Scriptures, 14
Hecht, H., 311
Hefner, V., 276
Heidegger, M., 145
Heider, F., 68
Hennessy, M., 235
Henrich, C. C., 214
hermeneutic circle, 140
Herndon, C., 343
Herrett-Skjellum, J., 274
Herrmann, M., 216
Heston, Charlton, 19
heterosexual script, 230
heuristic-systematic model (HSM), 286–87
Higgs, B., 272
HighCycle, 318
High Sierra Working Group, 24, 40n15
Hirsch, J., 215, 484
Hirsch, K. W., 215
Hitler, Adolf, 18
Hobbs, Renee, 99, 103, 105
Hoffman, Dustin, 196
Hoffman, L., 268
Hoffman, M. L., 217
Hofschire, L., 269
Holland, N. N., 452–53, 456
Holsti, O. R., 440
Holstrom, A. J., 276
home-based exergames, 327–28
homeodynamic regulatory processes, 480
Homer, 14
homicides, 165
Hoorn, J. F., 455
Hopf, W. H., 124
Hopkins, D., 516
Horiuchi, Y., 503
Hovland, C. I., 486
Howard, G., 81
How I Met Your Mother, 151
Huber, G. L., 124
Huesmann, L. R., 7, 125, 364–65, 380, 537
aggressive scripts study of, 162–65
television violence study of, 359–60
Hull, S., 193, 195
human beings
community craved by, 29
digital environment relationship with, 43
as meaning-making creatures, 177
media's relationship with, 71
narratives activating faculties of, 15
priming memory of, 161–62
qualitative research and, 146–47
technology and goals of, 52–53
human brain
media and, 474–77
media messages processed by, 196, 203
media psychophysiology and, 479–80
reality transformed by, 64
VVE and, 483f, 484f
Hummer, T. A., 364
humor, 290
Humphreys, M. S., 516
Humphreys, S., 25
Hunter, S. B., 237
Hurtz, W., 275
Husserl, E., 144–45
Huston, A., 279
Hutchinson, D., 342
hybrid discipline, 4
Hyde, J. S., 276
hypermasculinity, 280
hypermedia, 27
hyper text markup language (HTML), 33
hypodermic needle model, 480
I
IBM's Watson, 38, 41n26
ideal textuality, 27
identification, 454–55
identity, 338
Idylls of the King, 16f
Ihori, N., 357
Iliad (Homer), 14
illusory correlation, 257
I Love Lucy, 179
immersion, 218–19, 337–38
Immersive Virtual Environment Technology (IVET), 458
iMovie, 31
Impett, E. A., 229
Implicit Association Test (IAT), 117, 360
Inal, Y, 339
Indiana Jones, 464
individual narratives, 30
inductive approach, 425
inductive reasoning, 150
industrial/organizational games, 342–43
inferential statistics, 148
information
emotions influencing processing of, 195–97, 202–3
Internet's access to, 47–48
Internet's access to sexual, 227–28
from media, 187
natural world, 309
networks, 51
overload of, 35–36
-processing tasks, 433–35, 476, 480
from qualitative research, 153
saturation, 429
three tasks of processing, 434f
information communication technologies (ICTs), 273
Innov82, 340
interactive media, 7
computers and, 23
emergence of, 22–24
global village and, 33
video games as, 229
interactive social agents, 287
interactivity, 338–39, 429
intergroup contact theory, 257
intergroup interactions, 260
internationalism, 69
Internet
adolescent use of, 374–75
advertising to children on, 378
cyberbullying on, 375–76
food-related websites on, 379f
global usage of, 51–52, 52t
information access of, 47–48
“in the cloud” on, 30
joint standards for, 26
many-to-many world of, 45
media communications through, 3
media exposure on, 374–75
media landscape changed by, 26
media violence on, 375
mobile technologies and, 44
narratives on, 30
narrative toolset of, 34
pornography, 228, 231
recoding of, 35–36
search engines on, 36
sexual exploitation on, 376–77
sexual information from, 227–28
sexual materials on, 377
social media on, 27, 47
streaming video on, 27
users as content producers on, 47
Web 1.0 through 4.0 of, 33–39
Internet paradox theory, 504
interpretation, 234
“in the cloud,” 30
In the Groove, 326
The Invasion from Mars: A Study in the Psychology of Panic (Cantril, H.), 68
iPad, 51
iPhone, 38, 51
Irwin, A. R., 357
Irwin, J., 322
Isen, A. M., 195
Ishii, K., 502
ISO 9660, 24
Ivory, J., 269
Iwao, S., 502
Iyengar, S., 291
J
Jackson, Janet, 464
James, William, 541
Jamieson, K. H., 291
Jamieson, P. E., 367
Jansz, J., 342
Japan
compact videocassette from, 22
cross-cultural generalization and, 502–3
High School student media use in, 498t–499t
media and, 497–500, 498t
media history in, 497
media violence research in, 500–502
studies in, 504–6
violent video game use in, 499–500
Japanese Television Violence Study (JTVS), 503
Jaws, 191
The Jazz Singer, 18
Jeffries-Fox, B., 278
Jeffries-Fox, S., 278
(p. 551) Jenkins, H., 429
Jenks, J., 217
Jennings, J., 275
Johnston, D. D., 271
Johnston, J., 279
Joint Statement on the Impact of Entertainment Violence, 464
Jones, G., 165
Jordan, A., 235
Journal of Adolescent Health, 380
Journal of Media Literacy Education (JMLE), 104
Journal of Media Psychology (Routledge), 75
article methodology in, 83t
author institutions in, 82f
collaborations in, 83–84
content analysis used on, 77
contributing authors to, 85t
departmental collaborations for, 88t, 90–91
grounded theory approach used on, 76, 91–92
institutions contributing to, 86t–87t, 89–90
keyword frequencies in, 82f, 83f, 85–88
keywords mined from database for, 78–79, 78t–79t
lead author reflecting on, 84, 87t, 90–91
lead author survey questions and, 89t
lead author tabulation of, 89
