Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 22 August 2019

(p. 305) Index

(p. 305) Index

A
Abikoff, H. B., 233
Acetaminophen (Tylenol), 26, 158–59, 167
Adams, C. E., 225
Adler, Alfred, 36
Aggression
anger, 115–16
antisocial behaviors, 113–17
belonging need, 114, 117–18
control needs, 118
extreme violence response, 113–15
hostile cognitive bias, 116, 117
hot sauce measure, 117, 118
intelligence, 133
mechanism of, 115–16
monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA), 118–19
motivations for social exclusion, 33, 35–39
narcissism, 116–17, 222–25
neuroticism, 117
ostracism, 23–25, 33, 119, 267, 296–97
overview, 113–14, 118–19
peer rejection, 101–4, 103f, 106
reconnection, 117–18
rejection sensitivity, 116–17
religiosity, 118
resiliency, 117–18
as response to social rejection, 113–15, 296–97
risk factors, 116–17, 254
sadness, 115
self-control, regulation, 119, 135–36
self-esteem, 116
serotonin transporter gene, 118
social isolation, 114
social pain, 159
towards groups, 115
work group exclusion, 66, 67, 69, 71
Ahmad, A., 58, 61
AIDS, 79
Ainsworth, M. D. S., 239
Alexander , R. D., 10
Alfano, M. S., 214
Allen, A., 4
Allport, Gordon, 36, 43
Alone-later-in-life paradigm
anthropomorphism, 252
loneliness, 186
multi-motive model of response, 44
social pain, 157, 169, 173n1
terror management theory, 295
Aloni, M., 96
Amygdala, 166–67
Anterior cingulate cortex, 154, 166, 171, 172
Anterior insula, 153f, 154–56, 158, 159, 167
Anthropomorphism
alone-later-in life paradigm, 252
computer-mediated relationships, 253
dehumanization, 254–55
effectiveness of, 253–54
loneliness, 252–53
motivation, 254–55
overview, 252–53, 255
parasocial relationships, 252, 253, 278–79
religiosity, 252, 253, 279
trust issues, 252
Antisocial behaviors
aggression, 113–17
multi-motive model of response, 44–47
terror management theory, 294–96
Anxiety
attachment, 155, 239–45
attentional retraining, 257–63
ostracism, 22, 24, 296–97
reconnection, 127–29
self-regulation, 137
Apes, 12, 165
Ardipithecus ramidus, 190
Arndt, J., 292, 293
Aronson, J., 202–3
Arriaga, X. B., 22
Asch, S., 34, 123
Asher, S. R., 47
Attachment
anxiety, 155, 239–45
avoidance, 239–45
betrayal of trust, 241–42
bonding, 32–34, 38
cognitive-affective mental representations, 240–43
deactivating strategies, 239–43
forgiveness, 242
hyperactivating strategies, 239–43
internal working models, 239
interpersonal relationships, 239–43
meaning in life, 245
motivations for social exclusion, 32–34, 38
ostracism, 244
overview, 238–40
parasocial relationships, 280
relationship denigration, 240–43
resiliency, 240–41
rumination, 241–42
security, 239–43, 292
self-reliance, 243
socialization, 288
social rejection, 243–45
terror management theory, 288, 292
threat, stressor response, 239–42
Attentional retraining
anxiety, 257–63
attentional bias predictive value, 260–61
background, 257–58
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 258, 263
cognitive bias, 258–63
heritability, 259
information processing, 258–59
overview, 257, 263
response modification effectiveness, (p. 306) 261–63
threat response, 260–63
treatment, 258–63
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
acceptance, 232–33
adolescents, young adults, 230
behavior problems, 231–32
biases, 231–32
comorbidities, 230
gender differences, 230–31
individual deficits, 231
interventions, 232–33
overview, 228, 233–34
peer rejection, 229–33
social exclusion, 228–33
subtypes, 229–30
treatment, 232
ATTICA study, 83
Aydin, N., 23
Ayduk, O., 117
B
Baboons, 12
Baldwin, M. W., 241
Bank, L., 103
Bankston, W. B., 85
Bargh, J. A., 268
Bar-Haim, Y., 260
Bassett, J. F., 291
Baumeister, R. F., 4, 21–22, 23, 25, 132–34, 136, 138, 169, 170, 186, 277
Beach, S. R., 214
Becker, E., 286, 287, 289
Beckerman, S., 189
Bellavia, G. M., 94
Bell-Dolan, D. J., 104
Belonging needs
aggression, 114, 117–18
choking effect, 276
death of, 289
evolutionary psychology, 10, 13, 43
mimicry, 267, 270–71
motivations for social exclusion, 32–33, 39
multi-motive model of response, 43, 45, 47–49
narcissism, 116–17, 222–25
ostracism, 21–24
parasocial attachments (see parasocial relationships)
peer rejection, 102, 107
reconnection, 121–22, 124, 126, 129–30, 277
rejection sensitivity, 198
selective attention hypothesis, 275–76
selective memory hypothesis, 276
social cues, 276
social distance judgments, 276–77
socially symbolic objects, 277
social pain, 164
social snacking, 277
terror management theory, 286–97
work group exclusion, 65–66, 70–71
