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date: 18 August 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Ostracism—being ignored and excluded—is a painful event that many individuals experience. Williams (2009) proposed a temporal model of ostracism, arguing that reactions to ostracism change over time. Individuals have reflexive reactions to ostracism, characterized by immediate distress and threat to various basic needs. Next, ostracized individuals enter the reflective stage, in which they strive to recover basic needs satisfaction. Individuals only enter the resignation stage if they experience chronic ostracism. Research has focused on the first two stages, but the resignation stage remains largely unexplored. The goal of this chapter is to generate future directions for research on each of the stages of ostracism, particularly the resignation stage. We propose that individuals in the resignation stage may be more likely to engage in maladaptive behaviors (e.g., extreme violence), than individuals who are not in the resignation stage. We close this chapter by speculating on potential intervention techniques to help individuals in the resignation stage cope with chronic ostracism.

Keywords: coping and recovery, need to belong, ostracism, social exclusion

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