literature review of, 76
populations in empirical research articles of, 84t
research methodologies used on, 88–89
topics by editorship in, 80t
Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, 145
Joyce, James, 29f
Judas Priest, 464
K
K-12 Speaking, Listening and Media Literacy Standards, 100
Kafai, D. F., 338
Kahlenberg, S., 272
Kahneman, D., 291
Kaiser Family Foundation, 178, 242, 374, 378
Kalnin, A. J., 215–16
Kamhawi, R., 425–26
Al-Kandari, A. A., 275
Kanouse, D. E., 237
Kant, Immanuel, 73n3
Karle, J. W., 410
Kashibuchi, M., 505–6
Kastenmüller, A., 361
Kato, J., 489
Katz, E., 53, 188
Kaufman, G., 272
Keaten, K., 502
Keepers, G. A., 383
Keitai culture, 3
Keller, K., 271
Kelly, C. R., 215, 484
Kelly, L., 502
Kelly, M., 230
Kerr, G. T., 215, 365, 483
keywords, 50f
analysis of, 78–79
frequencies of, 82f, 83f, 85–88
mined from database, 78–79, 78t–79t
word cloud of, 81, 81f
Kickmeier-Rust, M. D., 338, 340
Kickstarter, 46–47
Kim, J., 397
Kim, S., 502
Kimura, T., 502
King, G., 516
“The Kingdom of God,” 15
Kinnick, K. N., 273
Kirsh, S. J., 354, 413–14
Kirwil, L., 163, 364–65
kissing machine, 38
Klein, J., 360
Klein, R., 125
Klimmt, C., 339
Klinger, E., 305
Klucharev, V., 490
Knobloch, S., 192
Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia, 91, 229
Knupfer, N. N., 273
Kobayashi, T., 504
Kohlberg, Lawrence, 142
Kojak, 21
Konijn, E., 125, 363, 455, 456, 539
Koolstra, C. M., 436
Koriat, A., 215
Kraft, 19
Kraft, J. A., 322
Krahé, B., 214, 217–18, 355, 358, 364–65, 367
Krause, C., 367
Kraut, R., 503–4
Krcmar, M., 91
Kremar, 180
Kristen, A., 161
Kronenberger, W. G., 129
Krueger, F., 215–16
Krueger, R. A., 153
Krugman, Herbert, 487
Kubey, R., 102
Kubic, K. N., 277
Kübler-Ross, E., 147
Kunkel, D., 228, 236, 237, 378
L
Laarni, J., 215
Lachlan, K., 269, 353
Lady Gaga, 320
Lam, L. T., 392
Landow, G. P., 27
Lang, A., 91, 93, 187, 218, 474
Langdale, A., 64–65
Langleben, D. D., 490
Langley, T., 361
language, 140
LaRose, R., 386
laserdiscs, 22, 23f
lasers, 22
Lasswell, H. D., 476, 486, 513
latent content, 440
Latinos, 254
Lauzen, M. M., 270
Law, S., 296
Lazarsfeld, P. F., 53
Lazarus, R. S., 215
lead authors, 84, 87t, 89t, 89–91
Leaf, P. J., 375
Leaper, C., 268
learned helplessness, 176
learning environments, 46
learning theory, 111f
Lears, M., 277
Lee, H., 514
Lee, K. M., 360, 433
Lee, M., 341
Lee, N-J., 291
Lee, T. W., 522
legacy media, 3
Lehrer, Jonah, 62–63
Lehti, L., 147
Lemish, D., 143
Lemmens, J. S., 358, 386
L'Engle, K. L., 377
lesbians, 240
Leshner, G., 488
Lesser, Gerald, 173
Leung, C. C., 451
Levine, M. P., 276
Lewin, Kurt, 68, 127, 305, 306, 491
Leximancer, 519–20, 524, 527, 528f
Liao, F., 102
Lieberman, D. A., 340
Liebler, C. M., 269, 270
Lien, S. C., 276
Lim, S., 337
Lin, C. A., 270
Linder, J. L., 364
Lindley, C. A., 339
Lindlof, T. R., 138
linear narrative, 27
Lineberger, R., 119
Linz, D., 214, 276, 374
Lippmann, Walter, 67, 68, 69, 71–72
literacy transition, 15
literature
digital, 27
Japan's media, 497–500
mass media, 425–26
review of, 76
scientific reviews of, 125–26
synthesis of, 426
Literature and the Brain (Holland), 452
Liu, M., 354
Livingstone, S. M., 427
Lo, C. Y., 397
Lo, V., 377
LOLcats, 56n1
Lombard, M., 432
Long, M., 295
longitudinal studies, 124–25, 161, 244, 357–58
Longshore, M. A., 101
long-term processes, 162–63
love/hate media debate, 536–38
Lowery, S. A., 426
Luskin, Bernard, 4, 49
Luthman, S., 215
Lykken, D., 175
Lynch, P. J., 364
Lynn, K. M., 273
Lyons, E. J., 322
(p. 552) M
Mack, Arien, 63
MacKay, N. J., 235
Madonna, 234
magnitude, 445
Mahmood, S., 339
Mahood, C., 276
Malamuth, N., 374, 375
Maldonado, H., 46
malicious pleasure, 193
Malmstrom, E. J., 215
Malone, T. W., 339
Maloney, A., 537
Malouff, J. M., 361
manifest content, 440
Manjoo, Farhad, 72
Mann, C., 138
many-to-many world, 45
Mapping-Phenomenon perspective, 426–28
Mar, R. A., 457
Marathon 2, 128
Marathon Man, 196
Mares, M. L., 203, 235
Markow, D., 375
Marsella, S., 200
Marsh, E. J., 451, 452
Martens, H., 101
Martino, S., 236
Martins, N., 269
MARVIN, 338
Masaccio, 13, 14f
masculinity, 277
Maslow, Abraham, 142
mass communication, 76, 242
mass customization, 35
massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG), 125
mass media
defining, 57n8
effect-criterion problem and, 442–43
effects facet in, 440–41
exposure states of, 431–32
influence pattern types in, 444f
literature, 425–26
message research of, 438
new conceptualization of, 430–31
participatory media shift from, 33
printing press introducing, 45
reconceptualizing influence of, 443–46
research methods of, 439–40
technology characteristics of, 428
during World War II, 44
Massoni, K., 273
Mastro, D. E., 269, 386
Math Blaster, 336
Mathiak, K., 484
Matthews, V. P., 216
Maxwell, S., 81
Mayer, R. E., 345
Mazzocco, P. M., 456
McCall, C., 310, 537
McGee, I., 279
McIntyre, J., 538
Mckee, K. A., 273
McKenna, K. Y. A., 504
McKenna, P., 343
McLeod, D. M., 291
McLuhan, Eric, 29f
McLuhan, Marshall, 3, 29, 29f, 33, 36, 40n21, 462
McLuhan lens, 29
McMahon, B., 102, 104
McQuarrie, E., 454
Mead, G. H., 143
Meade, M. L., 451
meaning, 155n5