Bennington experiment, 33
Bernstein , M. J., 23
Berscheid, E., 60
Bias
ADHD, 231–32
attentional retraining, 258–63
hostile cognitive, 116, 117
person-positivity, 38
rejection sensitivity, 198–99, 204–6
social-cognitive, 102, 104–5
Birds, 165
Birnbaum, G., 291
Blackhart, G. C., 107, 135, 146
Blacks (racism), 59–60, 62
Blehar, M. C., 239
Blood pressure changes (hypertension), 48, 84
Blum, R., 206
Blushing, 15–16
Boivin, M., 104, 106
Boland, C., 22
Bonica, C., 104
Borsook, T. K., 4, 170
Bowlby, J., 79, 95, 186, 238–40
Bradley, B. P., 260
Bramlett, M. D., 78
Branscombe, N. L., 45
Bretveld, R. A., 102
Brewer, M. B., 181, 186, 191, 293
Brown, C. M., 23
Brown, J. L., 167, 168, 170
Brownridge, D. A., 85, 86
Bugyi, P., 82
Bukowski, W. M., 47, 104, 106
Butler, D., 59
C
Cacioppo, J., 4, 253
Cairns, B. D., 103
Cairns, D. R., 23
Cairns, R. B., 103
Calogero, R. M., 207
Campbell, J. C., 86
Campbell, K., 4
Campbell, L., 261, 262
Campbell, W. K., 116
Capaldi, D., 103
Capezza, N. M., 22
Carpenter, M., 270–71
Carter-Sowell, A. R., 22
Cassidy, J., 239, 242
Castano, E., 290
Catanese, K. R., 23
Cavallo, J. V., 4, 94
Cavanaugh, T. J., 277
Chan, W. Y., 200, 203
Chang, E., 199–202, 205
Chartrand, T. L., 5, 268–69
Chasteen, A. L., 206, 207
Chen, S., 199–202, 205
Cheng, C. M., 268–69
Cheryan, S., 199
Chimpanzees, 10, 15, 190
Cho, Seung-Hui, 113
Chow, D. S., 206–7
Chow, R. M., 115
Ciarocco, N. J., 136
Claypool, H. M., 23
Clifford, E.R., 259
Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), 216–17
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 258, 263
Cognitive processing
attachment, 240–43
cognitive-affective mental representations, 240–43
divorce, 79
executive control mechanism, 95–98
hostile cognitive bias, 116, 117
romantic relationships, 97
social-cognitive biases, 102, 104–5
Cohen, S., 296
Coie, J. D., 105
Cole, T., 280
Collins, N. L., 93, 146
Columbine massacre, 114
Compassionate mind training, 225–26
Conover, D. O., 180
Control needs
aggression, 118
compensatory mechanisms, 252
cortisol, 144
loneliness, 36, 37
motivations for social exclusion, 35–36, 39
narcissism, 116–17, 222–25
ostracism, 21, 23, 25, 144
Cooper, J., 60, 61
Coregulation-dysregulation model, 78–79
Coronary artery atherosclerosis, 48
Correll, J., 4
Cortisol
bullies, bullying, 149
chronic interpersonal rejection/exclusion, 149
control needs, 144
Cyberball studies, 147, 168
depression, 148, 149
divorce, 83–84
emotions, 145–46
gender differences, 146–47, 149
HPA axis, 144, 149, 150
interpersonal rejection/exclusion, 146–47, 149, 203–4
loneliness, 149, 186
menstrual cycle, 146
multi-motive model of response, 48
ostracism, 21
overview, 143–44, 149–50
peer rejection, 146, 148, 149
reactivity correlates, 145
rejection sensitivity, 203–4
relational victimization, 146
rumination, 143, 147–49
self-conscious emotions, (p. 307) 145–46, 148
self-esteem, 147
shame, 148
social-evaluative threat, 143–49
Cosmides, L., 12
Cottrell, C., 4
Coutinho, S. V., 171
Cox, C. R., 292
Coyne, J. C., 213
Cramer, P., 102
Crandall, C. S., 61
Cravens-Brown, L. M., 102
Crocker, J., 197, 202
Cyberball studies
aggression, 115
attachment, 244–45
cortisol response, 147, 168
mimicry, 269–70
multi-motive model of response, 44
ostracism, 22
parasocial attachments, 282
reconnection, 123, 124, 129
social pain, 154–59, 166–68, 172
terror management theory, 295
D
Daly, M., 85
Davies, P., 199
Davila, J., 242
Davis, A., 45
Dawkins, R., 189
Decety, J., 183
Dechesne, M., 292, 293
Depression
blame maintenance, 214
burdensomeness perceptions, 216
cortisol, 148, 149
definition, 212
divorce, 81
excessive reassurance seeking, 213–14
expressed emotion, 214
interpersonal model of, 213
negative feedback seeking, 213–14
ostracism, 22, 24, 25, 33, 36, 47
overview, 211–12, 217
peer rejection, 105, 106
psychotherapy, 214, 216–17
rejection, 212–14
rejection sensitivity, 212
scree climbing model of, 213
self-perceptions, 216
self-propagatory processes, 213–14
self-verification, 213–14
stress generation, 213–14
suicide, 25, 33, 82, 214–16
work group exclusion, 69
Derrick, J. D., 283
Derrick, J. L., 95, 96
De Waal, F. B. M., 190
DeWall, C. N., 4, 25, 116, 125, 136, 137, 167, 169, 170, 187, 277
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), 217
Dickerson, S., 4
DiRaddo, A., 207
Discrimination
formal, 55–57
interpersonal (see interpersonal discrimination)
legal protections, 56
multi-motive model of response, 45–48
workplace, 60–61
Divorce
biology, 79, 83
biomarker alteration, 83
blood pressure changes (hypertension), 48, 84
