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date: 24 January 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Experiences of social exclusion disrupt people’s feelings of belongingness. Because self-esteem is connected to how socially connected people feel to important others, such experiences lower state self-esteem. The authors suggests that these situations evoke self-regulatory processes aimed at bringing state self-esteem back in line with standards for trait self-esteem. This chapter focuses on three individual differences, each related to self-views, that may be related to reactions to social exclusion: trait self-esteem, narcissism, and self-compassion. Trait self-esteem is generally associated with heightened reactions to social exclusion that are aimed at restoring immediate self-feelings; narcissism is associated with aggressive responses to social exclusion; and self-compassion is associated with stable responses that are unmarked by extreme negative affect or externalizing. The authors concludes with suggestions for interventions aimed at reducing aggression in response to social exclusion.

Keywords: narcissism, self-compassion, self-esteem, rejection

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