meaning construction, 435
meaning-making process, 154, 517
meaning matching, 435
media. See also children's media; interactive media; mass media
adolescence processing messages of, 232
adolescent exposure to, 226
Asian's representation in, 254–55
biases built in to, 29
body dissatisfaction from, 229
cause-effect relations and socialization of, 159
children influenced by, 467–72
children's long-term impact of, 181–82
defining, 49–50
digital, 243
domestic roles in, 277–78
effects research of, 273–74, 477f
emotional involvement in, 190–94
empathy in users of, 189
engagement with, 245n1
gender-related attitudes and behavior influenced by, 274–76
healthier storytelling with, 182–83
High School student use of, 498t–499t
human brain influenced by, 474–77
information from, 187
Internet changing landscape of, 26
Internet communications as, 3
involvement in, 231–32
Japan and, 497–500, 498t
legacy, 3
love/hate debate on, 536–38
Middle Easterners representation in, 255
modern use of, 3
multiple platform communications in, 52
Native American representation in, 255
participatory, 32f
persuasion, 487
physical appearance in, 276–77
prejudicial attitudes and beliefs from, 256–58
prosocial, 180
psychology history and, 536
race/ethnicity relations improved through, 262
race/ethnicity represented in, 252–53, 255–56
sad, 201
school-aged children's instructions on, 105–6
sexual behavior and, 223
sexual health promoted by, 242
sexual scripts in, 229–30
social, 3, 27, 46–47, 341, 535
U.S. consumption of, 475
violence justified in, 213
women underrepresented in, 268–69
Media Action Research Center (MARC), 97
media education, 96–98, 100, 101–2, 104
media effects, 50–51, 126, 127, 129–30, 540
The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Television, and New Media Like Real People and Places (Reeves And Nass), 450
media exposure
of adolescence, 226
of children, 178–79
cumulative influence of, 112
flow experiences from, 177, 219
on Internet, 374–75
self-esteem influence of, 260–61
violence in, 539
Media Exposure Experience Matrix, 431, 435–37, 436f
media imagery and social learning (MISL), 259
media literacy, 32–33
advocacy needed for, 106–7
children's importance of, 182
delivery method of, 101–2
education of, 245
graduate program in, 105
NAMLE and, 100
school curriculum and, 98
U.S. approach to, 96, 98–101
violent video clips and, 103
media literacy education (MLE), 241
media messages
about gender, 267–68
adolescence processing, 232
attentional state of, 432
human brain processing, 196, 203
narratives of, 437–38
vividness of, 258
Media Practice Model (MPM), 224–25
media psychology
challenges in, 56
communicating effectively about, 538
defining, 5, 5t, 8, 44, 536
doctoral program in, 49
future studies in, 522–23
Google Trends search for, 49f
as hybrid discipline, 4
love/hate debate about, 538
multidisciplinary platform of, 43–44
positive psychology role in, 55–56
psychology and communications in, 6
qualitative research used in, 138
research in, 137, 186–87, 478, 522t
systems thinking in, 51
theoretical approaches and methods in, 539–41
Media Psychology (Giles), 4, 540–42
media psychophysiology, 478–83
mediasts, 31
mediated experience, 50
mediated society influencing, 194
mediated space, 66
mediation, 245n2
mediator variable, 123f
media violence, 7, 109
adolescence influenced by, 225
aggressive behavior link with, 168–69
American Psychology Association and, 160
Anderson, C. A., studies of, 128–29, 168
arousal influenced by, 482
(p. 553) Bushman's studies of, 168
causal influence of, 164
child advocates and, 463–65
cognitive consistency process and, 166–67
denial of influence of, 168
desensitization to, 119, 167–68, 214
disputing influence of, 163–64
emotional habituation to, 163
exposure to, 117–18
harmful influence of, 192
Huesmann's study of exposure to, 539
industry reactions to, 465–67
on Internet, 375
Japan's research of, 500–502
long-lasting influence of, 112
long-term processes with, 162–63
malicious pleasure in, 193
media psychophysiology and, 481–82
meta-analysis of aggression and, 160–61
negative influence and, 166–67
priming and, 161–62, 360
prosocial behavior influenced by, 119–21
psychophysiological research on, 482–83
reactance and, 167
repeated exposure to, 118–19
research of, 212–13
short-term processes and, 161–62
theoretical explanations concerning, 161
third-person effect and, 167
trait aggression correlation with, 123
video games studies of, 113–30, 161–68, 212–19, 353–68
youth violence caused by, 160
medical conditions, 324
medical field, 320
memories, 194
mental imagery, 454
Mercurio, Jennifer, 327
Mercury Theater, 18, 18f
Merriwether, A., 236
Message Interpretation Process (MIP), 232
messages
attention factor in, 231
content analysis of public, 151
emotions and reception of, 194–95
interpretation of, 234
mass media research of, 438
persuasion and content of, 288
processing mediators of, 230–31
sexual media content application of, 236–37
sexual media content interpretation of, 234
text, 3, 45, 46, 243, 374, 514, 535
meta-analysis, 126, 128, 160–61, 355–57, 499
Metropolitan Opera House, 40n8