catecholamine responses, 83–84
children of twins (CoT) model, 80
cognitive processing, 79
conflict-acceptance relationships, 81
coregulation-dysregulation model (CDM), 78–79
cortisol, 83–84
cyclical model of grief, 81
dark side of, 77–78
demographics, 78
depression, 81
education correlations, 85–86
emotional responses to, 81
emotion regulatory responses, 84
employment correlations, 85–86
felt security disruptions, 79
gene by environment correlations, 80
health, 79, 83
homicide, 85, 86
immune functioning, 79, 83
jealousy, 86
loneliness, 77, 81
loss, 79
mental health, 79–81, 83–84
mood disorders, 81, 82
mortality, 82, 83
neuroendocrine responses, 83–84
outcomes, 79–84
overview, 86–87
personality attributes, 79–80, 82–83
physical health, 79–80, 82–84
remarriage, 78
resiliency, 77, 78
risk hazard (RH), 82
rumination, 81
separation, 78–80, 86
sleep disorders, 83
social causation, 80
social selection, 79–80, 82–83
substance abuse, 79–81, 83
suicide, 25, 33, 82, 214–16
testosterone, 84
twin research, 80, 82
violence, 84–86
Dodge, K. A., 104
Dogs, 165
Dolan-Pascoe, B., 23
Donzella, B., 146
Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, 21, 153f, 154–56, 158, 159, 166–68, 171, 172, 187
Dovidio, J. F., 59
Downey, G., 45, 104, 199, 200, 203, 206, 277
Drosophila melanogaster, 185
Duffy, M. K., 69
E
Ebsworthy, G., 261, 262
Eisenberger, N. I., 4, 166, 168, 171, 172, 187, 198
Emery, R. E., 81
Epel, E. S., 198
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), 83
Erez, A., 244
Erikson, E., 35
Eshleman, A., 61
Evolutionary psychology
anterior cingulate cortex, 14
appeasement behaviors, 15–16
belonging need, 10, 13, 43
blushing, 15–16
competition, 10, 11
disease vector avoidance, 11–12
disengaged others avoidance, 12
embarrassment, 14–16
emotional reactions, 14–15
exploitative relationship partners avoidance, 11
group values violations, 11
guilt, 14–16
hurt feelings, 14
interaction norms violations, 11
interpersonal rejection, 12
intragroup competitors avoidance, 11
limitation avoidance, 12
monitoring, detecting rejection, 13–14
motivations for social exclusion, 10, 16 (see also motivations for social exclusion)
opioid neuroendocrine systems, 14
out-group member avoidance, 10–11
overview, 9, 16
oxytocin neuroendocrine systems, 14
periaqueductal gray brain structures, 14
reactions to rejection, 13–16
rejection avoidance, 13
relationship formation, 10, 11
relationship repair expectations, 16
relationship value, 12–16
selectivity, 10, 11
self-esteem, 15
self-presentation, 12, 13
shame, 14–16
social exclusion, rejection as necessity, 9–10
Executive control mechanism, 95–98
Eysenck, M., 260
F
Facebook, 277
Feeney, J. A., 242
Feldman, S., 199, 200, 206
Fincham, F., (p. 308) 242
Fischer, P., 23
Fiske, S., 4
Fitzsimons, G. M., 94
Flight-fight-freeze (FFF) response, 168–69
Florian, V., 291
Ford, M. B., 146
Framingham Heart Study, 164
Fredrickson, B. L., 170
French, S., 206
Freud, Sigmund, 3, 118
Frey, D., 23
G
Gable, S. L., 166, 168, 171, 172
Gabriel, S., 283
Gaertner, L. A., 26, 115
Gardner, W. L., 124, 127, 275–76, 278, 279, 281
Gariepy, J. L., 103
Gauthier, D. A. K., 85
Geis, F. L., 59
Generalized anxiety disorder, 258–60, 262
Germany, 25
Gest, S. D., 103
Gibbons, F. X., 48–49
Gilbert, P., 225
Gitter, S. A., 25
Goffman, E., 197
Goldfried, M. R., 200, 206
Goodall, Jane, 10
Goodwin, S. A., 22
Gray, H. M., 198
Greenberg, J., 5, 290, 291, 292, 293
Grosser, T., 68, 69
Groups
aggression towards, 115
evolutionary psychology, 10–11
identity, 34, 45, 203, 278
in-group entitativity, 33, 37, 45
in-group overexclusion effect, 34
interpersonal discrimination, 62–63
out-group exclusion, 33–38
parasocial attachments, 278
rejection sensitivity, 203
relationship repair expectations, 16, 39, 44–46, 49, 66–67
relationship value, 12–16, 45, 46, 49
terror management theory, 290–94
Gruenewald, T. L., 144
Gunnar, M. R., 146
Guyll, M., 48
H
Hagan, R., 260
Harlow, H., 253
Harris, Eric, 114
Harvey, O. J., 190
Hastorf, A. H., 59, 61, 62
Hawkley, L., 4
Hazan, C., 79
Hazen, R. A., 262
Heatherton, T. F., 172
Hebl, M. R., 4, 57–60, 62
Herman, B. H., 165
Herpes simplex virus, 83
Hess, Y. D., 129
Hilmert, C. J., 168, 171, 172
Hofer, M., 188
Holker, L., 261, 262
Holmes, J. G., 4, 93, 94, 95, 96
Hood, W. R., 190
Horton, D., 279, 280
Hostile cognitive bias, 116, 117
Hugenberg, K., 283
Huygens, K., 261
Hyman, C., 105
Hymel, S., 104, 106
Hypertension, 48
I
Ikeda, A., 83
Ilersich, A. L., 171
Imitation. see mimicry
Intelligence
aggression, 133