Meyers, Daniel, 174
Michaels, M., 271
Microsoft Office, 31
micro-volunteerism, 46
Middle Easterners, 255
military training simulations, 336
Miller, M., 279
Miller, Rand, 40n16
Miller, Robyn, 40n16
Mills, Adrian, 183–84
Milmer, L. M., 272
mimicry, 162
minority stereotypes, 256–57
Miron, D., 76
mirror neurons, 196, 454
Mitchell, K., 377
Mitchell, T. R., 522
Miu, A., 237
mixed study designs, 125
Mobile and Immersive Learning for Literacy in Emerging Economies (MILLEE), 46, 57n3
mobile devices, 48–49, 51–52, 501, 504
mobile technologies, 37, 44, 46
model minority, 255
moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), 319
Moise-Titus, J., 359
Molitor, F., 215
Möller, I., 217–18, 355, 358, 364–65, 367
monomyth concept, 16
mood, 190, 202
mood adjustment theory, 190
mood management theory (MMT), 190
moral disengagement, 193
moral emotions, 193
Moreno, R., 345
Morgan, D. L., 153
Morgan, M., 274, 277, 278
Moriarty, C. M., 276
Morris, J. D., 489
Morrison, T. G., 270
Moscovici, Serge, 66, 72
motion pictures, 18
motivated mediated message processing, 480
Mou, Y., 354
Mounts, J. R. W., 413
movement realism, 307
Moyer-Gusé, E., 234, 290, 295, 539
Mr. Rogers’ Neighborhood, 173
Mullin, C. R., 214
multidisciplinary platform, 43–44
multileveled emotions, 202
multimedia entertainment, 24
multimedia narratives, 39
multimodal automatic emotion recognition, 200, 204
multiple operationalism, 113, 541
multiple platform communications, 52
multiple translation levels, 111f
multiprocessor chips, 25
multisensory experience, 38
multisensory immersive narratives, 24
mundane realism, 164
Munsterberg, H., 64
Murdoch, Rupert, 22
Murnen, S. K., 276
Murphy, C. R., 362
MySpace, 243
Myst, 25, 40n16
N
Nabi, R. L., 193, 234, 277, 295, 539
emotions-as-frames model by, 289, 293
humor argument of, 290
Nackle, A., 339
Nackle, L. E., 339
Nagasaki, 500
Nairn, A., 458
Naito, M., 505
Nakano, S., 497
Nalkur, P. G., 367, 481
nanotechnology, 38
narratives. See also messages; storytelling
computer users creating, 32
fictional, 451, 456–58
figure-ground perspective and, 29
human faculties activated by, 15
individual and collective, 30
on Internet, 30
Internet's toolset for, 34
linear, 27
of media messages, 437–38
multimedia, 39
multisensory immersive, 24
neuroscience and, 454
nonlinear, 25
parasocial characters and, 454–55
persuasion from, 293–96
reviews of, 125–26
serialization influencing, 21
in serious games, 339–40
in storytelling, 15
technology for, 30
video game's engaging, 455–56
Nass, C. I., 450
Nathanson, A., 279
National Association for Media Literacy Education (NAMLE), 100
National Communication Association (NCA), 105
National Institute of Drug Abuse, 395
National Telemedia Council, 96
National Television Violence Study, 439, 503
Native Americans, 255
natural world information, 309
Navracruz, L. C., 366
Nayar, P. K., 428
Nederhof, A., 66
negative emotions, 196
Neisser, Ulric, 92
networked publics, 45, 48
Neuendorf, K., 77, 258
neural network theory, 152
neural recruitment, 411
neurocognitive benefits, 323–24
neuromarketing, 487
(p. 554) neuropsychological research, 197
neuroscience, 454
Ney, J., 342
niche audiences, 179
A Nightmare on Elm Street, 189
Nimoy, Leonard, 22–23, 23f
Noe, A., 68, 71, 72
Nolan, A. L., 76, 78
nonlinear narrative, 25
Northrup, T., 269, 270
Novak, J. D., 520
novel, 15, 40n5
null results, 112
O
obesity, 317–18
object attributes, 139
objects, 155n4
occupation, 272–73
O'Connor, Sandra Day, 342
Odyssey (Homer), 14
Ohme, R., 489
Oliver, M. B., 190
Olympic Flame, 19f
Oncology game, 344
On Death and Dying (Kübler-Ross), 147
O'Neal, E. C., 361
online services, 47
On the Witness Stand (Lippmann), 67
Oppl, C., 161
Oppliger, P. A., 274
optimists, 176–77, 183
Oregon Trail, 336
O'Reilly, Tim, 30, 33–35, 41n24
Osbourne, Ozzy, 464
Othello, 25
overweight adolescence, 320–21
Oxford Handbook of Media Psychology
analysis of, 523–26
chapter titles organization of, 525t
computer technology assisting in, 518–19
concept map from, 521f
content analysis of, 513–14, 517, 531t, 532
qualitative analysis of, 515–17
quantitative analysis of, 514–15
text analysis of, 526–32
text analytics software and, 519–20
Oxford Library of Psychology, 7
Ozretich, R. A., 367
P
P3 response, 215–16
Pac-Man, 25, 383
Paik, H., 160–61
Pancer, E., 354
Pandora, K., 67
“Papa Don't Preach,” 234
Papastergiou, M., 339
parables, 15
parallel processing, 202
parallel processing model (PPM), 289
parasocial relationships, 189, 260, 454–55
parent-child communications, 391
Park, S., 312
participatory media, 32f, 33, 45
participatory responses, 453–54
Pasold, T., 217
pathological technology use (PTU), 383, 386–87
ADHD and, 405
adult questionnaire for, 398–99
comorbidity measures of, 389t–391t
convergent validity measures of, 388t
course of, 396–97
diagnostic criteria of, 392–95
etiology of, 395–96
predictive validity of, 392
predictors of, 397f
prevalence of, 395
psychological disorders and, 396
treatment of, 397–98
pattern recognition algorithms, 199
Paul, R., 168
Payne Fund Studies, 475–76
Pea, R., 46
Peacemaker, 198, 342
peer-to-peer connections, 32
Peirce, K., 273
Peng, W., 354, 360
Peng, Z., 392
Pennebaker, J. W., 516
penny dreadful serials, 20
perception, 155n2
appearance difference with, 66–67
process of, 62–63
self-concept, 232–33
sexual media content attachment and, 232–33
in social psychology, 66–67
transactional approach to, 71
perceptual consciousness, 71
perceptual load task, 409
Perlman, C. A., 268
Perry, B. D., 216
Perry, M., 116
personal computers, 23, 24, 30–32
persuasion
cognitive response models of, 286–87
elements of, 285–86
ELM and HSM of, 286–87
emotions influencing, 289–90
expectancy value theories in, 287–88
framing in, 290–93
media, 487
message content for, 288
narrative, 293–96
product placement in, 296–97
sexual media content resistance to, 233–34
Pertaub, D. P., 312
pervasive games, 398
pessimists, 176–77
Peter, J., 231–32, 358, 386
Petty, R., 286–87
phenomenology, 144–45
Phillips, B., 454
The Photoplay, 64
physical aggression, 113–15, 120
physical appearance, 269–71, 276–77
physical education, 325–26
physiological arousal, 118
physiological impact, 321–23
physiological indicators, 199
physiological measures, 215–17
Piaget, Jean, 63, 142, 458
Picard, R., 198
Pieper, K. M., 268
Pixar, 25
Plantville, 340, 342
Plato, 139
Playhouse 90, 19
Podolski, C. L., 359
Poetics (Aristotle), 13, 14f
Poldma, T., 521
politics, 467, 523t
Polkinghorne, Donald, 15, 77, 507n1, 541
Pollard, R., 216
Polman, H., 362
Pool, M. M., 436
Popper, K. R., 150
populations, in empirical research, 84t
pornography, 192, 228, 231
Porter, N., 279
positive psychology, 55–56, 173–75
positive psychology framework, 182–83
positron emission tomography, 197
Posner cueing task, 407
Postal, 467
Post-Gorden, J. C., 361
Potter, J., 154
Potter, R. F., 478
Potter, W. J., 76, 94, 97, 112, 138, 425, 539–41
prebehavioral outcomes, 234–35
predictive validity, 392
prejudice, 256–59
Prensky, M., 54, 336, 343
presence, 219
pre-web era, 30–33
Pribyl, C., 502
Price, V., 291
Primack, B. A., 101
prime time, 20
priming, 161–62, 235, 259, 360
Principles of Topological Psychology (Lewin), 305
printing presses, 15–16, 15f, 44, 45
Pro Ana, 198
processing mediators, 230–31
Prodigy, 44
productivity weights, 81
product placement, 296–97
programmatic research, 426
promogames, 341
prosocial behavior, 119–21, 260
prosocial media, 180
Prosocial Orientation Questionnaire, 119
prospect theory, 291–92
Prot, S., 507n2, 507n4, 539, 541
Proteus Effect, 313
prototypes, 257
Proust Was a Neuroscientist (Lehrer), 62
proxemic behaviors, 310
PsychInfo search, 50f
psychological appraisal theories, 200
psychological emotion models, 200
psychology
absorption of, 219
cognitive, 142
developmental, 63
disorders of, 396
educational, 76
engaging, 218–19
in media psychology, 6
media studies history and, 536
positive, 55–56, 173–75
positive framework for, 182–83
processes of, 359–61, 360t, 539
social, 65–67, 478
of the spectator, 68, 73
technology impacting, 45–46, 382–83
in U.S., 539
The Psychology of Radio (Allport and Cantril, H.), 69, 71–72
Psychology of the Media (Giles), 4, 540–42
psychophysiological approach, 474–75
Public Broadcasting Network (PBS), 179
Public Opinion (Lippmann), 67
Pulaski, S. J., 216
pulse code modulation (PCM), 23
Pungente, John, 98
The Pursuit of Happiness (Meyers), 174
Pyle, M., 354
Pyzbylski, A. K., 354
Q
Qualitative Media Analysis (Altheide), 143
qualitative research
analysis in, 149–53
development of, 142–46
event understanding and, 138–39
findings from, 147–49
of grounded theory, 77
human experience in, 146–47
information from, 153
integrating other approach with, 145–46
meaning-making process studied in, 154
media psychology with, 138
of Oxford Handbook of Media Psychology, 515–17
principles guiding, 146
qualities assigned to concepts in, 142
quantitative research's difference with, 141–42, 514–15
software programs used in, 152
terms used in, 147
quality of life (QoL), 323
quantitative content analysis, 439
quantitative research, 141–42, 514–15
Quest Atlantis, 340
Quin, R., 102, 104
R
Rabinowitz, T., 405
race/ethnicity
media improving relations in, 262
media representation of, 252–53, 255–56
priming and stereotyping of, 259, 263
radio, 17–19, 40n8, 54, 69
Radio Corporation of America (RCA), 18
radio frequency identification (RFID), 36
Ramasubramanian, S., 258
Ramayana, 14
Raney, A. A., 268
Raphael, C., 273
rapid absorption, 218
Ravaja, N., 215
reactance theory, 167, 233
reading reaction time task, 116, 120–21
read-only memory (ROM), 24
reality, 62–63, 453
real-life (RL), 37
Real Video, 27
recoding, 35–36
reductionism, 77
reductionist traditions, 50
Reese, S. D., 438
Reeves, B., 337, 450
Regenbogen, C., 216
regression analysis, 123f
regret, 193
remediation, 428
Reno, Janet, 99
research. See also literature; qualitative research
children's media, 463
designs, 120–25
effects, 273–74, 277f
emotions role in, 187–88
empirical articles of, 84t
ethnography, 143
on exergames, 318, 324
fear appeal, 289–90
mass media methods of, 439–40
in media psychology, 137, 186–87, 478, 522t
of media violence, 212–13
methodologies, 88–89
neuropsychological, 197
pornographic media, 192