cognitive processing, 134
criminality, 133
cultural relationships, 132–33
indirect emotional learning, 134–35
learning disabilities, 133
loneliness, 133
memory, 134
numbness, 135
ostracism, 133–34
overview, 138
self-regulation, 135–38
social rejection, 133–35
Interpersonal discrimination
acknowledgment, 62
attractiveness, 59, 60
avoidance behaviors, 56–58
blacks (racism), 59–60, 62
compensation strategies, 62
consequences of, 60–61
disability, 56–57, 59
facial disfigurement, 59
GLBT, 56–58, 62
group identification, 62–63
implicit attitudes, 57
individuation, 62
leadership/gender relationships, 59
negativity displays, 56–60
obesity, 56, 58, 61, 62
overview, 55, 56, 63
patronage, 61
positivity, increased, 62
pregnancy, 59
rejection monitoring, 60
religious affiliation, 58, 61–62
remediation strategies, 61–63
research review, 57–60
scripted social roles, 62–63
self-fulfilling prophecy, 60
social exclusion, 60
workplace, 60–61
Interracial interactions, 46–47, 63, 124, 204
Inzlicht, M., 202–3
J
James, William, 3
Janoff-Bulman, R., 32, 36, 37, 38
Janssen, J., 293
Joiner, T., 4, 213, 214
Jonas, E., 290
Joung, I. M., 83
Justification-Suppression Model of Prejudice (JSM), 61–62
Juvonen, J., 4, 103
K
Kachadourian, L. K., 242
Kanazawa, S., 279
Kang, S. K., 206, 207
Katz, J., 171, 214
Kay, A. C., 241
Kelley, W. M., 172
Kelly, O., 145
Kendler, K., 80
Kentish, J., 260
Kerr, N. L., 12, 123
Kiecolt-Glaser, J. K., 83, 87n1
Kindt, M., 261
King, E. B., 58, 61
Kirkpatrick, K. L., 225
Klebold, Dylan, 114
Kleck, R. E., 56, 59, 61, 62
Knowles, M. L., 5, 275–76, 278, 281
Kobak, R. R., 239
Koren, G., 171
Kosloff, S., 291, 292
Kposowa, A. J., 82
Krieger, N., 49
Kusche, A. G., 94
L
Labianca, G., 68, 69
La Greca, A. M., 106
Lakin, J. L., 5, 269, 270, 271
Lavy , S., 242
Law, R. W., 82
Learned helplessness
motivations for social exclusion, 36
ostracism, 24, 25, 36, 47
Leary, M. R., 4, 14, 16, 43, 114, 129, 163, 165, 168, 170, 224–25
Leder, S., 14, 95, 96
Lee, K. Y., 69
Lee, S., 83
Leets, L., 280
Levine , J. M., 12
Lieberman, M. D., 166, 168, 171, 172, 187, 198
Lochman, J. E., 105
London, B., 4, 104, 204–6
Loneliness
affect, 184
aggression, (p. 309) 114
alone-later-in life paradigm, 186
anterior cingulate cortex, 187
anthropomorphism, 252–53
behavioral response to, 50, 182–84
cognition effects, 181–82, 182f, 185
collective identity, 187, 189–91
collective isolation/connection, 189–91
connectedness, reconnection, 124, 181, 186–91
cortisol, 149, 186
divorce, 77, 81
dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, 21, 153f, 154–56, 158, 159, 166–68, 171, 172, 187
dysphoria, depressive symptoms, 184–85
evolutionary basis of, 179–81, 185–91, 192n1
fMRI, 183–84, 183f, 187
genetic drift, 192n1
heritability, 180, 186, 187–89, 192n1
intelligence, 133
intimate isolation/connection, 187–88
mutation, 192n1
natural selection, 180, 186, 187, 190, 192n1
ostracism, 24, 26
overview, 179, 191–92
pair bonding, 190
parasocial relationships (see parasocial relationships)
peer rejection, 47, 48, 104, 106
phenotype of, 180–91, 182f, 183f
physiological effects of, 48, 180–81, 185–86
population-level effects, 186–87
regional brain activation patterns, 183–84, 183f, 184, 187, 188
rejection behaviors, 189
relational isolation/connection, 188–89
resiliency, 191–92
risk factors, 36, 37, 47
rudimentary reward system, 183f, 184
selflessness, 186, 189, 190
self-protection, 182–84
self-regulation, 185–86
social hierarchies, 190
social isolation, 180–86, 182f, 183f, 189
social learning, 182, 189
social networks, 185
social pain, 163–66, 186–89
social threat sensitivity, 182–83, 187–88
Stroop interference testing, 183
suicide, 25, 33, 82, 214–16
temporoparietal junction (TPJ), 184
ultrasonic vocalizations, 188
ventral striatum, 183f, 184
Lucas, G. M., 127, 128
Lyche, L. R., 23
Lykken, D. T., 80
Lynam, D. R., 22
M
MacDonald, G., 4, 14, 163, 165, 170
MacLeod, C., 260, 261, 262
Madera, J. M., 4, 59
Major, B., 197, 198, 202
Major depressive disorder (MDD), 80–81, 212
Malishkevich, S., 291
Mancini, A. D., 78
Maner, J., 4
Maner, J. K., 123, 124, 126, 127, 277
Martens, A., 290
Marx, Karl, 118
Maslow, Abraham, 3
Mason, A., 4
Master, S. L., 168, 170
Mathews, A., 260
Mathy, M., 290
McGregor, H., 290
McGue, M., 80
McNally, R. J., 259
MDD (major depressive disorder), 80–81, 212
Meagher, M. W., 169, 170
Mendes, W. B., 198
Mendoza-Denton, R., 45, 198, 199–202, 200, 203, 205
Mentzer, S. J., 56
Merckelbach, H., 261
Merkin, D., 211
Metalsky, G. I., 214
Mice, 185
Mikami, A. Y., 4, 233
Mikulincer, M., 4, 242, 243, 291
Millar, N., 260
Mimicry
affiliation, 267–71
belonging needs, 267, 270–71
chameleon effect, 268–69
Cyberball studies, 269–70
exclusion, 269–71
motivations for, 268–69
nonconscious behavioral, 268–71
overview, 266–67, 271–72
prosocial behaviors, 23, 44–47, 136, 267–68, 277
rapport creation, 268–69
reconnection, 124, 128
Mithen, S., 287
Mogg, K., 260
Molden, D. C., 4, 127
Monkeys, 101, 186, 253, 271
Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA), 118–19
Mosher, W. D., 78
Most, S. B., 259
Motivations for social exclusion
affiliation, 34
aggression, 33, 35–39
attachment, bonding, 32–34, 38
behavioral responses, 33, 35–39
belonging, 32–33, 39
betrayal, 38
collectivist cultures, 34, 36
conformity to norms, values, 33, 34, 36
control needs, 35–36, 39
core social motives, 32
cultural capital, 34–35
devaluation, 34–36
dominance bonding, 34
education, 34–35
enhancing self (self-esteem), 36–37, 39
evolutionary perspectives on, 10, 16, 301
exclusion, 33–38
group judgment norms, 34
group meaning, 34, 45, 203, 278
individualistic cultures, 34, 36
in-group entitativity, 33, 37
in-group overexclusion effect, 34
in-group overexclusion homogeneity, 34
learned helplessness, 36
line length study, 34
out-group exclusion, 33–38
overview, 4, 31–32, 38–39
person-positivity bias, 38
psychosocial development stages (Erikson), 35
racism, 34–36
rejection sensitivity, 38
relationship repair expectations, 39
Schadenfreude, 33
shattered assumptions (response to exclusion), 32, 33, 35–39
social representations, 34
social selection, 32, 39
social sorting, 31, 39
terror management theory, 37
threat response, 33, 34, 37
trusting others, 37–39
understanding, 34–35, 39
work groups, 69–71
Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD, 233
Multi-motive model of response
aggression, 44, 47
alone-later-in life paradigm, 44
antisocial behaviors, 44–47
avoidance, 45, 46
behavioral, 44–47
belonging need, 43, 45, 47–49
blood pressure, 47–48
cardiovascular disease, 48
chronicity, 45
consequences, long-term, 47–50
construal, 44–47
cortisol, 48
costs, perceived, 45–46, 49
discrimination, 45–48
eating disorders, 48
evolutionary perspectives on, 16, 43
evolutionary psychology, 16
group identity, 34, 45, 203, 278
group-rating paradigm, 44
hypertension, 48
internalization, (p. 310) 49
interracial interactions, 46–47, 63, 124, 204
multiple construals, 46–47
overview, 43–44, 49–50
peer rejection, 47
pervasiveness, 45
prosocial behaviors, 23, 44–47, 136, 267–68, 277
psychopathology, 47
racism, 45–47
reconnection, 44–46, 49
rejection detection, 49
rejection sensitivity, 45
relationship alternatives, 45
relationship repair expectations, 44–46, 49
relationship value, 45, 46, 49
self-regulation, 48–49
substance abuse, 48
typicality, 45
undetected rejection, 49
unfairness or injustice, perception of, 44, 49
withdrawal, 45, 49
zero-miss strategy, 49
Munch, S. B., 180
Mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), 156
Murray, S. L., 93, 94, 95, 96
N
Narcissism, 116–17, 222–25
National Longitudinal Survey of Freshmen, 46
Neckerman, H. J., 103
Neff, K. D., 224, 225
Newcomb, A. F., 47
Nezlek, J. B., 25
Niebuhr, R., 254
North, Michael, 4
Nurse’s Health Study, 83
O
Ochsmann, R., 290
Ono, H., 59, 61, 62
Opioid system, 165–66
OPRM1 (mu-opioid receptor gene), 156
Orobio de Castro, B., 102
Osler, M., 82
Ostracism
acetaminophen, 26
aggression, 23–25, 33, 119, 267, 296–97
attachment, 244
behavioral responses to, 22–24, 33, 36, 46, 47
belonging need, 21–24
chronic, 24–26, 171
Cluster A personality disorders, 22
control needs, 21, 23, 25, 144
coping and recovery, 21–26
cortisol, 21
cyberostracism, 21
depression, 22, 24, 25, 33, 36, 47
dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), 21, 153f, 154–56, 158, 159, 166–68, 171, 172, 187
eye contact, 21
face-to-face, 20–21
intelligence, 133–34
interventions, 25–26
learned helplessness, 24, 25, 36, 47
loneliness, 24, 26
mortality, 189
need fortification hypothesis, 24
overview, 20–21, 26
oxytocin, 26
physical, 20
power/provocation needs, 24–25
prosocial behavior, 23, 44–47, 136, 267–68, 277
racist attributions, 22
recruitment to extremist groups, 24
reflective stage, 22–24, 267
reflexive stage, 21–22, 267
religion/spirituality, 23–24
research, future, 25
resignation stage, 24–26, 267
responses to, 21–22
rumination, 22
self-esteem, 21–24
self-regulation, 137, 267
social anxiety, 22, 24, 296–97
social networking sites, 26
suicide, 25, 33, 82, 214–16