programmatic, 426
project details in, 522t
scientific community communicating findings of, 130, 538
using fMRI, 196
in video game violence, 113–30, 161–68, 212–19, 353–68
response system level, 307, 308f
Rethinking Communication (Dervin), 424
Rheingold, Howard, 30, 41n25
Rhianna, 223
Rice, R. E., 429
Rich, A., 229
Richards, D., 338
Richardson, R., 502
Richter, T., 453
Riddle, K., 76, 425
Riffe, D., 425, 438
Rigby, C. S., 354
Riley, Richard, 99
Ritterfeld, U., 335, 338, 484
Rivadeneyra, R., 275
River City, 340
RL. See real-life
Robinson, T., 271, 366
robotics, 38
Rodasta, A. L., 361
Rodeheffer, C. D., 115, 357
Roediger, H. L., 451
Romer, D., 367
Romero, J. P., 229
Rosenkoetter, L. I., 367
Rosenkoetter, S. E., 367
Roskos-Ewoldsen, David, 94n1–n2, 296
Ross, D., 364
Ross, S. A., 364
rotary printing presses, 15–16
Rothman, A. J., 292
Rouner, D., 295
Russell, C. A., 296
Rutledge, Brown, 536, 541
Ryan, G. W., 516
Ryan, R. M., 336, 354
S
Saari, T., 215
Sacks, D. P., 169
sad media, 201
sadness, 191, 192–93
Sado, M., 503
safe sex, 243
Saito, S., 275
Sakamoto, A., 357, 503, 539
Sakamoto, M., 502
Salazar, L., 377
Saleem, M., 117
Salminen, M., 215
Salovey, P., 292
sample, 147
sampling, 517
San Jose-Cabezudo, R., 287
Saucier, D. A., 277
Savalas, Telly, 21
Sawyer, Ben, 335
scaled subordinate concepts, 141
Scale of Egalitarian Sex Role Attitudes, 275
Scenes from the Life of Moses, 13
Scent of Mystery, 38
Schadenfreude, 193
Scharrer, E., 101, 105, 106, 268, 270–72, 280
Scheier, M. F., 176
schema mapping, 516
Schindler's List, 154
Schneider, E. F., 218
Schooler, D., 229
schools, 98, 326–27
Schramm, Wilbur, 477
Schroeder, S., 453
Schutte, N. S., 361
Schwarz, N., 258
science
communications, 44
community, 130
practice model, 173
reviews, 125–26
theories of, 112–13
scientific causality, 111–12, 538, 540–41
screen time, 318
screenwriters, 17, 20
Scriven, M., 168
search engine optimization (SEO), 35
search engines, 36
seasons, 21
Sebastian, M., 279
Second Life (SL), 37, 338
sedentary activities, 317–18
selective attention, 194
self-assessment, 175
self-concept, 232–33, 458
(p. 556) self-determination theory (SDT), 336
self-efficacy, 45, 236, 336
self-esteem, 260–61
self-objectification, 229
Self-Perception Theory, 239
self-reflexive state, 433
self-regulatory skills, 336
self-reports, 115–18, 431, 451
self-starvation, 198
Seligman, M. E. P., 174, 176, 183
semantic content analysis tool, 6
Semantic Web, 35–36
semiotic analysis, 516
sensors, 199
serialization, 20–22
serious educational games (SEGs), 335
serious games, 334
characterizing, 335–36
cognitive-behavioral therapy supported by, 344
content areas of, 340–44
elements of, 337–40
narratives in, 339–40
Serious Games Initiative, 335
Sesame Street, 173, 177, 180, 181, 346
Sestir, M. A., 119, 218, 362, 365, 482
sexual behavior
adolescence creation and circulation of, 237–38
media and, 223
television viewing and, 235–36
sexual health, 242, 243
sexuality, 224, 237
adolescence and, 237–38, 377
adolescent identities of, 224
adolescent interest in, 227
Internet exploitation of, 376–77
Internet information on, 227–28
Internet materials on, 377
media health promotion of, 242
media scripts and, 229–30
physical attraction and, 229
self-concept clusters and, 227
self-disclosure of, 239–41
self-representation of, 230
thinness and, 269
video game's female characters and, 270, 276
sexually transmitted infections (STIs), 224
sexual media content
adolescent creating, 238–39
adolescent exposure to, 225–26, 377
arousal from, 232
attitude influence in, 235
audience feedback of, 240
distribution and creation of, 237–38
engaging with, 230
factors in selection of, 226–27
involvement in, 231–32
message application of, 236–37
message interpretation of, 234
outcome expectations with, 236
perceptions and attachments with, 232–33
persuasion resistance of, 233–34
prebehavioral outcomes and, 234–35
priming with, 235
SCT and, 228–29, 234–35
self-efficacy and, 236
sexual self-disclosure and, 239–41
transportation from, 233
variations of, 227–28
Sexual Media Practice Model, 225f
sexual scripting theory, 228
Sexual Sophisticates, 227, 232
Shah, D. V., 291
Shâhnâma, 14
Shanahan, J., 274
Shannon, C. E., 476
Shapira, N. A., 387
Sheese, B. E., 119
Shek, D. T. L., 397
Sherry, J. L., 338, 339, 355
Shibuya, A., 357, 364
Shin, M., 218
Shoemaker, P. J., 438
short-term memory (STM), 323
short-term processes, 161–62
Sidani, J., 101
significance testing, 129
signification, 68–9
Signorielli, N., 268, 272–73, 275, 277, 280
Silence of the Lambs, 189
Silent Susceptibles, 227
Silicon Coppélia, 200
Silverblatt, A., 100
SimCity, 341
Simmel, G., 68, 71
Simmons, J. P., 453
Simon Wiesenthal Center, 375
The Simpsons, 177
Singer, Dorothy, 98
Singer, Jerome, 98
Singer study, 98
16 and Pregnant, 242
Skalski, P., 219, 337
Skoric, M., 127
SL. See Second Life
Slater, M. D., 225, 295, 312, 359, 451
sleeper effects, 203
Smart Mob: The Next Social Revolution (Rheingold), 41n25
smartphones, 52
Smeaton, A. F., 514
Smellovision, 38
Smidts, A., 490
Smith, A. E., 516
Smith, A. M., 271
Smith, D., 395