temporal model of, 21–26
temporary group membership attributions, 22
Over, H., 270–71
Overbeek, G., 80
Oxytocin, 26
P
Pachankis, J. E., 200, 206
Page-Gould, E., 203
Pain. see social pain
Panksepp, J., 165, 167
Parasocial relationships. see also belonging needs
anthropomorphism, 252, 253, 278–79
attachment-enhancement, 278
belonging regulation, 275–79
choking effect, 276
described, 279
dispositional belonging needs, 280–83, 281f283f
group identity, 34, 45, 203, 278
overview, 275, 283–84
real-world relationships similarities, 279–80
reconnection, 126, 129
selective attention hypothesis, 275–76
selective memory hypothesis, 276
self-protection, 280–83, 281f283f
social cues, 276
social distance judgments, 276–77
social exclusion, 277
social facilitation effects, 279
socially symbolic objects, 277
social monitoring, 276
social representations, 277–78
social snacking, 277
social surrogacy, 280
television, 279–80
Park, L. E., 207
Pattee, L., 47
Patterson, G. R., 103
Peer rejection
ADHD, 229–33
aggression, 101–4, 103f, 106
belonging need, 102, 107
bullies, bullying, 103–6
cortisol, 146, 148, 149
criminality, 101, 102, 104
defensiveness hypothesis, 102, 104
depression, 105, 106
development, 103–6, 103f, 105f, 106f
emotional distress, 104, 106, 107
enhanced perceptions of connection, 122, 122f, 125–26
group function of, 107
hostile attributional bias, 102, 104–5
loneliness, 47, 48, 104, 106
maladaptive behaviors, 101–6
multi-motive model of response, 47
overview, 101–2, 107–8
peer networks, 103, 105
self-blame, 105, 106
self-protection, 102–3, 105
social-cognitive biases, 102, 104–5
withdrawal, 101, 104–6, 105f
work group exclusion, 69
Pelayo, R., 277
Perceived social isolation. see loneliness
Person-positivity bias, 38
Phanerozoic Eon, 179
Pickett, C. L., 124, 129
Pietrzak, J., 203
Pigs, 186
Pinkus, R. T., 96, 207
Plaut, V. C., 199
Pollick, A. S., 190
Portley, R. M., 82
Powell, L. H., 83
Poznanski, K. J., 22
Prairie voles, 25, 26
Prinstein, M. J., 106
Procter, S., 225
Progesterone, 277
Prosocial behaviors, 23, 44–47, 136, 267–68, 277
Psychoneuroimmunology, 87n1
Purdie, V., 45
Pyszczynski, P., 290
Pyszczynski, T., 293
Q
Quinones, M., (p. 311) 58, 61
R
Rabbits, 186
Racism, 59–60, 62
Ramrattan, M., 200, 206
Rats, 165, 171, 185–86, 188
Reconnection
aggression, 117–18
avoidance, 127–28
belonging need, 121–22, 124, 126, 129–30, 277
cooperation, 122–24, 122f
Cyberball studies, 123, 124, 129
enhanced perceptions of connection, 122, 122f, 125–26
expectations, perceived, 127–28
group identification, 122, 122f, 125–26, 129
ingratiation, 122–24, 122f, 127, 128
interracial interactions, 124
loneliness, 124, 181, 186–91
mimicry, 124, 128
motivations for promotion and prevention, 122, 127–29
multi-motive model of response, 44–46, 49
overview, 121–22, 122f, 128–30
parasocial relationships, 126, 129
relationship repair expectations, 16, 39, 44–46, 49, 66–67
relationship value, 12–16, 45, 46, 49
rumination, 126, 128
self-protection, 128
self-regulation, 127–28, 137–38
social anxiety, 127–29
social compensation effect, 123
social sensitivity, 122, 122f, 124–25, 128–29
withdrawal, 127–28
work group exclusion, 66–71, 123
Reddy, K. S., 277
Reed, J. T., 22
Reiss, S., 259
Rejection sensitivity. see also social cues
age-based, 206–7
aggression, 116–17
appearance-based, 207
belonging need, 198
bias cues, 198–99, 204–6
brain region activation, 198
cognitive effects of, 199, 205
cortisol, 203–4
depression, 212
gender, 199, 201, 204–6
group identity, 34, 45, 203, 278
individual variability in, 199
interpersonal, 199–200
law schools, 205–6
measurement of, 200–201
models of, 201
motivations for social exclusion, 38
multi-motive model of response, 45
overview, 208
Person by Situation dynamic, 199–200
physiological, psychological effects of, 198, 200, 203–6
progesterone, 277
prosocial behaviors, 23, 44–47, 136, 267–68, 277
race/ethnicity, 198, 200–204
romantic relationships, 38
self-silencing, 205–6
sexual orientation, 206
social identity, 199, 201
social pain, 155, 156, 167
status-based, 200–207
stigmatization, 197–98, 200
Religiosity
aggression, 118
anthropomorphism, 252, 253, 279
interpersonal discrimination, 58, 61–62
ostracism, 23–24
Remafedi, G., 206
Resiliency
aggression, 117–18
attachment, 240–41
divorce, 77, 78
loneliness, 191–92
Resnick, M. D., 206
Responses to social exclusion
aggression (see aggression)
anthropomorphism (see anthropomorphism)
cortisol levels (see cortisol)
depression (see depression)
mimicry (see mimicry)
multi-motive model of (see multi-motive model of response)
overview, 4–5, 302
self-esteem (see self-esteem)
shattered assumptions, 32, 33, 35–39
suicide, 25, 33, 82, 214–16
two-step system of, 266–67
Rhudy, J. L., 169, 170
Richardson, R., 22
Richeson, J. A., 198
Richman, L. S., 4, 16, 43
Rilling, J., 187
Risk regulation, 93–95, 97–98
Rivat, C., 171
Robbers Cave Summer Camp, 32, 33
Robinson, M. E., 168, 170
Rodriguez, S., 277
Roelfs, D. J., 82
Rogers, Carl, 36
Rom, E., 243
Romantic relationships
behavioral responses to, 22, 37
cognitive load, 97
connectedness, 93–98
construals, multiple, 46
divorce (see divorce)
executive control mechanism, 95–98
fMRI, 155
interdependence, 92–93, 96–97
interpersonal social cognition, 91–92
negative emotional responses, 38, 45
overview, 91–92, 98–99
perceived regard, 92–98
rejection sensitivity, 38
relationship-approach goals, 96
relationship value perceptions, 45
risk regulation, 93–95, 97–98
rumination, 98, 148
self-esteem, 92–98
self-protection, 93–98
social pain studies, 155, 158, 168
terror management theory, 291–92
threat response, 93–98
Romero-Canyas, R., 277
Rose, P., 94
Rosenthal, L., 4
Rude, S. S., 225
Ruggs, E., 58
Rumination
attachment, 241–42
betrayal of trust, 242
cortisol, 143, 147–50
divorce, 81
ostracism, 22
reconnection, 126, 128
romantic relationships, 98, 148
self-compassion, 224, 225
work group exclusion, 67, 69
Rutherford, E., 261, 262
S
Sacco, D. F., 23
Salvatore, J., 199
Sandstrom, M. J., 102
Sbarra, D. A., 4, 79, 81, 82, 84
Schachter, S., 34
Schadenfreude, 33
Schaller, M., 11, 277
Schefske, E., 21
Schimel, J., 5, 290, 292, 293
Schippell, P. L., 102
Schmidt, N. B., 5, 262
Schmitt, M. T., 45
Scholl, B.J., 259
School shootings, 25, 37, 113, 114, 136
Schwartz, J. E., 82
Scott, K. L., 4, 68, 69
Sebanc, A. M., 146
Selective attention hypothesis, 275–76
Selective memory hypothesis, 276
Self-esteem
aggression, 116, 222, 223, 225
compassionate mind training, 225–26
cortisol, 147
evolutionary psychology, 15
motivations for social exclusion, 36–37, 39
narcissism, 116–17, 222–25
negative affect, 221, 222, 225
ostracism, 21–24
overview, 220, 225–26
rejection, 221
relational devaluation, 221–22, 222t
romantic relationships, (p. 312) 92–98
self-compassion, 222, 224–25
self-regulation, 221
social pain, 155
state, 221
terror management theory, 286, 288–96
trait, 221–23, 222t, 225
work group exclusion, 66, 67, 69
Self-regulation
aggression, 119, 135–36
attention control, 136–37
consumption measures, 136
cultural relationships, 132–33
familial inclusion, 138
ice water task, 137
intelligence, 135–38
lethargy, 136
limited-resource model, 135
movement control task, 137
multi-motive model of response, 48–49
ostracism, 137, 267
overview, 138
persistence measures, 136–37
prosocial behaviors, 23, 44–47, 136, 267–68, 277
reconnection, 127–28, 137–38
self-esteem, 221
social anxiety, 137
work group exclusion, 66, 67, 69
Serotonin transporter gene, 118, 259
Shapiro, J., 58, 61
Shaver, P. R., 4, 242
Shaw-Taylor, L., 199–202, 205
Sheffield , D., 168, 170
Shelton, J. N., 124, 199
Sherif, G. W., 190
Sherif, M., 34, 190
Shor, E., 82
Simon, L., 293
Simons, D. J., 259
Singletary, S. L., 60, 62
Smart Richman, L., 129
Smith, E. R., 243
Smith, J. L., 293
Snyder, M. L., 56, 60
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), 262–63
Social-cognitive biases, 102, 104–5
Social cues. see also rejection sensitivity
belonging needs, 276
parasocial attachments, 276
peer rejection, 102, 104–5
reconnection, 122, 122f, 124–25, 128–29
rejection sensitivity, 198–99, 204–6
Social exclusion
ADHD, 228–33
interpersonal discrimination, 60
mimicry, 269–71
motivations for (see motivations for social exclusion)
overview, 301–3
parasocial attachments, 277
peer rejection (see peer rejection)
romantic relationships (see romantic relationships)
terror management theory, 294–96
work groups (see work group exclusion)
Social Identity Theory and Self-Categorization Theory (SIT/SCT), 33
Social networking sites, 26
Social pain
aggression, 159
alone-later-in life paradigm, 157, 169, 173n1
amygdala, 166–67
anterior cingulate cortex, 154, 166, 171, 172
anterior insula, 153f, 154–56, 158, 159, 167
anterior insular cortex (AIC), 166
anxious attachment, 155
BA8, 168
belonging need, 164
bereavement, 155–56
chronic, 24–26, 171
contralateral thalamus, 166
Cyberball studies, 154–59, 166–68, 172
dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, 21, 153f, 154–56, 158, 159, 166–68, 171, 172, 187
endotoxin infusion study, 158
exaptation, 165