Smith, S., 180, 268, 269, 270, 278, 502
Smith, S. L., 278, 353
Snow White, 25
Snyder, 183
Snyder, L. J., 150
soap operas, 20
social ability, 457–58
social behavior, 180–81
social cognitive theory (SCT), 228–29, 234–35, 294, 336
social comparison theory, 193
social compensation theory, 501
social connections, 52–53
social facilitation, 311
social influence, 308–12
social media, 3, 27, 46–47, 341, 535
social processes, 312–13
social psychology, 65–67, 478
society, 53–54
software applications, 31, 152
Soper, B., 76
Soul City, 243
Space Men Invade Los Angeles?, 148
space of appearance, 65
spatial selective attention, 408–9
Spears, Britney, 223
Spears, R., 259
special needs people, 329
Sphere 1, 40n12
Staiano, A. E., 344
startle eye blink, 488
Star Trek, 36
Star Wars, 38
statistical software, 152
Staude-Müller, F, 215
Steamboat Willie, 18
Steel, Ronald, 67, 68
Steele, C. M., 261
steel engraving process, 16
Steinfeld, Jesse, 160
stereotype content model, 259
stereotypes
black criminal, 253
cognition and, 68, 71–72
minority, 256–57
race/ethnicity and, 259, 263
subtyping in, 258
threat, 261
Stern, S. R., 269
Stewart, F., 138
stimulus-Intervening Processes-Response Approach, 477f
stimulus-response approach, 476, 476f, 478
stop words, 518
storytelling
Aristotelian model of, 16–17
art of, 13–15
on film, 17
future of, 39
healthier media, 182–83
literacy transition of, 15
narrative meanings in, 15
transmedia approach of, 53
U.S. tradition of, 16
Strange, J. J., 451
Strangers to Ourselves (Wilson), 450
Strauss, A., 143–44, 150, 516
streaming video, 27
The Strength of Weak Ties (Granovetter), 45
Strenziok, M., 215–16
Stroop task, 216, 411–12, 412f, 486
Studio One, 19
subtyping, 258
Sumerian Creation Epic, 40n2
Supreme Court, 169
Suzuki, K., 503
Swanson, D. H., 271
Swanson, J., 117
symbolic interactionism, 143
sympathy, 180
systematic methodology, 77
systems theory, 51
T
Tajima, S., 503
Takahira, M., 503–4
(p. 557) Tamborini, R., 219, 337, 353
Tang, V. M. Y., 397
tangram task, 115, 119–20
target detection task, 407
task switching, 410–11
Tausczik, Y. R., 516
Taylor, K., 339
Taylor, L. D., 164, 165
teacher/learner paradigm, 114
technology
addiction to, 385–86
biases built in to, 29
computer, 518–19
convergence of, 428–29
engaging with, 55–56
eye-tracking, 199
human goals and, 52–53
mass media's characteristics of, 428
mobile, 37, 44, 46
nano, 38
for narratives, 30
Oxford Handbook of Media Psychology and, 518–19
participatory media, 45
positive adoption of, 55
psychological impact of, 45–46, 382–83
societies resistance to, 53–54
text-mining, 76–78
tEcosystem, 39
Teen Media project, 237
Telefunken, 18
The Teletubbies, 173
television, 18, 475
advertiser sponsors of, 19
advertising on, 272
altruism on, 181
black representation on, 253–54
content analysis of, 98
corporate entities controlling, 19
gender and physical appearance on, 269–71
Huesmann's study of violence on, 359–60
Latino representation on, 254
loss of virginity storyline on, 230
media education and, 96–97
prime time soap operas on, 20
radio imitated by, 18–19
seasons in, 21
serialization in, 20–21
sexual behavior and, 235–36
social behavior influence of, 180–81
traditional heterosexual script of, 230
violence on, 481
Television Awareness Training (T-A-T), 97
Television Literacy for Young Children, 97
Television Theater, 19
Tellegen, A., 175
temporal processing, 409–10
Tennyson, Lord, 16f
test/revise/test/revise process, 110
Tewksbury, D., 291
text analysis, 526–31, 527f, 528f
text analytics software, 519–20
text messaging, 3, 45, 46, 243, 374, 514, 535
text-mining technology, 76–78
texture maps, 25
Theater Guild On the Air, 18
theme circle, 520f
theoretical sensitivity, 150
theory of reasoned action (TRA), 288
They Saw a Game (Hastorf and Cantril, H.), 72
thinking society, 73
third-person effect, 98, 106, 167, 450
Thomas, M. H., 215
Thomas, T., 395
Thompson, J. B., 432
Thompson, K. M., 353
thought-listing questionnaire, 116
Threshold Model of Social Influence within Immersive Virtual Environments (TMSIVE), 307
Tidhar, C. E., 143
Tiggemann, M., 276
time displacement, 22
Ting, C. C., 393
Tipton, L., 437
Titanic, 190
Title (Manjoo), 72
Todorov, A., 453
Tokunaga, R., 376
Tolman, D. L., 229
Tools for Thought (Rheingold), 30
trait aggression, 123
transactional approach, 71
transformed social interactions (TSIs), 312
transportation, 295, 433
belief change through, 452
-imagery model, 454, 456
influences on, 455–56
self-report questionnaire measuring, 451
from sexual media content, 233
state of flow in, 452
transported state, 432–33
treatment, of PTU, 397–98
triangulation, 112–13
The Tribute Money, 13, 14f
Tsuji, D., 502
Tuma, Regina M., 3
Turkle, Sherry, 37
Turner, J. S., 269
Tversky, A., 291
21st Century Skills Incentive Fund Act, 102
Twitter, 46, 523t
2001: A Space Odyssey, 36
Two and a Half Men, 149
Tyner, Kathleen, 103
U
Uhlmann, E., 117
understanding, 155n5
Understanding Media: The Extension of Man (McLuhan, M.), 33
Understanding Media Psychology, 4
United Church of Christ, 472
United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 106
United States (U.S.)