expectancy violation, 172
feedback word study, 155
fMRI, 155, 158, 159, 166–68, 172
latent pain sensitization, 171
measurement of, 172
morphine studies, 165–66
mu-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1), 156
neural regions, 153–54, 153f
neuroimaging, 154–56, 158, 159, 166–68, 172
opioid system, 165–66
pain generally, 164–65
pain matrix, 166
pain potentiation effects, 157–58, 165–66
pain regulation effects, 157–59, 165–66
periaqueductal gray (PAG), 154, 155
physical pain, 153f, 154
physical–social pain overlap, 152–59, 165–67
prefrontal cortex, 166, 167, 171
primary somatosensory cortex (S1), 166, 171
proinflammatory cytokines, 157–58
rejection sensitivity, 155, 156, 167
rejection-themed images study (facial expressions), 155, 166–67
romantic relationships studies, 155, 158, 168
self-esteem, 155
sensitivity, 156, 167–70, 172
separation distress vocalizations, 154, 165
social exclusion, 155
social hypoalgesic effect, 169–71
social isolation, 163–66
social networks, 169
social perceptions, 171–72
social support, connectedness, 155, 158, 164, 167–70
threat response, 159, 168–70
Tylenol (acetaminophen), 158–59, 167
valence-arousal theory, 170
Social reconnection. see reconnection
Social substitution. see anthropomorphism
Solomon, S., 290, 293
Somerville, L. H., 172
Sommer, K. L., 123
Spirituality. see religiosity
Steele, C. M., 197, 199, 202
Sterling, C., 68, 69
Stillman, T. F., 4, 245
Stinson, D. A., 96
Story, M., 206
Strachman, A., 292
Strenta, A., 56
Stroud, L. R., 146
Suicide, 25, 33, 82, 214–16
Sullivan, D., 291
Swim, E., 22
Sydney, S., 49
T
Taddio, A., 171
Tanke, E. D., 60
Tasmania, 25
Taylor, S. E., 168, 171, 172
Tenney , N., 261
Terror management theory (TMT)
alone-later-in-life paradigm, 295
antisocial behaviors, 294–96
attachment, 288, 292
belonging, 286–97
close relationships, 291–92
closure needs, 293
cultural drama, 295–96
cultural worldviews, 288–94
Cyberball studies, 295
death, 287–94
death thought accessibility, 291, 292, 294
dread, 287–88
empirical evidence, 289–90
ethnic identification, 290, 293
evolution, 286–87, 296–97
existential function, 286–94
freedom, 287
gender, 293–94
group affiliations, 290–94
mortality salience, (p. 313) 289–94
motivations for social exclusion, 37
overview, 297–98
parent–child relationship, 292
permeability, 293
role of others, 289–92
self-consciousness, 289
self-esteem, 286, 288–96
social exclusion, 294–96
socialization, 288, 289
validation, support, 289, 295–96
Terry, R., 105
Testosterone, 84
Thau, Stefan, 4
Thoennes , N., 84
Tjaden, P., 84
Tooby , J., 12
Tout, K., 146
Trawalter, S., 198
Tropp, L. R., 203
Tucker, J. S., 82
Twenge, J. M., 4, 23, 25, 114, 116, 124, 136
Tylenol (acetaminophen), 26, 158–59, 167
V
Vaillancourt, T., 149
Van Dellen, M., 4
Van den Hout, M., 261
Van Dulmen, M. M. H., 146
Van Knippenberg, A., 293
Van Orden, K., 4
Vasey, M. W., 102, 262
Virginia Tech massacre, 113
Vohs, K. D., 21–22
Vonk, R., 224
W
Wall, S., 239
Wallace, A., 85
Walsh, P. E., 293
Warburton, W. A., 23
Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbit, 186
Waters, E., 239
Waytz, A., 4–5
Weise, D., 291
Weiss, R., 179, 187, 189
Wesselmann, E. D., 4, 23, 24, 302
Wheeler, V. A., 47
White, B. J., 190
White, J., 260
White, R. W., 35
Williams, A., 58
Williams, K. D., 4, 13, 21–26, 46, 118, 119, 123, 133, 136, 144, 187, 198, 266, 267, 275, 277, 295, 302
Wilson, M. I., 85
Wirth, J. H., 21, 22
Wohl, R. R., 279, 280
Word, C. O., 60, 61
Work group exclusion
actual workplace exclusion, 68
aggression, 66, 67, 69, 71
behavioral responses to, 66–68, 71
belonging need, 65–66, 70–71
conformity, appeasement behaviors, 66, 67
depression, 69
dysfunctional organizational behavior, 66–70
exclusion finality, 66–69, 71
future research directions, 71
interpersonal discrimination, 60–61
model of, 65–66
motivations to exclude, 69–71
nonconformity to group norms, values, 69–70
overview, 65, 70–71
peer rejection, 69
performance, lowered, 66, 70
physical responses to, 68, 69
punishment norms, 69
reconnection, reinclusion, 66–71, 123
relationship repair perception, 66–67
risk-averse approach to, 70, 71
rumination, 67, 69
self-defeatism, 66
self-esteem, 66, 67, 69
self-regulation, 66, 67, 69
social burden-exclusion relationship, 70
supervisor exclusion, 67–69
survival threat, 67
Wound healing paradigm, 87n1
Y
Yale Interpersonal Stressor (YIPS), 146, 147
Yamada, M., 183
Young, S. G., 23
Z
Zadro, L., 13, 22, 24, 25
Zanna, M. P., 60, 61
Zhang , L., 23
Zhou, X., 21–22
Zoccola, P., 4