adolescent media exposure in, 226
children with ADHD in, 404–5
foreign films in, 22
media consumption in, 475
media literacy's approach of, 96, 98–101
psychology in, 539
storytelling traditions in, 16
Unkelbach, C., 260
Useful Field of View, 409
USENET, 32
Uses and Gratification Theory, 235
V
Valery, Paul, 40n20
Valkenburg, P. M., 231–32, 358, 386
Van Atteveldt, W., 518
van der Voort, T. H., 436
van Gogh, Vincent, 23
Van Gogh Revisited, 22, 23f
Vanman, E., 214
Varady, A., 366
Venn diagram, 123
verbal aggression, 115
Viacom, 472
Video 2000, 40n11
video games, 7
addictive aspects of, 383–84
Anderson, C. A., high and low action, 129
Anderson, C. A., sports aggression study of, 114
attention deficits and, 404–6
Bartholow's study of short-term influence of, 215–16
blacks depicted in, 254
civic engagement, 341–42
early, 24–25
engaging narrative of, 455–56
exergames as, 316–17
female characters sexualized in, 270, 276
interactive qualities of, 229
Latino's depicted in, 254
media violence studies of, 113–30, 161–68, 212–19, 353–68
pervasive, 398
pilot testing of, 130n1
positive and negative influence of, 403–4
positive emotional arousal from, 215
puzzles and clues in, 25
screen time involved with, 318
SCT development structure of, 336
task switching and, 410–11
texture maps in, 25
time spent playing, 26
video game violence
aggression linked to, 354–55, 358f, 368
aggression-related outcomes of, 356f
Anderson, C. A., study of, 161, 213, 360–62
Bushman's study of angry feelings and, 354–55, 360–61
catharsis hypothesis and, 118
cognitive skills and, 485–86
defining, 352–53
experimental studies of, 357
features role in, 362–64
(p. 558) gender's role in, 362
Gentile, D. A., study of multiple, 364
habitual use of, 364–65
individual differences and, 361–62
Japan and, 499–500
longitudinal studies of, 357–58
long-term influence of, 366f
lower empathy from, 217–18
meta-analysis evidence of, 355–57
mitigating influence of, 366–68
mixed study designs used in, 125
multiple translation levels of, 111f
physical aggression from, 113
politics of, 467
rates and appeal of, 353–54
research in, 191
rewards and punishments influence with, 363f
study types of, 356f
underlying psychological processes in, 359–61, 360t
video game violence exposure (VVE), 482–84, 483f, 484f
Vimeo, 47
violence. See also media violence; video game violence
aggressive behavior engendered by, 164
Anderson, C. A., study of game influence and, 355–57, 485
Bushman's study of giving assistance and viewing, 215–16
desensitization to, 212–13, 483–84
habitual game playing of, 119, 362
Huesmann's study of television, 359–60
in media exposure, 539
media justifying, 213
media literacy and, 103
on television, 481
youth, 160
virginity, loss of, 230
Virgin Valedictorians, 227, 232
virtual environment, 306
avatar presence in, 311
emotions in, 197–99
natural world information from, 309
Second Life in, 37
social influence in, 308–12
social processes in, 312–13
virtual humans, 197–200, 204
virtual X, 305
visual acuity, 406
visual data display, 520
visual enumeration, 408
visual short-term memory (VSTM), 412
visuospatial processing, 406, 407f, 413
Vogelgesang, J., 161
von Salisch, M., 161
Vowels, C. L., 277
W
Walker, E., 275, 278
Walsh, D. A., 364
Walsh, K. M., 101
Walstedt, J. J., 279
Walt Disney, 18, 25, 471–72
Wang, Y., 412, 486
Wanke, M., 258
Ward, L. M., 232, 235–36, 244, 275, 276, 278
The War of the Worlds, 18f, 68, 72
Watanabe, Y., 497
Waxman, Seth, 472
Weaver, D., 425–26
Weaver, W., 476
Web 1.0 - 4.0, 33–39
Weber, Robert, 77, 129, 353, 484
websites, 379f
Webster University, 105
Wei, R., 124, 217, 377
well-being, 174–78, 201
Welles, Orson, 18, 18f
Wellington, W. J., 342
Wells, H. G., 18f, 68
Wertheimer, M., 63–64, 71
Wertz, F. J., 515, 517
West, G. L., 408
West, M. D., 375
West, R., 485
What Happened to Mary?, 20
Wheeler, L., 115
Where in the World Is Carmen Sandiego?, 336
Whewell, 150
Whitacker, J. L., 354
White, C., 273
Whyville, 338
Wigboldus, D. H., 310
Wii, 317
WiiFit, 321–22, 326
Wilde, M. L., 366
Williams, D., 127, 130n1, 269
Williams, K. D., 363
Williams, R. A., 235
Williams, T. M., 505
willing suspension of disbelief, 188
Wilson, B. J., 181, 279
Wilson, T. D., 450, 458
Wilson, Woodrow, 334
the wireless. See radio
Wisconsin Association for Better Broadcasting, 96
Wise, Michael D., 40n12
wishful identification, 125
Wohrmann, B., 453
Wolfe, J., 342
women, 268–69
Wood, R. T., 218, 393
word cloud, 81, 81f
word completion task, 116
word frequency, 525t
word pair similarity rating task, 117
word processors, 30
working memory, 412–13
World of Warcraft, 48, 57n6, 335, 341
World War II, 38, 44
World Wide Web. See Internet
Wright, P., 237
Wroblewski, R., 279
Wundt, Wilhelm, 90
Y
Yang, G., 7
Yang, M., 296
Yao, M. Z., 276, 374
Ybarra, M. L., 375
Yee, N., 311
Yost, E. A., 361
Youn, S., 341
Young-Bruehl, E., 65–66, 69, 73n1
Yousman, B., 101
youth violence, 160
You Tube, 27, 47
Yukawa, S., 357
Z
Zaphiris, P., 339
Zemach, T., 278
Zhang, Y., 269, 276
Zhao, X., 378
Zhu, D., 339
Zillmann, D., 360, 478
Zwier, A. G., 66